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In conclusion, I would like emphasize that sexual violence poses an obstacle ...
In conclusion, I would like emphasize that sexual violence poses an obstacle to peace and security. It impedes women from participating in peace and democratic processes and in post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation. As a tool of war it can become a way of life: once entrenched in the fabric of society, it lingers long after the guns have fallen silent. Many women lose their health, livelihoods, husbands, families and support networks as a result of rape. This, in turn, can shatter the structures that anchor community values, and with that disrupt their transmission to future generations. Children accustomed to acts of rape can grow into adults who accept such acts as the norm. This vicious cycle must stop, as we cannot accept a selective zero-tolerance policy. Today's adoption of resolution 1960 (2010), on sexual violence, is an important step in that direction. It is for that reason that Slovenia joined in co-sponsoring it.
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Home — Essay Samples — Social Issues — Sexual Abuse — The Impact Of Sexual Assault On Mental Health
The Impact of Sexual Assault on Mental Health
- Subject: Social Issues
- Essay Topic: Sexual Abuse
- Words: 1595
- Published: 25 October 2021
- Downloads: 53
Table of contents
Introduction, impact on mental health, how to help.
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Sexual Abuse Essay
From the beginning of a child’s life, he/she holds the key to their own destiny. However, this is no longer the case when child sexual abuse is brought in as a factor. In surveys conducted, it was indicated that six percent to sixty-two percent of women and two percent to fifteen percent of men have been victims of sexual abuse as a child (Finkelhor 79). That was not their choice. Abuse is the result of force - not from a person’s willingness to fulfill an act. Victims also have to cope with the aftereffects brought onto them by their attackers. These decisions they had no choice over, but they ultimately set the basis for the rest of their lives. This is because adult survivors of sexual abuse generally have consequences created by violence, misinterpretations of sex, and are more likely to continue the cycle of sexual abuse themselves. While sexual abuse is often hidden between victim and victimizer, the consequences are clearly seen from an outside perspective. These consequences include both internal and external problems that can be linked back to a past sexual abuse experience. External problems include any self-destructive behaviors an abused child would involve him or herself in. It has been reported that there is an association between the use of illegal substances and forced sexual activity as a child (Diloria et. al). In a study, men who had experienced unwanted sexual activity before their adult years were 1.23 times more likely to report behavioral problems with alcohol and 1.64 times more likely to use interveinal drugs than men that were not involved in unwanted sexual activity (Diloria et. al). This just shows that victimized children turn to drugs to cope with the sexual abuse and to block out the pai... ... middle of paper ... ...acts as a way to lessen their burden from their abuse. By cause of sexual abuse most victims suffer from results of violence, misconceptions of sex, and are more likely to become sexual abusers. Victims can have short or long term effects of sexual abuse ranging from trauma to alcohol abuse. Secondly, they generalize sex as something that is a standard in their life and that then leads them to explore it further. Lastly, victims are more likely to become perpetrators in an attempt to overcome the powerlessness they felt when being sexually abused. Every day sexual abuse affects children, both on a physical and mental level. With the choices of one individual, a child’s life can be changed forever. They may wish for a life full of love and happiness, but because of the people surrounding them they unavoidably are handed one full of discomfort and abuse.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that child sexual abuse is a result of force, not from someone's willingness to fulfill an act. victims also have to cope with the aftereffects brought onto them by their attackers.
- Explains that sexual abuse is often hidden between victim and victimizer, but the consequences are clearly seen from an outside perspective.
- Explains that sexual abuse becomes part of a victim's life and influences every other factor in it. no child is psychologically prepared to handle prolonged sexual violence, and they develop low self-esteem, become withdrawn and even contemplate suicide.
- Explains that trauma affects both genders, but trauma is seen more dominantly in the female population. studies have shown that women sexually abused as children have rates of mental health impairment.
- Explains that when a child is sexually abused, their mental impairments lead them to develop misinterpretations of sex. this causes the child to explore experiences far before the non-abused child would.
- Argues that children become more aware of sex after they have been abused. this distortedness follows them into adulthood as men and women.
- Explains that sexual abuse is a mediating factor that magnifies the chances of the victim becoming an abuser. males continue the cycle of abuse, but females tend to direct their emotions inwardly.
- Explains that sexual abuse affects children, both on a physical and mental level. victims can have short or long-term effects ranging from trauma to alcohol abuse.
- Explains that most people don't know how to cope with abused children. they want to understand how children's psychological development is affected and how we can help them cope.
- Explains that child abuse is not a new problem in the united states. it's not only the mental or physical injury but also sexual abuse.
- Explains that many parents were physically or emotionally abused and neglected as children by their parents. merrill (1962) developed a typology of the abusive parent.
- Explains that child abuse and neglect has become the focus of attention of all prevention centers and organizations for children care.
- Explains that many researchers have declared that the abusive parent major problem is his economy status in this case poverty, and the many environmental factors that could deteriorate the psychological condition.
- Explains that child abuse has become an epidemic, developing into children's most unwelcomed nightmares that haunt them on a daily basis. the many lives of abused children are misguided as they mature.
- Defines physical abuse as a purposely intended act of atrociously causing physical harm to the child. influential components include immature behavior, lack of parenting abilities, and addiction to drugs.
- Explains that emotional child abuse is a vicious behavior of parents, guardians, or other caregivers that leads to the deterioration of the child's emotional development and self-esteem.
- Explains that sexual child molestation is an act in which an adult coerces a child to engage in sexual explicit conduct with him or her.
- Explains that sexual abuse is difficult to recognize due to occurrences being secretive and there isn't always conspicuous evidence of physical effects on a child from this type of abuse.
- Opines that it is unacceptable and vicious to allow any child to experience a childhood brimmed with hate, violence, terror, inappropriate contacts, and misery. abuse in children must be ceased to ensure delightful childhoods for many young individuals.
- Explains that sexual trauma and personality: developmental vulnerability and addictive effects.
- Explains that 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse exist in america today.
- Explains that art as an initial approach to the treatment of sexual trauma for creative therapies for sexual abuse survivors bull, r., finkelhor, and browne.
- Opines that trauma of sexual assailt could scar young victims for life.
- Explains that sexual assault has become one of the fastest growing crimes in the united states of america due to the social disgrace attached to these violations.
- Explains that children's sexual abuse is defined as sexual assault between a youth and an older person in which the domination of the older is used to exploit the youth for sexual stimulations.
- Explains that resilience is the ability to adapt to harsh or difficult situations and environments, and to thrive whatever the situation or environment.
- Analyzes how the men's insecurities were a significant issue in their relationship with their female partners.
- Opines that it is difficult to collect accurate and consistent statistics on child sexual abuse because of erratic national reporting and the varying definitions of what is considered abuse.
- Explains that they chose sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence because they have never been able to grasp why the perpetrators think what they are doing is right.
- Defines child sexual abuse as unwelcomed sexual contact with a minor or as specific as narrowing down which acts are considered abuse.
- Explains that many children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse do not disclose it to loved ones or authorities for multiple reasons.
- Interviewed carrie a. cooper, a licensed marriage and family therapist, and licensed professional clinical counselor, working for kaiser permanente.
- Analyzes how carrie a. cooper's opinions and viewpoints about the characteristics of the abused and of abusers are parallel to research and textbooks.
- Opines that they would like to spend more time talking about cooper's general experience as a licensed marriage and family therapist.
- Explains that they were dreading the course because it was about family violence, but realized that the topics were necessary to understand and comprehend in order to be the best possible therapist.
- Introduces barnett, miller, perrin, and castillo in their book, family violence across the lifespan.
- Describes becca's experiences of being abused as a child in the admit to child abuse web page.
- Explains that a physically abused child is easier to spot out than an emotionally or sexually-abused child because of physical indicators like bruises, cuts, and burns.
- States that alcohol and drug abuse can play a big role in parents physically abusing their children.
- Explains that sexual abuse is when a child is exposed or subjected to sexual activity, contact, or behavior. there are behavioral indicators, such as sleeping problems, inappropriate displays of affection, and extreme clinginess.
- Explains that the abusers tend to be the males in the household, and the females, but it's not as common as it is in men. the results of sexual abuse vary throughout each child.
- Explains that emotional abuse attacks a child's emotional development and results in impaired psychological growth and development.
- Explains that children who are emotionally abused fear going home and make a bond with their teacher to avoid it.
- Explains that there are many organizations and prevention centers that have been created to help children that are being abused.
- Opines that the american people can help relieve or lessen this horrible problem by reporting an abuser to a child protection agency or simply spotting the symptoms or signs of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse in their children.
- Explains that resiliency is possible with a proper support system of family, friends, and counseling.
- Opines that it was appalling to find additional side effects of childhood sexual abuse such as anxiety, depression, the feeling that they could have prevented the abuse, and thoughts of suicide.
- Explains that ebsco and google's search engines used terms such as "childhood sexual abuse", "effects" and "resiliency".
- Opines that society must take a more aggressive approach to protect children from the horrific violation of sexual abuse.
- Explains that evolution has changed the way society views stigma associated with childhood sexual abuse. resilience is the positive capacity of people to cope with stress and adversity.
- Explains kim m. anderson and catherine hiersteiner examined the recovery stories of twenty-seven sexual abuse survivors in a qualitative study in 2008.
- Explains the purpose of this study was to ascertain the recovery narratives of the twenty-seven involved in the group for the consequences of childhood sexual abuse.
- Cites botash, a., buearu of justice statistis, u. d. and child welfare information gateway.
- Cites the national center for victims of crimes.
- Explains that docherty, d., &. (2003). illness stories: themes emerging through narrative. social work in health care.
- Explains that flinn, s. k., and hiersteiner, c. (2008), "child sexual abuse: an overview".
- Cites masten, a., nietzsche, f. (2001-2011). brainyquote.
- Cites the american academy of child and adolescent psychiatry.
- Explains that in the united states 2.9 million cases were filed; approximately 5 children die per day from this issue.
- Defines child abuse as when a parent or caregiver causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to the child. abuse can be found in many sorts of ways.
- Analyzes how alice cooper's "dead babies" uses a horror style imagery to criticize parents who neglect children.
- Analyzes how big and richs ballad "holy water" is full of metaphors, and symbolism hidden in the lyrics.
- Opines that it is important to take a stand and to notice the signs of child abuse. musicians big and rich, and alice cooper sing anthems to bring awareness to the issues.
- Analyzes how artists like big & rich and alice cooper take on anti-child stance in some of their songs. both focus on the shamefulness of the loss of innocence in a child.
- Outlines the consequences of child sexual abuse (csa) based on the examination of results from multiple researches previously fulfilled concerning the psychological and physical impact of this crime.
- Explains that the health concerns are higher in survivors than in those who did not experience sexual abuse.
- Explains that 53% of patients with functional digestive problems had a history of sexual violence.
- Explains that women with csa antecedents are prone to suffer chronic pelvic pain and other gynecologic problems in a more elevated rate than women without.
- Explains that csa sufferers often experience chest soreness, difficulties to breath, arrhythmia, and ischemic heart disease.
- Explains that child sexual abuse victims are more susceptible to becoming alcohol and drug addicts, as well as to behave dangerously. depressive episodes and ptsd are regularly presented by survivors of this offense.
- Explains that the traumatic experience of child molestation is often lived with extreme distress, horror, and vulnerability. ptsd warning signs implicate re-experiencing the incident, numbness to response, or overreaction to stimuli among others.
- Explains that paolucci, genuis & violato (2001) reported that the magnitude of the common effects of sexual violence during childhood provided two different results (biased and unbiased).
- Explains that psychotherapy is fundamental for survivors of child sexual abuse since it can help to relieve the emotional turmoil produced by the offense.
- Opines that therapy is a great alternative to help victims overcome the challenges of the tragedy they had endured.
- Explains that a meta-analysis was conducted with the intention of scrutinizing the results of previous research. the investigation utilized professional journals, statistics, and psychological bulletins.
- Explains that sexual violence during childhood causes serious consequences on health.
- Explains that trauma: childhood sexual abuse can lead to post traumatic stress disorder (ptsd).
- Explains that gaskill, richard l., and perry, bruce d. (2012), "child sexual abuse, traumatic experiences and their impact on the developing brain."
- Argues that sexual abuse causes brain development problems in the long run. children gain a less flexible state of equilibrium and become poor socialized.
- Explains haliburn, joan, and aust n z j psychiatry's response to the link between early childhood trauma and major mental illness.
- Opines that the article discusses the relation between mental illness and childhood traumas, taking its information from mental health patients and discussing studies from two other authors.
- Explains saunders, benjamin e., "determining best practice for treating sexually victimized children." handbook of child sexual abuse: identification, assessment, and treatment.
- Analyzes how discusses various ways to treat a child who has been abused. it also argues that there are different forms of sexual abuse.
- Explains tangeman, keegan r., and shelby, janine. intervention application for self-injury following childhood sexual abuse.
- Explains that the article defines type i and type ii in regards to traumas, and discusses the survival brain versus the learning brain. children who undergo sexual abuse try to disassociate themselves in order to cope.
- Describes the sociological and emotional outcomes of childhood sexual abuse, a review of recent research.
- Analyzes how discusses both social and emotional outcome in abused children.
- Cites widom, cathy, "victims of childhood sexual abuse– later criminal consequences".
- Concludes that a person that was sexually abused when young, were more likely to do sex crimes and be arrested for prostitution.
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Sexual Assault Essays (Examples)
623 results for “Sexual Assault” .
Assault Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases Sexual
Assault Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases Sexual assault remains a charge much embattled in our courts. Approaches to prosecuting in cases of sexual assault have been both inconsistent and generally ineffective as a true deterrent for repeat offenders. The articles evaluated here help to demonstrate that much of this difficulty is due to an inherent victim-blaming orientation within our courts. The article by Frohmann (1991) would be somewhat groundbreaking for the field of discourse. The examination of prosecutorial accounts for reasons rejecting certain cases is used to determine the motives that typically drive the rejection of sexual assault cases by the courts. This article helps us to understand exactly why certain cases are never heard. The research design centers on reviewing these aforementioned prosecutorial accounts for evidence of a certain 'indigenous logic' that might imply prejudicial behavior in deciding upon cases. As further discussion will show, this design would be…
Blumberg, A.S. (1967). The Practice of Law as a Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a Profession. Law and Society Review, 1(2), 15-40.
Frohmann, L. (1991). Discrediting Victims' Allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Social Problems, 38(2), 213-226.
Spohn, C.; Beichner, D. & Davis-Frenzel, E. (2001). Assault Case Rejection: Guarding the 'Gateway to Justice.' Social Problems, 48(2), 206-235.
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness Accounts Sexual assault is a difficult crime to prosecute. It relies heavily on eyewitness accounts and proof of sexual assault. ape kits are used to obtain physical evidence. These rape kits, along with interviews with authorities and sometimes a psychological evaluation create stress and difficulties for the alleged victim. In fact, many people who have been sexually assaulted, mostly women go without reporting the crime or have their cases dismissed because of lack of evidence or refusal to testify. Therefore it is important to understand what goes behind sexual assault eye witness accounts and how it psychologically impacts the victims who report it. The psychological toll on a sexual assault victim is quote often too much for the victim to bare. Many go through long-term mental distress and even attempt to commit suicide or suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression. Sexual assault is…
Bidrose, S., & Goodman, G.S. (2000). Testimony and evidence: a scientific case study of memory for child sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 197-213. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(200005/06)14:33.0.CO;2-6
Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S. (1998). Gender effects in eyewitness accounts of a violent crime. Psychology Crime & Law, 4(4), 323-339. doi:10.1080/10683169808401763
Sexual Assault the Criminal Justice
2). At all times, the medical examiner needs to respect the victim, and taken into account victim rights by appointing a victim advocate when necessary. The forensic medical examiners could be providing the prosecution with key evidence, a fact that should be communicated to the victim to alleviate distress (IACP, 2004). A victim advocate will also notify the victim of his or her rights in the case, advising the victim as to how to use legal counsel. The medical examination will often include drug testing, because the perpetrator might have illegally administered a drug to the victim and because alcohol or drugs might have been involved to facilitate the assault. Law enforcement remains in continual contact with the victim during these early stages of the investigation, because it is up to the victim to determine whether or not to press charges (IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, 2005). Because many…
Government of New South Wales: Justice and Attorney General (2012). The investigation. Victims Services. Retrieved online: http://www.sexualassault.nsw.gov.au/VOSA/sexual_assault_investigation.html
IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2005). Investigating sexual assaults. Concepts and Issues Paper. Retrieved online: http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/investigatingsexualassaults/investigatingsexualassaultspdf.pdf
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP 2004). Training Key 572. Retrieved online: http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JK0TYfpVhkI%3D&tabid=87
State of California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (1999). Guidelines for sexual assault investigation. Retrieved online: http://lib.post.ca.gov/Publications/42653792.pdf
Sexual Assaults in Universities as Gender Issues
Sexual Assault on Universities and College Campuses Introduction to Sexual Assault Sexual assault refers to an involuntary sexual act where an individual is forced to engage in against his or her will (Hoffman, 1998). As the world evolves and becomes more politically correct and more culturally sensitive, certain injustices that might have been swept under the rug in the past are now no longer tolerated, but brought to the light of day for judgment and justice. Today, more stories of sexual assault are playing out at colleges and universities across the country forcing scores of students from different universities to go public by filing formal federal complaints (Schwartz, 1997). Sexual assault continues to be a thing which occurs repeatedly on college campuses, phenomena which violate the very objective of these institutions for higher learning. In order to better prevent sexual assault within the university setting, the world has quickly learned…
Boggler, E. (2014). Frustrated by Columbia's inaction, student reports sexual assault to police. Retrieved from columbiaspectator.com: http://www.columbiaspectator.com/news/2014/05/16/frustrated-columbias-inaction-student-reports-sexual-assault-police
Bohmer, C. (2003). Sexual Assault on Campus: The Problem and the Solution. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Cooper-White, M. (2013). 11 Signs You May Be Dating A Sociopath. Retrieved from huffingtonpost.com: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/23/11-signs-dating-a-sociopath_n_3780417.html
Dockterman, E. (2014, April). Students File Title IX Sexual Assault . Retrieved from time.com: http://time.com/76762/students-file-title-ix-sexual-assault-complaint-against-columbia-university/
Sexual Assault Policies Sexually Assault
In most cases thus the violated woman soldier prefers to suffer silently and try to get over it as one of those things that happen in life. There is also the issue of military culture that demands that soldiers suffer in silence and never let their pain and suffering become an object of public pity that prevents from female soldiers from coming out of their closets and reporting the abuses and violations they have been subjected to. This perhaps is the reason why Pentagon also admitted that almost eighty percent of sexual abuse and rape cases never get reported. (Parker, 2007) Kaye Whitley, director of the Pentagon's Sexual Assault Prevention and esponse Office, said her office had received 2,923 reports of sexual assault across the military in the twelve months ending Sept. 30, 2008. This increase also included a rise in reports of cases from the battlefields of Iraq and…
Benedict, Helen (2008). "Why Soldiers Rape." In These Times. Volume: 32. Issue: 9. 28-32.
Burke, Carol (2004). Camp All American, Hanoi Jane and the High And Tight: Gender, Folklore and Changing Military Culture. Los Angeles: Beacon Press.
Fitzgerald, Mary (2006). "U.S. Army: Mission Critical Gays." New Statesman. Volume: 135. Issue: 4807. 16.
gay-news.com. (2007) Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Complicates Military Gay Rape Case. http://www.gay-news.com/article04.php?sid=1823 (accessed August 5, 2010).
Sexual Assault Creating a Campus
The self-defense classes should also contain advice on preventative measures, such as taking the campus bus whenever possible, rather than traveling alone by foot in high-risk areas at high-risk times like after dark. Finally, these classes can also include sensitivity training exercises to create a sense of mutual responsibility for the safety of all students. The classes can enable the students to have a forum for discussion about sexual harassment issues, and about behaviors that may make them more vulnerable to attacks, such as drinking too much, which may let down the student's guard while they are walking home. Although it should be stressed that no one deserves to be assaulted, given that such crimes are a fact of life, students should feel empowered, by taking responsibility into their own hands to exercise preventative and proactive strategies to mitigate the likelihood that they may be the subjects of such an…
Sexual Assault on College Campuses
Sexual Assault on College Campuses Erdely's article explores the phenomena of campus rape through the case study of a young woman by the name of Jackie, who was allegedly gang raped in 2012. Although the focus of the article is definitely onJackie and her own particular situation -- its ramifications and effects on her own personal life -- this tale is viewed within the wider context of a disturbing pattern of assault, violence, and sexual misconduct conducted against women at the University of Virginia. This particular educational institution is under federal investigation for the violation of women's rights related to numerous allegations of rape, sexual misconduct and violence. Erdely's article explores multiple allegations, as well as the overarching culture surrounding this university and this insidious pattern. One of the more revealing facets about the article is the implication that the University system -- and perhaps even that of the surrounding…
Erdely, S.B. (2014). A rape on campus: a brutal assault and struggle for justice at UVA. www.rollingstone.com Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/a-rape-on-campus-20141119
Sexual Assault in the Military Sexual assault against women in the U.S. military is a problem that continues to be brought to the forefront. This is because there is a culture which encourages and allows it to occur. The result is that women are traumatized by these events and some will look for other opportunities elsewhere. This hurts the combat readiness of all units. To address these issues, a zero tolerance policy needs to be implemented. This will change attitudes and it will lead to an increase in actions that are supporting the most core values. Over the course of time, this will improve professionalism and flexibility. On the modern day battlefield, these attributes are necessary for prevailing against an adversary who is using changing tactics and weapons. This is when the U.S. military can continue to maintain its dominance and serve a positive force for change. Introduction The U.S.…
Doubts of Military's Sexual Assault Stats. (2014). Washington Times. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/apr/6/doubts-on-militarys-sex-assault-stats-as-numbers-f/?page=all
Women, Trauma and PTSD. (2014). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD - overview/women/women-trauma-and-ptsd.asp
Monahan, E. (2011). A Few Good Women. New York, NY: Springer.
Patten, E. (2011). Women in the U.S. Military. Pew Research. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/12/women-in-the-military.pdf
Sexual Assaults Are Reported Rapes
In fact, 12,500 rape kits, which are to be tested, remain frozen with the Los Angeles county police department. The report also cited similar negligence across the nation with the Detroit police and the Houston police department storage facilities having a backlog of 10,000 and 4000 untested 'rape kits' respectively. [Sarah Tofte, 2009] A separate research by CS found that Louisiana is really worse off. The report showed that Louisiana has untested rape kits from 2001. As Sarah Tofte, the human rights watch research director says, " It's absolutely astounding. What's the point of sending a rape kit to a crime lab for testing if you can't get to it for say, eight years?" [Armen Keteyian, Nov 2009] The problem with such a negligent attitude is that it actually encourages the criminal to commit more such offenses. Sen. Patrick Leahy, who co sponsored the federal legislation that allocated more than…
1) RAINN, 'How often does sexual assault occur', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/frequency-of-sexual-assault
2) OVW, 'April is Sexual Assault Awareness Month', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/
3) Dean G. Kilpatrick PhD & Kenneth J. Ruggeiro PhD, (2003), 'Rape in Louisiana: A Report to the State One in eight', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://academicdepartments.musc.edu/ncvc/grants/50_states_reports/louisiana.pdf
4) CQ Press, 'Most Dangerous States: Crime Ranking for 2010', retrieved Apr 7th 2010, from, http://www.walletpop.com/blog/2010/04/05/most-dangerous-states-crime-rankings-for-2010/
Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prelude The American population is largely plagued by sexual assault and domestic violence, as women are certain victims of such heinous acts in comparison to men. Macy (2009) indicates that data shows that nearly thirty percent of the women, once in their life will experience domestic violence while twenty percent of American women will end up facing sexual assault. Partner violence for that matter consists of sexual and physical assault arising from different relationships such as: Ex-partners Boyfriend / girlfriend Spouses Partners Sexual violence consists of attempting to have sexual intercourse or forceful sexual intercourse. However, in most cases, the victims of sexual assault / violence have close relationships with the wrongdoer. In other cases, sexual violence can be committed by unknown perpetrators too. There are negative consequences of such an ordeal which are well documented, altering the victim's lives. The negative side effects of…
Davidson, M.M. And Bowen, N. (2011). Academia Meets Community Agency: How to Foster Positive Collaboration in Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Work. Journal of Family Violence. 26:309 -- 318.
Gervais, S.J., DiLillo, D., McChargue, D. (2014). Understanding the link between men's alcohol use and sexual violence perpetration: The mediating role of sexual objectification. Psychology of Violence, 4(2).
Hamby, S. (2014). Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender. Trauma Violence Abuse, 15(3) 149.
Macy, R.J. (2009). Domestic violence and sexual assault services: Inside the black box. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 14(5), 359 -- 373.
Sexual Assault Among College Females
Sexual assault is real, the current unfolds have put this to the bare. I have also been simply amazed by the high profile sexual assault cases, and how such cases have been handled mainly, to favor the perpetrators while at the same time objectifying the victim. I also agree that it is time to address this and my concern is on sexual assault of females in colleges and other institutions of higher education. Sexual assault in colleges is a common well-known secret. However, I think that it is still hard for college females to come out because they don’t know how to deal with the attention they attract for the rest of their life. As a result, it is common that a female sexually assaulted in college might choose to live silently with the wrong perpetrated against them. This line of thought is anchored on the thinking that, it is…
Forensic Sexual Assault Examinations
Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations Forensic Examinations of Sexual Assaults Forensics is often associated with murder, but it can play a crucial role in solving sexual assault cases as well. Forensic evidence is often left in sexual assault cases, making it easily traceable and recordable in order to pursue a case in court against a perpetrator. Sexual Assault cases need special attention and care because of the extreme intimate nature of the crime and the need to provide justice for the victim. There are specific criteria for the protocol of examining and investigating a sexual assault that must be followed in order to ensure the preservation of any potential evidence. The following report discusses this protocol from a medical and investigative perspective. Discussion There are very specific national and state guidelines for the investigative purposes revolving cases of sexual assault. Forensic specialists and medical examiners must adhere to these strict guidelines…
DNA Initiative. (2013). A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations. U.S. Department of Justice: Office on Violence Against Women. Web. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/241903.pdf
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2013). Detailed instruction list for forensic exam kit. Content. Web. http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/
RAINN. (2013). Preserving and collecting forensic evidence. Aftermath of Sexual Assault. Web. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/aftermath-of-sexual-assault/preserving-and-collecting-forensic-evidence
The Associated Press. (2014). Program that trains nurses to conduct forensic sexual assault exams to expand Iberia Parish. Daily Journal. Web. http://www.dailyjournal.net/view/story/b8a3f7b2e8814ff1b7915267c951ec29/LA -- Nursing-Program/#.UuuCzvtXZ_I
Bullying Versus Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault and Bullying: The Struggles for Power ithin Them Sexual assault and bullying are social ills that have taken place for quite some time, regardless of society and culture. hen one considers these phenomena, there are actually quite a few similarities between them. In both instances, there are victims and those who are aggressors. There are also disturbing patterns of both of these behaviors, which can become chronic -- both for the victims and the perpetrators of these acts. hen one gets to the root causes of these activities, oftentimes they are about power and the wanton exercise of power over those with less power. This similarity is the most eminent between them, and is the key to both identifying and even preventing such behavior. The prevalence of sexual assault on college campus, and its many manifestations, reinforces the viewpoint that power is the crux of such behavior. The…
Billboard. Mystikal Accussed of Aggravated Rape, Extortion. www.billboard.com 2002. Web. http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/75046/mystikal-accused-of-aggravated-rape-extortion
Muscatine, Alison. Tyson Found Guilty of Rape, Two Other Charges. http://tech.mit.edu / 1992. Web.
Competency Evaluation in Sexual Assault
The only medical issues documented in this report are acute findings that potentially relate to the assault or preexisting medical factors that could influence interpretation of findings. Separate medical documentation by examiners and other involved clinicians follows a standard approach -- address acute complaints, gather pertinent historical data, describe findings, and document treatment and follow-up care; and (2) Ensuring the accuracy and objectivity of medical forensic reports by seeking education on proper report writing. (the U.S. Department of Justice, 2004) Photographic evidence of the injuries sustained by the patient may be used to supplement the medical forensic history and to document findings of a physical nature. The U.S. Department of Justice states that following recommendations in the area of photographic documentation: (1) Come to a consensus about the extent of forensic photography necessary. Some jurisdictions routinely take photographs of both detected injuries on patients and normal (apparently uninjured) anatomy, while…
National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adult and adolescents September 2004. U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/206554.pdf
Registered Nurse Scope of Practice as a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (nd) Oregon State Board of Nursing Policy Statement. Online available at http://www.oregon.gov/OSBN/pdfs/policies/Sane.pdf
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims. April 2001. U.S. Department of justice Office for Victims of Crime. Online available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/sane_4_2001/186366.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women (2006) NCJ June 2006. online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/213827.pdf
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown PA 19403
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown, PA 19403: Announcement of a Focus Group Study to e Held Addressing the Issue According to statistical reports on crimes in Norristown, PA and specifically in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, there have been 35 offenses against family and children for 2012 YTD. In 2011, there were 52 offenses against family and children total. According to one source, Norristown, PA "consistently evidences the highest rates of domestic violence, substance abuse, child abuse, school dropouts, unemployment, inadequate housing, and violent crime in Montgomery County. (Norristown CTC Risk and Resource Assessment, 2005) Norristown Area School District has one of the highest incidences of truancy in the state of Pennsylvania with 56,322 instances of truancy in 2005/2006 for a student population of 6,846 students. Truant youth are often the perpetrators and victims of crime in Norristown." (Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit, nd) Focus Group Study Participants All practitioners who deal directly with…
Annual Domestic Violence Awareness Ceremony Honors Local Law Enforcement (2011) PRLOG. 27 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.prlog.org/11675987-annual-domestic-violence-awareness-ceremony-honors-local-law-enforcement.html
Pennsylvania Truancy Toolkit (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.patruancytoolkit.info/index.cfm?pageid=2597
Segall, Brad (2012) Advocates Alarmed By Increase In Local Domestic Abuse Incidents. Philly News 9 Feb 2012. Retrieved from: http://philadelphia.cbslocal.com/2012/02/09/advocates-alarmed-by-increase-in-local-domestic-abuse-incidents/
The Laurel House -- A Domestic Abuse Shelter in Norristown, Pennsylvania. Retrieved from: http://www.philly2philly.com/the_laurel_house_a_domestic_abuse_shelter_norristown_pennsylvania
Grant for Victims of Sexual Assault
Justice Program The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), among the seven divisions forming part of the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Justice Programs, sees to the administration of Crime Victims Fund set up in 1984 under the Victims of Crime Act for financially assisting victims, as well as providers of victim services with program funds, as per the annual Program Plan of OVC (Office of Victims of Crime, n.d). The successful grant selected is Legal Advocacy for Victims of Sexual Assault; it offers legal advocacy, helping sexual assault victims to take part in criminal justice, which facilitates the improvement of public safety. If victims fail to raise their voice against the crime done with them then no case will be filed, and offenders will be free to roam society. The proposed initiative's goal is sustaining and strengthening Legal Advocacy for sexual assault victims. Eight full-time posts will be preserved,…
Applegate M. (n.d.) Grant Writer Interview Questions. Retrieved 21 August 2015 from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/grant-writer-interview-questions-2649.html
Legal advocacy for victims of sexual assault. (n.d).Retrieved 21 August 2015 http://ojp.gov/ovc/grants/pdftxt/legal_advocacy_sample.pdf
Office of Victims of Crime. (n.d) Grants and Funding. Retrieved. Retrieved 21 August 2015 from http://ojp.gov/ovc/grants/
Trauma of Sexual Assault
The patient “Suzy” in this case study is a sexual assault victim, aged 28, married and female. She has 5 years of military service. Because of her military service, she was trained and disciplined in a culture renowned for praising strength and abhorring weakness. In the military, the code also centers on unity and spirit of mission. Soldiers who “betray” their fellow soldiers are seen as untrustworthy and can be ostracized and marginalized. Because Suzy was sexually assaulted while serving in the military, she did not report the assault, fearing that it would lead to her being labeled a bad soldier by the others. Instead, she attempted to cope with the assault and the trauma it caused her. In attempting to cope on her own, however, Suzy encountered depression, a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence; she developed a problem with substance abuse as well as with anxiety. She has stated…
Prosecutors Charging Decisions in Sexual Assault Cases
Cardsmax Frohmann,( 1991) discusses case screening as being the gateway to the criminal court system. She conducted research on how prosecutors account for their decision to reject sexual assault cases for prosecution, with a focus on discrediting victims' rape allegation in the prosecutor's justification. One of the first things discussed in the article covers the credibility of the victim and the role that this plays not only in whether or not the police department will investigate and/or make an arrest; it also influences the prosecutors' and the manner in which they handle a sexual assault case. Some of the research utilized in the article explains that the credibility of a victim is completely separate and exists independently from the interpretation of the prosecution and their assessment of the victims' credibility. On the other hand, there is research that supports the premise that credibility of the victim is constructed on the…
Blumberg, A.S. (1967, June). The Practice of Law as Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a profession. Law & Society Review, 1.
Frohmann, L. (1991, May). Discrediting Victims' Allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Social Problems, 38, 213-226.
Spohn, C., Beichner, D., & Davis-Frenzel, E. (2001). Prosecutorial Justifications for Sexual Assault Case Rejection: Guarding the "Gateway to Justice." Social Problems, 48, 206-235.
Offenders of Sexual Assault
Countries Laws Legislation Governing Sex Offenders Sex Offenders There was a very restricted definition of sexual damages caused, till the year 1960. Only complete rape and anal sex were considered offensive. This limitation in definition was the only reason that a lot of sufferers were not allowed to register the crime committed and convict the guilty. After 1960 and till present, a lot of changes have been done in the law. At present, sexual misconduct signifies a broader concept and has a wider definition. Furthermore, it essentially means attempt and complete rape and any kind of blameworthy sexual conduct. Moreover, sex offense includes any kind of sexual misconduct committed against a child and an indecent sexual behavior towards a single person, in front of a public (Mackey & Levan, 2013). Any person who is involved in any such crime mentioned above is considered as sex offender. There is an increase…
Corabian, G., & Hogan, N. (2012). Collateral effects of the media on sex offender reintegration: Perceptions of sex offenders, professionals, and the lay public. Sexual Offender Treatment, 7(2), 10.
Global Overview of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Systems. (2014). Retrieved from: www.smart.gov/pdfs/GlobalOverview.pdf
Griffin, L., & Blacker, K. (2010). Megan's Law and Sarah's Law: A Comparative Study of Sex Offender Community Notification Schemes in the United States and the United Kingdom. Criminal Law Bulletin, 46, 987.
James Vess, et. al. (2011). A Comparative Analysis of Australian Sex Offender Legislation for Sex Offender Registries, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 44:404.
How to Treat Sexual Assault Trauma
Introduction Sexual assault can traumatize the victim and lead to major life issues, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The victim may develop deeply disturbing mental issues that lead the victim to become a sexual abuser later on in life, which has been found to be the case especially for victims abused in childhood (Groth & Burgess, 1979). Trauma affects every individual differently. Some are aware of the issue and seek help. Others attempt to self-medicate by turning to drugs or alcohol or risky sexual behavior, which further leads to destructive behavior. Others are unaware that they have been traumatized and struggle to understand or deal with their emotions. This paper will discuss treatment available for victims of sexual assault, ways to prevent it, and how prevention is being implemented. Treatment One of the most common forms of treatment for sexual assault trauma is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT…
Central Park Five
Central Park Five Abstract The Central Park jogger case, often referred to as the Central Park Five for the five men who were wrongly convicted of the assault, is a brutal assault that occurred in Central Park in 1989. The victim was severely assaulted, which resulted in her losing her memory surrounding the attack. The police identified at least 14 suspects, and a number of them were convicted of the assault, despite a lack of substantial evidence linking them to the crime. Five of the men, the Central Park Five, were exonerated when evidence revealed that they were actually innocent, but this did not occur until the men had spent years in jail. This essay investigates the Central Park Five, covering information about the victim, about the trial against the defendants, about their lawsuit for their wrongful incarcerations, recent developments in their case, and the role that President Trump has…
Sexual Assault and Legal Standards
Commonwealth v. Berkowitz (1992) Q1. Explain how the court came to the conclusion that the Pennsylvania rape statute required extrinsic force. According to Pennsylvania law, rape may occur either by “forcible compulsion” or the threat of forcible compulsion which “would prevent resistance by a person of reasonable resolution” (“Commonwealth v. Berkowitz”). The Pennsylvania court interpreted this wording as meaning that direct, extrinsic force or the threat of such force was required for an act to constitute sexual assault. Q2. LIST all the facts relevant to deciding whether Roberts Berkowitz’s actions satisfy the extrinsic force requirement. Berkowitz pushed the victim down on his bed, straddled her, and ignored her statement that she wanted to meet her boyfriend and leave his room. When he lifted up her shirt and bra, the victim clearly said, “No.” Berkowitz then unzipped his pants and attempted to put his penis in the victim’s mouth. She verbally…
Reviewing the Sexual Assault Policy
Campus Policy on Sexual Assault Currently, sexual assault victims have to continue studying in the same environment as the person accused of assaulting them, and this causes a strain on their activities. In the Johnson case, she had to stop visiting the gym and running in order to avoid bumping in on Eric. This affected her normal routine and resulted in her anxiety increasing. Studying and participating in the same activities as your accuser will have a negative effect on the victim because they feel ashamed and they are blaming themselves for the sexual assault. Classes have to progress as normal, and victims of sexual assault find it hard to cope with the assault and their normal classes. Research has shown that a majority of sexual assault victims will drop their grades and most of them do not recover (The American Association of University Professors, 2012). There are many reasons…
Sexual Predators Prosecution Too Harsh and Disadvantageous
Sexual Predators Prosecution TOO HARSH AND DISADVANTAGEOUS Sexual Predators' Prosecution Sexual predators are persons who sexually victimize other persons (ILGA, 2009). They may be rapists, molesters, peeping toms or sexual deviants. A sexual deviant is convicted for rape, attempted rape, child molestation or abuse, incest, sodomy or indecent sexual assault or exposure. A judge may, however, convict a sexual predator for a crime unrelated to the sexual act. If the offender takes a child from home without parental consent, he may be convicted for kidnapping. As of 2009, 17 States have laws that penalize sexual predators, specifically a sub-class of sexually violent predators or SVP. Of these 17, Illinois adopted and enforces the broadest definition of SVP as sex offenders who victimize persons below 18 years old, regardless of past convictions. The other 16 define SVPs as those who victimize others below 12 years old and who have prior sex…
Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Overview
Analysis: CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with: Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23). A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/
Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Sexual Factors That May Affect
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
Sexual Harassment in the Academic Setting
Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of gender-based discrimination that has spread in the recent past despite its impact on victims with regards to depriving them equality and dignity. Generally, sexual harassment involves sexual discrimination that infringes civil rights through unwanted sexual advances, verbal or physical sexual conduct, and requests for sexual favors in a manner that affects a person's work performance or social relations. The victims of this form of gender-discrimination and crime usually feel powerless and have low self-esteem because its most common injuries are emotional. The prevalence of this crime is evident in its current spread in the education environment as well as other workplaces. Actions Constituting Sexual Harassment in the Education Environment Given its current spread, sexual harassment has become common in the modern education environment. Similar to other workplaces, sexual harassment in the education environment occurs between teachers and their employers. However,…
"Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education." (1999). Wrightslaw. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Davis_Monroe_SupCt_990524.html
Education Dept. Inspector General Off. Investigation Office. (1997). Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/sexual-harassment-it-s-not-academic.html
Stier, W.F. (2005, March/April). An Overview of Sexual Harassment. Strategies, 18(4), 13-15. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08924562.2005.10591145#.U-0pcKOwU08
Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood Essay
Table of Contents I. Opening II. Titles III. Related Topics IV. Outline V. Introduction VI. Essay Hook VII. Thesis Statement VIII. Body A. Background B. Harvey Weinstein C. Other Accusations IX. Conclusion X. Works Cited XI. Closing Opening In this essay about Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood, we examine how the allegations of sexual impropriety by some of Hollywood’s power players has led to a major shake-up in the entertainment industry. This essay will contain a list of some of the Hollywood players accused of sexual harassment or sexual assault, the allegations against them, and at least partial lists of their known accusers. The essay will also delve into an examination of the casting couch phenomenon. Although these sexual misconduct allegations may have come as a surprise to much of middle America, there is substantial evidence that many of Hollywood’s rich and powerful were well aware of the sexual…
Sexual Harassment Policy Analysis
Diversity Policy GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best. Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
Army Case Study The health of the unit is of most important. When serving in a military unit, the personal and individual needs must come second in order for the organization to flourish and grown towards its best. The situation describing SPC Andrews and PFC Nolan is a direct threat to the cohesive nature of the platoon and significantly damages the esprit de corps that is necessary to become a combat multiplier on the battlefield As a leader in this case study it is important to think of the unit first and the individual last. Certain ideas must be considered to understand the entirety of the situation. Such ideas that should be considered include: What is the unit's current mission ? What is the impact of the unit ? How will others within the company feel about the relationship and possible sexual assault ? What is does UCMJ suggest. As…
Minor Child Sexual Assault
The case In this particular case study, the client is a 15-year-old minor. She has suffered neglect and abuse and has lived with toxic parents and guardians for a while. As of today, she has had residence in 8 separate communities. Her problems started when she was ten in 2010. At that young age she was sexually abused by somebody who was a friend of her family. The man who abused her is now in jail serving for his crime. When the client was abused at such a young age, she specified that she did not receive any intervention, psychological support or counselling from anyone let alone the Human Services Agency. In 2012, she was arrested and put in detention. Her crime: the murder of an older male schoolmate in her school’s compound. She was detained in the country’s only jail and she specified in her statements that she ended…
Analyzing Sexual Assualt Treatment Center
Sexual Assault Treatment Center Describe the social problem for the community Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…
Alexander, P. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 185-95.
Amnesty International. (2005). Amnesty International Report. London: Times.
Appalachian State University. (2016). Sexual Assault Facts. Retrieved Febuary 6, 2016, from Appalachian State University: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rape/sexual-assault-facts
Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (n.d.). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children. Research grantees report to NCCAN. Seattle, WA: Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center.
Fifth Annual Fort Belvoir Sexual
Accordingly, the Garrison Commander would like to honor the SARC and VA of the Fort Belvoir community for their outstanding service and their compassion in helping those who are affected by sexual assault and sexual victimization. heir work is essential for victims and their loved ones to recover from their experiences and overcome them. Please join Commander ____ and the rest of the Fort Belvoir community in acknowledging and thanking our dedicated SARC and VA personnel for their crucial work in this area and for helping victims recover and overcome their experiences as victims of sexual assault, victimization, and violence. ake Back the Night Date: April 19 ime: 1700 Location: he Woodlawn Village One of the most important layers of the prevention of sexual assault by strangers is increasing the safety of our community environment. Please join our ake Back the Night event where three guest speakers will address the…
The Sad but Encouraging History of Denim Day
In 1997, a teenage girl was forcibly raped by her driving instructor in Italy; it was her very first driving lesson. The rapist was sentenced to serve a prison sentence but that sentence was later reversed by an appeals court on the basis of the assumption that the girl's jeans were so tight that she would have had to help her rapist remove them, thereby making the interaction consensual rather than forced rape. In protest, female members of the Italian Parliament wore jeans to work and that practice has since spread internationally.
The idea behind "Denim Day" is that rape and sexual assault are never the fault of the victim, regardless of how victims choose to dress. To support and promote that concept, we are asking that all soldiers, civilians, community member, elected officials, businesses proprietors, and students take this opportunity on April 26th to make a social statement with their choice of attire. By wearing denim jeans, you will be participating in a visible protest and fighting against the myths that surround sexual assault and its victims.
In addition to helping address this problem in our community, we believe that your participation at any level can only benefit your business by demonstrating to your partners and customers alike that you are committed to helping this community. Naturally, we would also welcome your participation in other ways, such as by hosting events or by contributing your input, experiences, and advice as a professional business person as a scheduled guest speaker if you feel that you have a perspective to share on this important topic for our community. Please contact the Fort Belvoir SHARP Office at ____ to receive additional information or resources, or to discuss any ways that you would like to contribute to this critical community effort. All of our soldiers, civilian employees, and our family members and friends invite you to become part of this annual effort to protect human health and welfare in our community.…
Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society. eferences California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J uly_09.pdf Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents. Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Male Sexual Harassment in the
Just like with other forms of sexual assault, sexual harassment brings a set of impacts and consequences such as having physical effects, emotional effects, job and school related effects and current and future financial penalties. Harassment also has harmful costs on the environment that victims are in and can lead to an aggressive and less productive work and school surroundings. It costs businesses and schools due to the damaged morale, lawsuits and absenteeism that occur because of it. It permits for the degradation of women and men and the continuation of gender inequalities (Anderson, 2006). The psychological brunt on the victim of sexual harassment can be huge. Understanding the psychological effects of harassment is difficult because very often the victim's reactions are masked or minimized. Sexual harassment has negative impacts on the victim, often reporting that they are distracted during the day and do not perform to their potential. They…
Anderson, Janet. (2006). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved April 27, 2010, from Web site:
Dealing with Sexual Harassment. (2002). Retrieved April 27, 2010, from Web site:
Allegations of Sexual Harassment in
Women in the military reported being sexually harassed at six times the rate of civilian women, and reported being sexually assaulted at more than twice the rate of civilian women. Moreover, women in the military seem even more hesitant than civilian women to report sexual assault or sexual harassment. Civilian women were almost three times as likely to report sexual harassment as women in the military. Moreover, while both civilian women and military women failed to report an alarming percentage of sexual assaults, civilian women were more than three times as likely to report those assaults than military women. While this survey makes it clear that women in the military are at greater risk of sexual assault and sexual harassment than civilian women, it does not explain why the women are at risk. Future studies should look at the impact of race and socioeconomic status on those issues, because it…
McCall-Hosenfeld, J.S., Liebshutz, J.M., Spiro, a., & Seaver, M.R. (2009). Sexual assault in the military and its impact on sexual satisfaction in women veterans: a proposed model. Journal of Women's Health, 18(6), 901-9.
Street, a.E., Stafford, J., Mahan, C.M., & Hendricks, a. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45(3), 409-19.
Laws on Rape Murder Aggravated Assault and Robbery
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
Faragher v Boca Raton 524 US 775 Sexual Harassment
aragher v. City of Boca Raton Argued March 25, 1998 Decided June 26, 1998 PARTIES: Beth Ann aragher: petitioner; City of Boca Raton: respondent ACTS: Beth Ann aragher worked part-time and during summers between 1990 and 1995 as a life-guard for the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of Boca Raton, lorida. Her immediate superiors during this period were Bill Terry, David Silverman and Robert Gordon. After resigning as a lifeguard, aragher brought an action against Terry, Silverman and the City under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for nominal damages and other relief, alleging, among other things, that the supervisors had created a "sexually hostile atmosphere" at work by repeatedly subjecting aragher and other female lifeguards to uninvited and offensive touching, by making lewd remarks, and by speaking of women in offensive terms. Asserting that Terry and Silverman were agents of the City, and that…
Faragher v. The City of Boca Raton (1998) is considered to be landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the area of sexual harassment in the workplace. This is mainly because until Faragher, the Appeal Courts in the U.S. had typically considered sexual harassment by employees in the workplace as "frolics or detours from the course of employment" which was "acting beyond the scope of their employment." As such, sexual harassment by employees (including supervisors) was deemed to fall beyond the scope of Restatement 219 (1) and absolved the employer of any vicarious liability.
Faragher constitutes an important departure from such a benign interpretation of sexual harassment by the courts and set more strict standards of judgment in future cases. It also forced the employers and supervisors to view sexual harassment more seriously and to implement policies of prevention in the workplace.
The Case, in fact, reflects the changing social attitudes towards sexual harassment in the American society. There was a time, when crass behavior by male employees in the workplace could go unchallenged or was ignored by women. Following the success of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, movements for the rights of other minorities had gained ground. By the 1990s, previous Court rulings in sexual harassment cases had become out of tune with the changed social standards. Faragher defined the parameters of sexual harassment more clearly and also broadened the scope of vicarious liability in general.
Strategies and Model of Managing a Sexually Assaulted Individual
Ethical Issues in Counselor Education and Supervision During Documentation One of the current issues in counselor education and supervision relates to the rising cases of sexual assault on college and campuses. This issue has attracted the 'Take Back the Night' events, and the 'No means No' educative campaigns. Today, many students fall victim of college sexual assault. Sexual violence and aggravate sexual assaults have affected the performance of many innocent students in schools. Cases related to such incidences often go unmentioned because the majority of the victims fear victimization or embarrassment (Finley & Lenz, 2005). This has made the issue appear like a norm or a culture because almost all the colleges and campuses around the globe experience sexual violence and sexual assaults frequently. Often, at least every person who went to a college or campus will tell a story about sexual assault involving a friend or an acquaintance while…
Aasheim, L. (2012). Practical Clinical Supervision for Counselors: An Experiential Guide. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2007). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Australia: Brooks/Cole/Thomson Learning.
Cottone, R. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2003). Ethical and Professional Issues In Counseling. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Finley, J. R., & Lenz, B. S. (2005). The Addiction Counselor's Documentation Sourcebook: The Complete Paperwork Resource for Treating Clients with Addictions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Sexual Harassment in a University Setting
Sexual Harassment Charges The chair of the kinesiology department at a college or university confronted with a sexual harassment charge from a student concerning the inappropriate touching of a breast by a male instructor during weight training instruction and who now refuses to return to class will need to understand the legal definition of sexual harassment and relevant precedential case laws to provide an appropriate organizational response. To this end, this paper reviews the literature to provide a definition of sexual harassment, when it was implemented into law in the United States, and an analysis of selected sexual harassment cases including their validity. Finally, a recommendation for the college or university, a summary of the research and important findings concerning sexual harassment cases are presented in the conclusion. Review and Analysis According to the legal definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary, sexual harassment is "a type of employment discrimination [which]…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Equal employment opportunity guidelines on sexual harassment. (1980). 45 Fed. Reg. 25025.
Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District. (1998). Oyez. Available: https://www.oyez. org/cases/1997/96-1866.
Lee, Robert D. and Greenlaw, Paul S. "Employer Liability for Employee Sexual Harassment: A Judicial Policy-Making Study." Public Administration Review (2000, March), vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 123-127.
Sexual Tyranny of Slavery as
After being charged with the crime, a slave-owner yet eloquent prominent trial attorney James Jameson was appointed to defend Celia, partially to silence critics on both sides of the issue in Missouri. Jameson defended his client's right to resist her master's advances based upon statues designed only to apply to assaulted white women and another statute that allowed slaves to fight back with deadly force to spare their own lives. The judge objected to this defense and told the jury to ignore this argument, effectively sealing Celia's fate to be executed. Because Celia was regarded as property, her master could dispose of her as he desired, and the only sexual crime that could be committed against the body of a female slave under the law was if another man trespassed upon the slave-owners' property. The unique tyranny forced upon women as a result of slavery is manifest in Celia's case.…
Mclaurin, Melton. Celia: A slave. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.
Business Ethics -- Sexual Harassment
Males of all ages routinely misrepresent their intentions with the specific hope of obtaining sexual consent from prospective female partners: typically, they feign sincerely romantic interest when their interest in the particular woman is strictly physical. Instead of respecting how important many women consider an emotional connection as a prerequisite for sexuality, men disregard the very social mores they purport to value in their legitimate romantic interests (and for any females in their families) to exploit any conceivable opportunity to obtain sexual consent for their selfish purposes. Perhaps the most offensive element of this social dynamic is, precisely, that the same men prize chastity and even virginity in women as an ideal for their eventual life partners (Verene, p. 301). What is most unfortunate and ironic about this situation is that to whatever degree moral rules apply to sexual conduct, they are violated much more by the duplicitous conduct typical…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Verene, D.P. (1992) Sexual Love and Western Morality: A Philosophical Anthology. New York: Harper
Human Resources -- Sexual Discrimination
Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work. The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings. The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, Chapter 5) The organisation where the harassment took place will suffer as well.…
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2010.
European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industry Relations, and Social Affairs. Sexual harassment in the workplace in the European Union. Publications of Employment and Social Affairs, The Netherlands, 1998.
Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf Ed. Women, Gender, and Work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies. However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa, Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood. PTSD 3.1. What is PTSD? Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Human Resources Sexual Harassment Sexual
The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant's disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I. Title I complaints must be filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within 180 days of the date of discrimination, or 300 days if the charge is filed with a designated…
Rosman Jp Resnick Pj Sexual Attraction to
Rosman JP, Resnick PJ. Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1989;17(2):153-63. It is not legal for me to reprint the article and copy you on it, since you are purchasing this paper (and copyright would be breached because you would, in form, be purchasing the article without reprint permission) -- but the article IS available for free online (your college should provide access to Google SCHOLAR and that gives not only the full article but all the times since its publication in which it has been cited or invoked in another academic or professional publication) of from PubMed. I can, however, legally provide you with the abstract JAKE and JSTOR, both journals of jointly administered knowledge, offer the article in-full to students through their libraries. Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Ohio 44109. The authors review 122 cases (88 from the…
Breast Ironing in Cameroon Sexual
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows: The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
David Mamet's Sexual Perversity in Chicago and the Duck Variations
David Mamet From the perspective of pure plot, David Mamet's 1974 play, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, is not exactly easy to summarize, although this difficulty is formally built in to the play, itself, which quite consciously rejects a standard narrative flow from one event to another for a cut-up collagistic style that rapidly jumps between scenes and events. Indeed, this sort of experimentation is hardly new in creative works, and was, in fact, a mainstay of modernist literature at the early part of the 20th century, but it can indeed still be jarring in the realm of theater, where one often tends to expect an emphasis on plot and narrative vision. Mamet's play, on the other hand, prefers to eschew these things in order to suggest something like the fractured nature of our own existences, and, rather than letting the plot hold the interest of the viewers, he realizes on…
About Last Night." MSN.com. retrieved November 5, 2003 at http://entertainment.
Frey, Hans-Jost. "On Presentation in Benjamin." Walter Benjamin: Theoretical
Questions. David S. Harris, ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1996.
Child Psychological & Sexual Issues
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…
Lillywhite, Ralph, and Skidmore, Paula. (2006). Boys Are Not Sexually Exploited? A Challenge
to Practitioners. Child Abuse Review, 15(5), 351-361.
Public Broadcasting Service. (2009). NOW / Fighting Child Prostitution. Retrieved January 21
2012, from http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/422/index.html .
Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Sexual Offending
Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests. ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.
Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.
Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.
Integrated Theory Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993() Prevalence In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
Metropolitan Development Affect Rates of
Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…
Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse, Am. J. Psychiatry.
Coons, P.M. (1994). Confirmation of childhood abuse in childhood and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorders not otherwise specified. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 461-464.
Finkelhor, D. (1990). Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 325-330.
Jarvis, T.J., & Copeland, J. (1997). Child sexual abuse as a predictor of psychiatric co-
Departmental Project Strategic Plan Departmental
The rationale for integrating this unit is based on the fact that crimes -- like most of all other social problems -- are easier to prevent than to deal with afterwards. Within this unit, emphasis is placed on watching people and businesses for any indication of criminal behavior, ensuring the safety of children (providing the names of offenders), providing tips for safety and crime prevention and so on (Bloomington MN Government Site). Aside from the departments to be included, the discussion at this level should also focus on the departments that will not be included in the new effort to fight violent crime. These four departments that will not be included in the task force include the following: training, traffic investigation unit, personnel unit and the records keeping unit. Al these units have some connection with crime fighting, but can collaborate with the task force, without needing to be included…
Crime prevention unit. Creative solutions to deter crime. Bloomington MN Government Site. http://www.ci.bloomington.mn.us/cityhall/dept/police/specops/crime_prevention/crime_prevention.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
LAPD organizational chart. LAPD Online. http://www.lapdonline.org/inside_the_lapd/content_basic_view/1063 accessed on January 24, 2013
Organizational chart. Town of Vestal New York. http://www.vestalny.com/DeptPage.aspx?pID=10 accessed on January 24, 2013
Structure of policing in London. Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
Created With an Aim to
However, this made Andrei use physical torture as means of controlling her which later lead to him killing her by hitting her head constantly. His aim was not to have a casual sex with the victim but to kill her and satisfy his physical needs, which he discovered during his previous thrilling encounter. He also showed abnormal behaviors after sexual assault when he chewed and swallowed away one of the victim's nipples. The dead body of Larissa was found the next day with no clue of the murderer. His second victim was a thirteen-year-old girl named Liyuba Biryuk, which was followed on from a bus stop. The killing took place in June 1982 by introducing several stabs to the body including the eyes. The body was found two weeks later with no sign or clue. Two more youths were victimized in July, two in September and one in December (Jenkins,…
Askenasy, Hans. Cannibalism: from sacrifice to survival. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1994.
Fido, Martin and David Southwell. True Crime. London: Carlton, 2010.
Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder. Chicago: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
Philbin, Tom and Michael Philbin. The Killer Book of Serial Killers. Chicago: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2009.
Lucky by Alice Sebold Analysis
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase. Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
Childhood Intimacy Problems Serve as
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include: Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her. Whether the child's experiences success at school Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.) Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.) Sexual Abuse "Signs" Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas: 1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
Criminal Justice Final Define the
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion. Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
Gray Area of Rape Used
A third of those who responded said they believed she was to blame if she had been flirtatious. One fourth believed that wearing provocative clothing made women at least partially responsible if she was sexually assaulted. and, one fifth of respondents felt that having numerous sexual partners also led to the woman being partly to blame if she was raped. In all of these survey questions, men were more critical of women's behavior than women, except where alcohol was involved. A rape case in Illinois demonstrates how so-called victims may not be just that. The girl in question was intoxicated, and the encounter, with multiple young men, was captured on video tape. However, jurors, having reviewed the evidence and watching the tape, said they saw hints that the girl may have been agreeing to sex (Yednak). It demonstrates that although when recovering from a drunken a person may regret their…
Do women sometimes rape men? 2007. Planned Parenthood. December 12, 2007 http://www.teenwire.com/ask/2003/as-20030624p592-rape.php .
Knight, I. "Women who really do ask for it." Sunday Times. 19 Nov 2006: p. 15. ProQuest Newsstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007 http://proquest.umi.com .
Newsom, M. "The dark side of 'hooking up'." Sun Journal. 8 Apr 2007: p. B8. ProQuest Newstand. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2007
Resuscitation Techniques Following Bupivacaine Toxicity
This element is necessary to determine whether or not the offense can be considered to be aggravated sexual assault. Explain why locating the point of origin is so important in arson investigation. Determining the point of origin of a fire is a crucial first step in any investigation. This step is so important because it may illuminate the cause of the fire, and further identify whether the fire was criminal in nature. Fire investigation is difficult, due to the fact that evidence is often destroyed by the blaze. Before the cause of a fire can be determined, the point of origin must be identified. Often the point of origin of a fire is known, but the cause is not, and sometimes the reverse is true. List and describe the several stages of a burglary investigation. There are five main activities used by the authorities to respond to burglaries of dwellings…
Archambault, J., Faugno, D.K. (2001). Overcoming a consent defense to sexual assault. The Journal of Emergency Nursing, 27, 204-8.
Coupe, T., Griffiths, M. (1995). Police investigations into residential burglary. The British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, 1, 18-21.
Jukanin, T.J. (1996). Model guidelines and sex crimes investigation manual for Illinois law enforcement. Illinois Law Enforcement and Training Standards Board. Retrieved 6/11/2007 at http://www.ptb.state.il.us/publications/sexassualt.pdf.
Post Homework Help ❯
Assault Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases Sexual assault remains a charge much embattled in our courts. Approaches to prosecuting in cases of sexual assault have been both inconsistent and…
Sexual Assault and Eye Witness Accounts Sexual assault is a difficult crime to prosecute. It relies heavily on eyewitness accounts and proof of sexual assault. ape kits are used…
2). At all times, the medical examiner needs to respect the victim, and taken into account victim rights by appointing a victim advocate when necessary. The forensic medical examiners…
Sexual Assault on Universities and College Campuses Introduction to Sexual Assault Sexual assault refers to an involuntary sexual act where an individual is forced to engage in against his…
In most cases thus the violated woman soldier prefers to suffer silently and try to get over it as one of those things that happen in life. There is…
The self-defense classes should also contain advice on preventative measures, such as taking the campus bus whenever possible, rather than traveling alone by foot in high-risk areas at high-risk…
Sexual Assault on College Campuses Erdely's article explores the phenomena of campus rape through the case study of a young woman by the name of Jackie, who was allegedly…
Sexual Assault in the Military Sexual assault against women in the U.S. military is a problem that continues to be brought to the forefront. This is because there is…
In fact, 12,500 rape kits, which are to be tested, remain frozen with the Los Angeles county police department. The report also cited similar negligence across the nation with…
Sports - Women
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prelude The American population is largely plagued by sexual assault and domestic violence, as women are certain victims of such heinous acts in comparison…
Sexual assault is real, the current unfolds have put this to the bare. I have also been simply amazed by the high profile sexual assault cases, and how such…
Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations Forensic Examinations of Sexual Assaults Forensics is often associated with murder, but it can play a crucial role in solving sexual assault cases as well.…
Sociology - Counseling
Sexual Assault and Bullying: The Struggles for Power ithin Them Sexual assault and bullying are social ills that have taken place for quite some time, regardless of society and…
The only medical issues documented in this report are acute findings that potentially relate to the assault or preexisting medical factors that could influence interpretation of findings. Separate medical…
Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Norristown, PA 19403: Announcement of a Focus Group Study to e Held Addressing the Issue According to statistical reports on crimes in Norristown, PA and…
Justice Program The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), among the seven divisions forming part of the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Justice Programs, sees to the administration of…
The patient “Suzy” in this case study is a sexual assault victim, aged 28, married and female. She has 5 years of military service. Because of her military service,…
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Analysis and Conclusion on Gender Violence Research Paper
Understanding structural roots of gender violence, consequences of structural violence, human trafficking and displacement, women trends in war, conclusions and recommendations, works cited.
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In 1993, the Canadian Panel on violence against Women coined one of the greatest statements on violence and intimidation against women. To this panel, violence against women in the society draws inspiration from inequality structures in the patriarchal nature of many societies. Therefore, developing a sustainable solution to this ill depends on the ability of leading elites to develop adequate equality and equity structures between men and women in the society. Until then, gender violence will remain elusive. In the Eastern Europe’s case, there exists a link to detach to gender violence against women in the post war error from the real drivers of the vice (Hepburn and Simon 57). More emphasis seems to get diversion towards the structural rooting of violence in the society. During and after the war, women suffered in the hands of men as sex pets, and commercial sex workers. Much focused aimed at clearing men of the vices committed rather than seeking justice for the women in question. The root driver of this school of thought draws inspiration from the conservative societies that believe women lack equal position in the society and should play a subordinate role to men.
In similarity to the universality and pervasiveness of conflicts and wars, gender violence spreads out across geographical, cultural, social, and ethnic borders. Even though the international community and human right watchdogs continue to play a vital role in fighting gender violence, the intensity of its persistence remains high (Andrijasevic 42). Gender violence across these boundaries harbors relatively similarly consequences and trends with women as the major casualties. Such an observation, based on the historical manifestations of violence, draws inspiration from the socio-economic and political contexts within which women exist. Social stratification and male-dominated societies produce these gender discrimination tendencies within class, caste, and patriarchal social relations in which male individuals enjoy super power over female counterparts. Even though direct and physical violence against women lead to physical injury and physiological trauma, use of women as sex pets and commercial sex workers during the disintegration of the Soviet Union created a social and psychological damage to the vulnerable women during and after the wars. In the Bosnia and Serbia conflict, women used as sex slave remained in psychological trauma giving up their desire to fight for dignity and self-esteem. This violence, coupled with the embedment social gender stratification normalized the violence leading to loss of dignity in women (Gallagher 72).
In war and post war economies, women and children often represent the casualties. The consequences of war on women are far reaching ranging from physical injury to psychological traumatic situations (Wilson, Friedman, and Lindy 91). Since inequality sustained the during the fall of Soviet Union and the Bosnian-Serbian conflict , the cumulative impacts of these conflicts stemmed inequality within the society with women. Denial of fundamental human rights and exploitation of sex values in women remained the great drivers of violence during these two conflicts. Violence set up within societies with conservative opinions about the roles of women presented great impact on the women suffrage especially in mental, sexual, and reproductive health (Dudley, Silove, and Gale 33). Forced sex led to unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The worst part of this violence occurs during the pregnancy stages of a victim with injuries on fetus and infants. Fatal situations during this war caused miscarriage among women leading trauma and other mental health problems such as depression, fear, anxiety, and obsessive behaviors.
According to statistics at the United Nations, conservative estimates indicate that more than two million people are victims of human trafficking. Among the casualties of the vice are migrants and refugees. War refugees and other individual fleeing their countries for safety often land in the hands of greedy and egocentric individual ready to earn some money from the desperate state of the affected individuals. Women and children represent the social groups suffering from this vice. Soldiers and other corrupt security officers in the immigration and security sectors act as the ambassador of human trafficking (Downe 65). At the United Nations, data on human on human trafficking indicate that sexual exploitation of women and young girls from war torn regions are high. According to the Norwegian discourse on the sex purchase law, human trafficking becomes rampant in areas of war in which gender and social structures in which women serve as subordinates to their male counterparts in the society. Dang and Suphang (77), in their analysis of wartime sexual violence argue that sexual orientation in the society plays a role in in human displacement and sexual abuse of women. In the piece, they maintain that in societies with conservative opinions about the role of women in relation to those of the male counterparts, stands high chances of women and girl child exploitation in times of war compared to societies with relative equality between the two genders. During the fall of Soviet Union and the post-integration conflicts, women and girl in the region suffered not only physical and emotional problems, but also trans-locational effects. Several young girls and women, on the run for safety, landed on the hand of human trafficking leading to more damage.it is also important to note that women and girls presented the highest number of casualties of the refugees in the Bosnian war with Serbia. The role of men in the military and the militia groups partly explains the gender distribution in many refugee camps. In a setting where women and girls congest a given refugee camps, limited resources cause a state of disparity. For this reason, women become desperate to earn a living from any activity. For this reason, human trafficking often takes an easy course as some women willingly move into the activity for the sake of leaving a congested camp (Yakushko 173). In the wake of globalization and technological advancements, the demands for resources continue to rise. Several conflicts over natural resources and other factor arise across the world forcing a large number of people into displacement. For this reason, there has been an increase in the number of refugee camps. As communism ended, the demand for control of resources to serve the rising independent states set precedence for increased number of conflicts (Tepfenhart 89). Several countries broke out together but disintegrated due to lack of agreement over control of resources. As the number of international conflicts increased, several vices occur within the displacement facets of the affected populations. With little disregard to the plight of the displaced refugees, there exists a disconnect between the human rights group striving to serve and rehabilitate the depressed refugees and the unscrupulous soldiers and other institutional officials seeking to earn few bucks from the desperate situations of the refugees. In the Bosnia war with Serbia, several women displaced from their original homes based on ethnicity and violence got refuge in the camps under military protection. In such camps, some soldiers not only subjected them to sexual exploitation but also engaged in further displaced through human trafficking. The trauma resulting from loss of family during war and conflict coupled with the separation of women from their cultures offered a prerequisite for trauma and depression (Tepfenhart 93).
In the history development of wars, women and girls as casualties stand out as one of the uniform phenomenon. Smock (23) in her analysis of the plight women and young girls argue that media, and political leaders continue to unravel the relatively quiet and unexplored tragic stories of rape during wars. Even though rape exists in the society with or without wars, in the war context it takes a relatively traumatic course as victims often suffer without any legal proceedings against the perpetrators. Apart from the absence of judicial proceedings against the perpetrators of this vice, nepotism, favoritism, and tribalism sets out as a factor of rape and sex slavery in many war camps (Downie 63). Women in each society have a culture and way of life. In the war camps the war camps, things change. It remains a norm for women to play subordinate roles to the soldiers and serve as slaves. Women with relatively masculine and stronger genes get better treatment and service in order to sire children with abilities to serve in the military. Women with weak and unwanted traits on the other hand act as sex pets and customers to the human trafficking syndicate with the camps. In the Bosnia-Serbian war, there existed not only rape but also forced reproduction of perpetrators genes to eliminate the genes considered inferior in the society (Kourvetaris 163). Despite the biological believes and facts about children being a balance of the genes from the biological parents, the Serbian perpetrators of rape and gender violence in this war believed that the genes from the perpetrators dominated the child’s biological characteristics. The Serbians therefore, in their superiority complex’ war with the Bosnians, exploited this fact on Muslim women in the war camps with the aim of cleansing the inferior Muslim minority. In the refugee camps during this war, the Serbian soldiers raped and abused women refugees until death or conception. The victims who conceived were further concentrated in the camps to ensure zero abortion procurement (Marchak 16). Through these inhumane acts, the Serbian soldiers aimed at increasing their ethnicity and eliminating the Bosnians. On the Bosnian side, more than two thousand women from the Serbian communities underwent the same activities during the war (Vlachova and Biason 63). Sexual objectification theory remains evident in this explanation of rape and ethnic cleansing in the refugee camps during the Bosnia-Serbia war. Evidence show that soldiers from both camps used the women as an object of developing a new and superior identity irrespective of the traumatic problems the women went through. As objects of developing a new and superior identity, the soldiers raped, maimed, and in some cases killed women who failed to conceive. As described the objectification theory that sees women as objects and means to an end for the male in the society, the Bosnia-Serbian war presents a great example in which this theory stands out as the leading school of thought especially among the soldiers (Fairchild and Rudman 347).
Structural rooting of gender violence in the society plays a vital role in the culture and bearing of women roles in the society. In order to develop a society devoid of gender violence, the change towards equality and equity among the gender remains overdue. Gender empowering and creation of social cultures that appreciate the role and differences in the gender act as a basis for stemming out gender violence (Bronstein 71). In times of war and conflict, human rights and social activists need highly developed systems of monitoring the military activities taking place in the refugee camps to ensure protection of women and vulnerable person living in the camps. Structural and cultural violence towards women remains evident in many societies. Inequalities and discrimination against women in the education, employment, and leadership opportunities presents an ample environment increased violence and gender disparities. Given the patriarchal nature of many societies, there is need for sensitized women focused development to stem out the culture of discrimination. Developing and in depth understanding of the root drivers of gender and violence against women offer the opportunities for unmasking the gruesome patriarchal structures which encourage women victimization (Schumacher and Slep 235). In the objectification theory, scholars need to develop adequate points against such a school of thought and encourage women to embrace their dignity and live in equality with the male counterparts. Offering women equal opportunities with the male counterparts improves their abilities to withstand violence and the traumatic problems associated with war and effects of war. In the social empowerment and capacity building perspective, women need to develop sustainable income earning activities to reduce overdependence on their male counterparts. Economic independence offers basis for social independence thus reducing vulnerability of women during war (Smolak and Murnen 510). As some organization and international non-governmental organization continue to develop women empowerment programs through community groups’ investment and small business enterprises, there remains a need for improved funding of women empowerment initiates to reduce the level of women dependency on male earnings.
Andrijasevic, Rutvica. “Beautiful Dead Bodies: Gender, Migration And Representation In Anti-trafficking Campaigns.” Feminist Review 86 (2007): 24-44. Palgrave Macmillan . Web. Bronstein, Carolyn. Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, 1976-1986 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print. Dang, Nguyen, and Chanthawanit Suphang. Uprooting People for Their Own Good?: Human Displacement, Resettlement and Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region . Hanoi: Social Sciences Pub. House, 2004. Print. Downie, Pamela. “Two Stories of Migrant Sex Work, Cross Border Movement and Violence.” Canadian Women Studies 25.2 (2006): 61-66. Print. Dudley, Michael, Derrick Silove, and Fran Gale. Mental Health and Human Rights: Vision, Praxis, and Courage . Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. Print. Fairchild, Kimberly, and Laurie Rudman. “Everyday Stranger Harassment and Women’s Objectification.” Social Justice Research 21.3 (2008): 338-357. Print. Gallagher, Tom. The Balkans in the New Millennium: In the Shadow of War and Peace . London: Routledge, 2005. Print. Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita Simon. Human Trafficking Around the World: Hidden in Plain Sight . New York: Columbia University press, 2013. Print. Kourvetaris, George. “Ethnonationalism and subnationalism: The case of former Yugoslavia.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 24.2 (1996): 163. Print. Marchak, Patricia. No Easy Fix: Global Responses to Internal Wars and Crimes against Humanity . Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2008. Print. Schumacher, Julie, and Amy Slep. “Attitudes and Dating Aggression: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach.” Prevention Science 5.4 (2004): 231-243. Print. Smock, David R. Teaching About the Religious Other . Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2005. Print. Smolak, Linda, and Sarah Murnen. “Gender, Self-Objectification and Pubic Hair Removal.” Sex Roles 65.7/8 (2011): 506-517. Print. Tepfenhart, Mariana. “The Causes of Ethnic Conflicts.” Comparative Civilizations Review 68.2 (2013): 84-97. Print. Vlachova, Marie, and Lea Biason. Making the World a More Secure Place: Combating Violence against Women . Geneva: DCAF, 2004. Print. Wilson, John, Matthew Friedman, and Jacob Lindy. Treating Psychological Trauma and Ptsd . New York: Guilford Press, 2001. Print. Yakushko, Oksana, Megan Watson, and Sarah Thompson. “Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling.” International Journal for The Advancement of Counselling 30.3 (2008): 167-178. Print.
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Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2018)
Chapter: 7 findings, conclusions, and recommendations, 7 findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
Preventing and effectively addressing sexual harassment of women in colleges and universities is a significant challenge, but we are optimistic that academic institutions can meet that challenge—if they demonstrate the will to do so. This is because the research shows what will work to prevent sexual harassment and why it will work. A systemwide change to the culture and climate in our nation’s colleges and universities can stop the pattern of harassing behavior from impacting the next generation of women entering science, engineering, and medicine.
Changing the current culture and climate requires addressing all forms of sexual harassment, not just the most egregious cases; moving beyond legal compliance; supporting targets when they come forward; improving transparency and accountability; diffusing the power structure between faculty and trainees; and revising organizational systems and structures to value diversity, inclusion, and respect. Leaders at every level within academia will be needed to initiate these changes and to establish and maintain the culture and norms. However, to succeed in making these changes, all members of our nation’s college campuses—students, faculty, staff, and administrators—will need to assume responsibility for promoting a civil and respectful environment. It is everyone’s responsibility to stop sexual harassment.
In this spirit of optimism, we offer the following compilation of the report’s findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
Chapter 2: sexual harassment research.
- Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination that consists of three types of harassing behavior: (1) gender harassment (verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey hostility, objectification, exclusion, or second-class status about members of one gender); (2) unwanted sexual attention (unwelcome verbal or physical sexual advances, which can include assault); and (3) sexual coercion (when favorable professional or educational treatment is conditioned on sexual activity). The distinctions between the types of harassment are important, particularly because many people do not realize that gender harassment is a form of sexual harassment.
- Sexually harassing behavior can be either direct (targeted at an individual) or ambient (a general level of sexual harassment in an environment) and is harmful in both cases. It is considered illegal when it creates a hostile environment (gender harassment or unwanted sexual attention that is “severe or pervasive” enough to alter the conditions of employment, interfere with one’s work performance, or impede one’s ability to get an education) or when it is quid pro quo sexual harassment (when favorable professional or educational treatment is conditioned on sexual activity).
- There are reliable scientific methods for determining the prevalence of sexual harassment. To measure the incidence of sexual harassment, surveys should follow the best practices that have emerged from the science of sexual harassment. This includes use of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire, the most widely used and well-validated instrument available for measuring sexual harassment; assessment of specific behaviors without requiring the respondent to label the behaviors “sexual harassment”; focus on first-hand experience or observation of behavior (rather than rumor or hearsay); and focus on the recent past (1–2 years, to avoid problems of memory decay). Relying on the number of official reports of sexual harassment made to an organization is not an accurate method for determining the prevalence.
- Some surveys underreport the incidence of sexual harassment because they have not followed standard and valid practices for survey research and sexual harassment research.
- While properly conducted surveys are the best methods for estimating the prevalence of sexual harassment, other salient aspects of sexual harassment and its consequences can be examined using other research methods , such as behavioral laboratory experiments, interviews, case studies, ethnographies, and legal research. Such studies can provide information about the presence and nature of sexually harassing behavior in an organization, how it develops and continues (and influences the organizational climate), and how it attenuates or amplifies outcomes from sexual harassment.
- Women experience sexual harassment more often than men do.
- Gender harassment (e.g., behaviors that communicate that women do not belong or do not merit respect) is by far the most common type of sexual harassment. When an environment is pervaded by gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion become more likely to occur—in part because unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion are almost never experienced by women without simultaneously experiencing gender harassment.
- Men are more likely than women to commit sexual harassment.
- Coworkers and peers more often commit sexual harassment than do superiors.
- Sexually harassing behaviors are not typically isolated incidents; rather, they are a series or pattern of sometimes escalating incidents and behaviors.
- Women of color experience more harassment (sexual, racial/ethnic, or combination of the two) than white women, white men, and men of color do. Women of color often experience sexual harassment that includes racial harassment.
- Sexual- and gender-minority people experience more sexual harassment than heterosexual women do.
- The two characteristics of environments most associated with higher rates of sexual harassment are (a) male-dominated gender ratios and leadership and (b) an organizational climate that communicates tolerance of sexual harassment (e.g., leadership that fails to take complaints seriously, fails to sanction perpetrators, or fails to protect complainants from retaliation).
- Organizational climate is, by far, the greatest predictor of the occurrence of sexual harassment, and ameliorating it can prevent people from sexually harassing others. A person more likely to engage in harassing behaviors is significantly less likely to do so in an environment that does not support harassing behaviors and/or has strong, clear, transparent consequences for these behaviors.
Chapter 3: Sexual Harassment in Academic Science, Engineering, and Medicine
- Male-dominated environment , with men in positions of power and authority.
- Organizational tolerance for sexually harassing behavior (e.g., failing to take complaints seriously, failing to sanction perpetrators, or failing to protect complainants from retaliation).
- Hierarchical and dependent relationships between faculty and their trainees (e.g., students, postdoctoral fellows, residents).
- Isolating environments (e.g., labs, field sites, and hospitals) in which faculty and trainees spend considerable time.
- Greater than 50 percent of women faculty and staff and 20–50 percent of women students encounter or experience sexually harassing conduct in academia.
- Women students in academic medicine experience more frequent gender harassment perpetrated by faculty/staff than women students in science and engineering.
- Women students/trainees encounter or experience sexual harassment perpetrated by faculty/staff and also by other students/trainees.
- Women faculty encounter or experience sexual harassment perpetrated by other faculty/staff and also by students/trainees.
- Women students, trainees, and faculty in academic medical centers experience sexual harassment by patients and patients’ families in addition to the harassment they experience from colleagues and those in leadership positions.
Chapter 4: Outcomes of Sexual Harassment
- When women experience sexual harassment in the workplace, the professional outcomes include declines in job satisfaction; withdrawal from their organization (i.e., distancing themselves from the work either physically or mentally without actually quitting, having thoughts or
intentions of leaving their job, and actually leaving their job); declines in organizational commitment (i.e., feeling disillusioned or angry with the organization); increases in job stress; and declines in productivity or performance.
- When students experience sexual harassment, the educational outcomes include declines in motivation to attend class, greater truancy, dropping classes, paying less attention in class, receiving lower grades, changing advisors, changing majors, and transferring to another educational institution, or dropping out.
- Gender harassment has adverse effects. Gender harassment that is severe or occurs frequently over a period of time can result in the same level of negative professional and psychological outcomes as isolated instances of sexual coercion. Gender harassment, often considered a “lesser,” more inconsequential form of sexual harassment, cannot be dismissed when present in an organization.
- The greater the frequency, intensity, and duration of sexually harassing behaviors, the more women report symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety, and generally negative effects on psychological well-being.
- The more women are sexually harassed in an environment, the more they think about leaving, and end up leaving as a result of the sexual harassment.
- The more power a perpetrator has over the target, the greater the impacts and negative consequences experienced by the target.
- For women of color, preliminary research shows that when the sexual harassment occurs simultaneously with other types of harassment (i.e., racial harassment), the experiences can have more severe consequences for them.
- Sexual harassment has adverse effects that affect not only the targets of harassment but also bystanders, coworkers, workgroups, and entire organizations.
- Women cope with sexual harassment in a variety of ways, most often by ignoring or appeasing the harasser and seeking social support.
- The least common response for women is to formally report the sexually harassing experience. For many, this is due to an accurate perception that they may experience retaliation or other negative outcomes associated with their personal and professional lives.
- The dependence on advisors and mentors for career advancement.
- The system of meritocracy that does not account for the declines in productivity and morale as a result of sexual harassment.
- The “macho” culture in some fields.
- The informal communication network , in which rumors and accusations are spread within and across specialized programs and fields.
- The cumulative effect of sexual harassment is significant damage to research integrity and a costly loss of talent in academic science, engineering, and medicine. Women faculty in science, engineering, and medicine who experience sexual harassment report three common professional outcomes: stepping down from leadership opportunities to avoid the perpetrator, leaving their institution, and leaving their field altogether.
Chapter 5: Existing Legal and Policy Mechanisms for Addressing Sexual Harassment
- An overly legalistic approach to the problem of sexual harassment is likely to misjudge the true nature and scope of the problem. Sexual harassment law and policy development has focused narrowly on the sexualized and coercive forms of sexual harassment, not on the gender harassment type that research has identified as much more prevalent and at times equally harmful.
- Much of the sexual harassment that women experience and that damages women and their careers in science, engineering, and medicine does not meet the legal criteria of illegal discrimination under current law.
- Private entities, such as companies and private universities, are legally allowed to keep their internal policies and procedures—and their research on those policies and procedures—confidential, thereby limiting the research that can be done on effective policies for preventing and handling sexual harassment.
- Various legal policies, and the interpretation of such policies, enable academic institutions to maintain secrecy and/or confidentiality regarding outcomes of sexual harassment investigations, arbitration, and settlement agreements. Colleagues may also hesitate to warn one another about sexual harassment concerns in the hiring or promotion context out of fear of legal repercussions (i.e., being sued for defamation and/or discrimination). This lack of transparency in the adjudication process within organizations can cover up sexual harassment perpetrated by repeat or serial harassers. This creates additional barriers to researchers
and others studying harassment claims and outcomes, and is also a barrier to determining the effectiveness of policies and procedures.
- Title IX, Title VII, and case law reflect the inaccurate assumption that a target of sexual harassment will promptly report the harassment without worrying about retaliation. Effectively addressing sexual harassment through the law, institutional policies or procedures, or cultural change requires taking into account that targets of sexual harassment are unlikely to report harassment and often face retaliation for reporting (despite this being illegal).
- Fears of legal liability may prevent institutions from being willing to effectively evaluate training for its measurable impact on reducing harassment. Educating employees via sexual harassment training is commonly implemented as a central component of demonstrating to courts that institutions have “exercised reasonable care to prevent and correct promptly any sexually harassing behavior.” However, research has not demonstrated that such training prevents sexual harassment. Thus, if institutions evaluated their training programs, they would likely find them to be ineffective, which, in turn, could raise fears within institutions of their risk for liability because they would then knowingly not be exercising reasonable care.
- Holding individuals and institutions responsible for sexual harassment and demonstrating that sexual harassment is a serious issue requires U.S. federal funding agencies to be aware when principal investigators, co-principal investigators, and grant personnel have violated sexual harassment policies. It is unclear whether and how federal agencies will take action beyond the requirements of Title IX and Title VII to ensure that federal grants, composed of taxpayers’ dollars, are not supporting research, academic institutions, or programs in which sexual harassment is ongoing and not being addressed. Federal science agencies usually indicate (e.g., in requests for proposals or other announcements) that they have a “no-tolerance” policy for sexual harassment. In general, federal agencies rely on the grantee institutions to investigate and follow through on Title IX violations. By not assessing and addressing the role of institutions and professional organizations in enabling individual sexual harassers, federal agencies may be perpetuating the problem of sexual harassment.
- To address the effect sexual harassment has on the integrity of research, parts of the federal government and several professional societies are beginning to focus more broadly on policies about research integrity and on codes of ethics rather than on the narrow definition of research misconduct. A powerful incentive for change may be missed if sexual harassment is not considered equally important as research misconduct, in terms of its effect on the integrity of research.
Chapter 6: Changing the Culture and Climate in Higher Education
- A systemwide change to the culture and climate in higher education is required to prevent and effectively address all three forms of sexual harassment. Despite significant attention in recent years, there is no evidence to suggest that current policies, procedures, and approaches have resulted in a significant reduction in sexual harassment. It is time to consider approaches that address the systems, cultures, and climates that enable sexual harassment to perpetuate.
- Strong and effective leaders at all levels in the organization are required to make the systemwide changes to climate and culture in higher education. The leadership of the organization—at every level—plays a significant role in establishing and maintaining an organization’s culture and norms. However, leaders in academic institutions rarely have leadership training to thoughtfully address culture and climate issues, and the leadership training that exists is often of poor quality.
- Evidence-based, effective intervention strategies are available for enhancing gender diversity in hiring practices.
- Focusing evaluation and reward structures on cooperation and collegiality rather than solely on individual-level teaching and research performance metrics could have a significant impact on improving the environment in academia.
- Evidence-based, effective intervention strategies are available for raising levels of interpersonal civility and respect in workgroups and teams.
- An organization that is committed to improving organizational climate must address issues of bias in academia. Training to reduce personal bias can cause larger-scale changes in departmental behaviors in an academic setting.
- Skills-based training that centers on bystander intervention promotes a culture of support, not one of silence. By calling out negative behaviors on the spot, all members of an academic community are helping to create a culture where abusive behavior is seen as an aberration, not as the norm.
- Reducing hierarchical power structures and diffusing power more broadly among faculty and trainees can reduce the risk of sexual ha
rassment. Departments and institutions could take the following approaches for diffusing power:
- Make use of egalitarian leadership styles that recognize that people at all levels of experience and expertise have important insights to offer.
- Adopt mentoring networks or committee-based advising that allows for a diversity of potential pathways for advice, funding, support, and informal reporting of harassment.
- Develop ways the research funding can be provided to the trainee rather than just the principal investigator.
- Take on the responsibility for preserving the potential work of the research team and trainees by redistributing the funding if a principal investigator cannot continue the work because he/she has created a climate that fosters sexual harassment and guaranteeing funding to trainees if the institution or a funder pulls funding from the principal investigator because of sexual harassment.
- Orienting students, trainees, faculty, and staff, at all levels, to the academic institution’s culture and its policies and procedures for handling sexual harassment can be an important piece of establishing a climate that demonstrates sexual harassment is not tolerated and targets will be supported.
- Institutions could build systems of response that empower targets by providing alternative and less formal means of accessing support services, recording information, and reporting incidents without fear of retaliation.
- Supporting student targets also includes helping them to manage their education and training over the long term.
- Confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements isolate sexual harassment targets by limiting their ability to speak with others about their experiences and can serve to shield perpetrators who have harassed people repeatedly.
- Key components of clear anti-harassment policies are that they are quickly and easily digested (i.e., using one-page flyers or infographics and not in legally dense language) and that they clearly state that people will be held accountable for violating the policy.
- A range of progressive/escalating disciplinary consequences (such as counseling, changes in work responsibilities, reductions in pay/benefits, and suspension or dismissal) that corresponds to the severity and frequency of the misconduct has the potential of correcting behavior before it escalates and without significantly disrupting an academic program.
- In an effort to change behavior and improve the climate, it may also be appropriate for institutions to undertake some rehabilitation-focused measures, even though these may not be sanctions per se.
- For the people in an institution to understand that the institution does not tolerate sexual harassment, it must show that it does investigate and then hold perpetrators accountable in a reasonable timeframe. Institutions can anonymize the basic information and provide regular reports that convey how many reports are being investigated and what the outcomes are from the investigation.
- An approach for improving transparency and demonstrating that the institution takes sexual harassment seriously is to encourage internal review of its policies, procedures, and interventions for addressing sexual harassment, and to have interactive dialogues with members of their campus community (especially expert researchers on these topics) around ways to improve the culture and climate and change behavior.
- Cater training to specific populations; in academia this would include students, postdoctoral fellows, staff, faculty, and those in leadership.
- Attend to the institutional motivation for training , which can impact the effectiveness of the training; for instance, compliance-based approaches have limited positive impact.
- Conduct training using live qualified trainers and offer trainees specific examples of inappropriate conduct. We note that a great deal of sexual harassment training today is offered via an online mini-course or the viewing of a short video.
- Describe standards of behavior clearly and accessibly (e.g., avoiding legal and technical terms).
- To the extent that the training literature provides broad guidelines for creating impactful training that can change climate and behavior, they include the following:
- Establish standards of behavior rather than solely seek to influence attitudes and beliefs. Clear communication of behavioral expectations, and teaching of behavioral skills, is essential.
- Conduct training in adherence to best standards , including appropriate pre-training needs assessment and evaluation of its effectiveness.
- Creating a climate that prevents sexual harassment requires measuring the climate in relation to sexual harassment, diversity, and respect, and assessing progress in reducing sexual harassment.
- Efforts to incentivize systemwide changes, such as Athena SWAN, 1 are crucial to motivating organizations and departments within organizations to make the necessary changes.
- Enacting new codes of conduct and new rules related specifically to conference attendance.
- Including sexual harassment in codes of ethics and investigating reports of sexual harassment. (This is a new responsibility for professional societies, and these organizations are considering how to take into consideration the law, home institutions, due process, and careful reporting when dealing with reports of sexual harassment.)
- Requiring members to acknowledge, in writing, the professional society’s rules and codes of conduct relating to sexual harassment during conference registration and during membership sign-up and renewal.
- Supporting and designing programs that prevent harassment and provide skills to intervene when someone is being harassed.
- Strengthening statements on sexual harassment, bullying, and discrimination in professional societies’ codes of conduct, with a few defining it as research misconduct.
- Factoring in harassment-related professional misconduct into scientific award decisions.
- Professional societies have the potential to be powerful drivers of change through their capacity to help educate, train, codify, and reinforce cultural expectations for their respective scientific, engineering, and medical communities. Some professional societies have taken action to prevent and respond to sexual harassment among their membership. Although each professional society has taken a slightly different approach to addressing sexual harassment, there are some shared approaches, including the following:
1 Athena SWAN (Scientific Women’s Academic Network). See https://www.ecu.ac.uk/equalitycharters/athena-swan/ .
- There are many promising approaches to changing the culture and climate in academia; however, further research assessing the effects and values of the following approaches is needed to identify best practices:
- Policies, procedures, trainings, and interventions, specifically how they prevent and stop sexually harassing behavior, alter perception of organizational tolerance for sexually harassing behavior, and reduce the negative consequences from reporting the incidents. This includes informal and formal reporting mechanisms, bystander intervention training, academic leadership training, sexual harassment training, interventions to improve civility, mandatory reporting requirements, and approaches to supporting and improving communication with the target.
- Mechanisms for target-led resolution options and mechanisms by which the target has a role in deciding what happens to the perpetrator, including restorative justice practices.
- Mechanisms for protecting targets from retaliation.
- Rehabilitation-focused measures for disciplining perpetrators.
- Incentive systems for encouraging leaders in higher education to address the issues of sexual harassment on campus.
RECOMMENDATION 1: Create diverse, inclusive, and respectful environments.
- Academic institutions and their leaders should take explicit steps to achieve greater gender and racial equity in hiring and promotions, and thus improve the representation of women at every level.
- Academic institutions and their leaders should take steps to foster greater cooperation, respectful work behavior, and professionalism at the faculty, staff, and student/trainee levels, and should evaluate faculty and staff on these criteria in hiring and promotion.
- Academic institutions should combine anti-harassment efforts with civility-promotion programs.
- Academic institutions should cater their training to specific populations (in academia these should include students/trainees, staff, faculty, and those in leadership) and should follow best practices in designing training programs. Training should be viewed as the means of providing the skills needed by all members of the academic community, each of whom has a role to play in building a positive organizational climate focused on safety and respect, and not simply as a method of ensuring compliance with laws.
- Academic institutions should utilize training approaches that develop skills among participants to interrupt and intervene when inappropriate behavior occurs. These training programs should be evaluated to deter
mine whether they are effective and what aspects of the training are most important to changing culture.
- Anti–sexual harassment training programs should focus on changing behavior, not on changing beliefs. Programs should focus on clearly communicating behavioral expectations, specifying consequences for failing to meet these expectations, and identifying the mechanisms to be utilized when these expectations are not met. Training programs should not be based on the avoidance of legal liability.
RECOMMENDATION 2: Address the most common form of sexual harassment: gender harassment.
Leaders in academic institutions and research and training sites should pay increased attention to and enact policies that cover gender harassment as a means of addressing the most common form of sexual harassment and of preventing other types of sexually harassing behavior.
RECOMMENDATION 3: Move beyond legal compliance to address culture and climate.
Academic institutions, research and training sites, and federal agencies should move beyond interventions or policies that represent basic legal compliance and that rely solely on formal reports made by targets. Sexual harassment needs to be addressed as a significant culture and climate issue that requires institutional leaders to engage with and listen to students and other campus community members.
RECOMMENDATION 4: Improve transparency and accountability.
- Academic institutions need to develop—and readily share—clear, accessible, and consistent policies on sexual harassment and standards of behavior. They should include a range of clearly stated, appropriate, and escalating disciplinary consequences for perpetrators found to have violated sexual harassment policy and/or law. The disciplinary actions taken should correspond to the severity and frequency of the harassment. The disciplinary actions should not be something that is often considered a benefit for faculty, such as a reduction in teaching load or time away from campus service responsibilities. Decisions regarding disciplinary actions, if indicated or required, should be made in a fair and timely way following an investigative process that is fair to all sides. 2
- Academic institutions should be as transparent as possible about how they are handling reports of sexual harassment. This requires balancing issues of confidentiality with issues of transparency. Annual reports,
2 Further detail on processes and guidance for how to fairly and appropriately investigate and adjudicate these issues are not provided because they are complex issues that were beyond the scope of this study.
that provide information on (1) how many and what type of policy violations have been reported (both informally and formally), (2) how many reports are currently under investigation, and (3) how many have been adjudicated, along with general descriptions of any disciplinary actions taken, should be shared with the entire academic community: students, trainees, faculty, administrators, staff, alumni, and funders. At the very least, the results of the investigation and any disciplinary action should be shared with the target(s) and/or the person(s) who reported the behavior.
- Academic institutions should be accountable for the climate within their organization. In particular, they should utilize climate surveys to further investigate and address systemic sexual harassment, particularly when surveys indicate specific schools or facilities have high rates of harassment or chronically fail to reduce rates of sexual harassment.
- Academic institutions should consider sexual harassment equally important as research misconduct in terms of its effect on the integrity of research. They should increase collaboration among offices that oversee the integrity of research (i.e., those that cover ethics, research misconduct, diversity, and harassment issues); centralize resources, information, and expertise; provide more resources for handling complaints and working with targets; and implement sanctions on researchers found guilty of sexual harassment.
RECOMMENDATION 5: Diffuse the hierarchical and dependent relationship between trainees and faculty.
Academic institutions should consider power-diffusion mechanisms (i.e., mentoring networks or committee-based advising and departmental funding rather than funding only from a principal investigator) to reduce the risk of sexual harassment.
RECOMMENDATION 6: Provide support for the target.
Academic institutions should convey that reporting sexual harassment is an honorable and courageous action. Regardless of a target filing a formal report, academic institutions should provide means of accessing support services (social services, health care, legal, career/professional). They should provide alternative and less formal means of recording information about the experience and reporting the experience if the target is not comfortable filing a formal report. Academic institutions should develop approaches to prevent the target from experiencing or fearing retaliation in academic settings.
RECOMMENDATION 7: Strive for strong and diverse leadership.
- College and university presidents, provosts, deans, department chairs, and program directors must make the reduction and prevention of sexual
harassment an explicit goal of their tenure. They should publicly state that the reduction and prevention of sexual harassment will be among their highest priorities, and they should engage students, faculty, and staff (and, where appropriate, the local community) in their efforts.
- Academic institutions should support and facilitate leaders at every level (university, school/college, department, lab) in developing skills in leadership, conflict resolution, mediation, negotiation, and de-escalation, and should ensure a clear understanding of policies and procedures for handling sexual harassment issues. Additionally, these skills development programs should be customized to each level of leadership.
- Leadership training programs for those in academia should include training on how to recognize and handle sexual harassment issues, and how to take explicit steps to create a culture and climate to reduce and prevent sexual harassment—and not just protect the institution against liability.
RECOMMENDATION 8: Measure progress.
Academic institutions should work with researchers to evaluate and assess their efforts to create a more diverse, inclusive, and respectful environment, and to create effective policies, procedures, and training programs. They should not rely on formal reports by targets for an understanding of sexual harassment on their campus.
- When organizations study sexual harassment, they should follow the valid methodologies established by social science research on sexual harassment and should consult subject-matter experts. Surveys that attempt to ascertain the prevalence and types of harassment experienced by individuals should adopt the following practices: ensure confidentiality, use validated behavioral instruments such as the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire, and avoid specifically using the term “sexual harassment” in any survey or questionnaire.
- Academic institutions should also conduct more wide-ranging assessments using measures in addition to campus climate surveys, for example, ethnography, focus groups, and exit interviews. These methods are especially important in smaller organizational units where surveys, which require more participants to yield meaningful data, might not be useful.
- Organizations studying sexual harassment in their environments should take into consideration the particular experiences of people of color and sexual- and gender-minority people, and they should utilize methods that allow them to disaggregate their data by race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity to reveal the different experiences across populations.
- The results of climate surveys should be shared publicly to encourage transparency and accountability and to demonstrate to the campus community that the institution takes the issue seriously. One option would be for academic institutions to collaborate in developing a central repository for reporting their climate data, which could also improve the ability for research to be conducted on the effectiveness of institutional approaches.
- Federal agencies and foundations should commit resources to develop a tool similar to ARC3, the Administrator-Researcher Campus Climate Collaborative, to understand and track the climate for faculty, staff, and postdoctoral fellows.
RECOMMENDATION 9: Incentivize change.
- Academic institutions should work to apply for awards from the emerging STEM Equity Achievement (SEA Change) program. 3 Federal agencies and private foundations should encourage and support academic institutions working to achieve SEA Change awards.
- Accreditation bodies should consider efforts to create diverse, inclusive, and respectful environments when evaluating institutions or departments.
- Federal agencies should incentivize efforts to reduce sexual harassment in academia by requiring evaluations of the research environment, funding research and evaluation of training for students and faculty (including bystander intervention), supporting the development and evaluation of leadership training for faculty, and funding research on effective policies and procedures.
RECOMMENDATION 10: Encourage involvement of professional societies and other organizations.
- Professional societies should accelerate their efforts to be viewed as organizations that are helping to create culture changes that reduce or prevent the occurrence of sexual harassment. They should provide support and guidance for members who have been targets of sexual harassment. They should use their influence to address sexual harassment in the scientific, medical, and engineering communities they represent and promote a professional culture of civility and respect. The efforts of the American Geophysical Union are especially exemplary and should be considered as a model for other professional societies to follow.
- Other organizations that facilitate the research and training of people in science, engineering, and medicine, such as collaborative field sites (i.e., national labs and observatories), should establish standards of behavior
3 See https://www.aaas.org/news/sea-change-program-aims-transform-diversity-efforts-stem .
and set policies, procedures, and practices similar to those recommended for academic institutions and following the examples of professional societies. They should hold people accountable for their behaviors while at their facility regardless of the person’s institutional affiliation (just as some professional societies are doing).
RECOMMENDATION 11: Initiate legislative action.
State legislatures and Congress should consider new and additional legislation with the following goals:
- Better protecting sexual harassment claimants from retaliation.
- Prohibiting confidentiality in settlement agreements that currently enable harassers to move to another institution and conceal past adjudications.
- Banning mandatory arbitration clauses for discrimination claims.
- Allowing lawsuits to be filed against alleged harassers directly (instead of or in addition to their academic employers).
- Requiring institutions receiving federal funds to publicly disclose results from campus climate surveys and/or the number of sexual harassment reports made to campuses.
- Requesting the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health devote research funds to doing a follow-up analysis on the topic of sexual harassment in science, engineering, and medicine in 3 to 5 years to determine (1) whether research has shown that the prevalence of sexual harassment has decreased, (2) whether progress has been made on implementing these recommendations, and (3) where to focus future efforts.
RECOMMENDATION 12: Address the failures to meaningfully enforce Title VII’s prohibition on sex discrimination.
- Judges, academic institutions (including faculty, staff, and leaders in academia), and administrative agencies should rely on scientific evidence about the behavior of targets and perpetrators of sexual harassment when assessing both institutional compliance with the law and the merits of individual claims.
- Federal judges should take into account demonstrated effectiveness of anti-harassment policies and practices such as trainings, and not just their existence , for use of an affirmative defense against a sexual harassment claim under Title VII.
RECOMMENDATION 13: Increase federal agency action and collaboration.
Federal agencies should do the following:
- Increase support for research and evaluation of the effectiveness of policies, procedures, and training on sexual harassment.
- Attend to sexual harassment with at least the same level of attention and resources as devoted to research misconduct. They should increase collaboration among offices that oversee the integrity of research (i.e., those that cover ethics, research misconduct, diversity, and harassment issues); centralize resources, information, and expertise; provide more resources for handling complaints and working with targets; and implement sanctions on researchers found guilty of sexual harassment.
- Require institutions to report to federal agencies when individuals on grants have been found to have violated sexual harassment policies or have been put on administrative leave related to sexual harassment, as the National Science Foundation has proposed doing. Agencies should also hold accountable the perpetrator and the institution by using a range of disciplinary actions that limit the negative effects on other grant personnel who were either the target of the harassing behavior or innocent bystanders.
- Reward and incentivize colleges and universities for implementing policies, programs, and strategies that research shows are most likely to and are succeeding in reducing and preventing sexual harassment.
RECOMMENDATION 14: Conduct necessary research.
Funders should support the following research:
- The sexual harassment experiences of women in underrepresented and/or vulnerable groups, including women of color, disabled women, immigrant women, sexual- and gender-minority women, postdoctoral trainees, and others.
- Policies, procedures, trainings, and interventions, specifically their ability to prevent and stop sexually harassing behavior, to alter perception of organizational tolerance for sexually harassing behavior, and to reduce the negative consequences from reporting the incidents. This should include research on informal and formal reporting mechanisms, bystander intervention training, academic leadership training, sexual harassment and diversity training, interventions to improve civility, mandatory reporting requirements, and approaches to supporting and improving communication with the target.
- Approaches for mitigating the negative impacts and outcomes that targets experience.
- The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment within specific fields in
science, engineering, and medicine and that follows good practices for sexual harassment surveys.
- The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment perpetrated by students on faculty.
- The amount of sexual harassment that serial harassers are responsible for.
- The prevalence and effect of ambient harassment in the academic setting.
- The connections between consensual relationships and sexual harassment.
- Psychological characteristics that increase the risk of perpetrating different forms of sexually harassing behaviors.
RECOMMENDATION 15: Make the entire academic community responsible for reducing and preventing sexual harassment.
All members of our nation’s college campuses—students, trainees, faculty, staff, and administrators—as well as members of research and training sites should assume responsibility for promoting civil and respectful education, training, and work environments, and stepping up and confronting those whose behaviors and actions create sexually harassing environments.
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Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation of women, has improved and there are significantly more women entering careers and studying science, engineering, and medicine than ever before. However, as women increasingly enter these fields they face biases and barriers and it is not surprising that sexual harassment is one of these barriers.
Over thirty years the incidence of sexual harassment in different industries has held steady, yet now more women are in the workforce and in academia, and in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine (as students and faculty) and so more women are experiencing sexual harassment as they work and learn. Over the last several years, revelations of the sexual harassment experienced by women in the workplace and in academic settings have raised urgent questions about the specific impact of this discriminatory behavior on women and the extent to which it is limiting their careers.
Sexual Harassment of Women explores the influence of sexual harassment in academia on the career advancement of women in the scientific, technical, and medical workforce. This report reviews the research on the extent to which women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine are victimized by sexual harassment and examines the existing information on the extent to which sexual harassment in academia negatively impacts the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women pursuing scientific, engineering, technical, and medical careers. It also identifies and analyzes the policies, strategies and practices that have been the most successful in preventing and addressing sexual harassment in these settings.
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