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Rehabilitation in Sport
Original Editor - Elvira Muhic
Top Contributors - Elvira Muhic , Kim Jackson , Philans Cosmos Ankrah , Evan Thomas , Naomi O'Reilly , Wanda van Niekerk , Claire Knott , WikiSysop , Michelle Lee , Amrita Patro , Jess Bell and Rishika Babburu
- 1.1 Rehabilitation Plan
- 1.2 Multidisciplinary Approach
- 2 Principles
- 3.1 Pain Management
- 3.2 Flexibility and Joint ROM
- 3.3 Strength and Endurance
- 3.4 Proprioception and Coordination
- 3.5 Functional Rehabilitation
- 3.6 The use of Orthotics
- 3.7 Psychology of Injury
- 4.1.1 Control pain and swelling 
- 4.2.1 Joint ROM and Muscle Conditioning 
- 4.3.1 Functional Training
- 4.4 Return to Sport
- 5 Monitoring
- 6 References
Introduction [ edit | edit source ]
Rehabilitation is the restoration of optimal form (anatomy) and function (physiology). 
Musculoskeletal injuries can have immediate and significant detrimental effects on function  . When an individual experiences or is likely to experience limitations in everyday functioning due to ageing or a health condition, including chronic diseases or disorders, injuries or traumas, a set of interventions is needed. "Rehabilitation enables individuals of all ages to maintain or return to their daily life activities, fulfill meaningful life roles and maximize their well-being"  .
The noun rehabilitation comes from the Latin prefix re- , meaning “again” and habitare , meaning “make fit”. It is important to identify rehabilitation as a process targeted at minimising the loss associated with acute injury or chronic disease, to promote recovery, and to maximise functional capacity, fitness and performance   .
Recreational physical activities and competitive athletics account for a significant number of injuries  . Musculoskeletal injuries are therefore an inevitable result of sport participation. Football has the highest incidence of catastrophic injuries  , with gymnastics and ice hockey close behind. Tissue injury from sports can be classified as macro-traumatic and micro-traumatic. 
- Macro-traumatic injuries are usually due to a strong force – such as a fall, accident, collision or laceration – and are more common in contact sports such as football and rugby. These injuries can be primary (due to direct tissue damage) or secondary (due to transmission of forces or release of inflammatory mediators and other cytokines). 
- Micro-traumatic injuries are chronic injuries that result from overuse of a structure such as a muscle, joint, ligament, or tendon. This type of injury is more common in sports such as swimming, cycling and rowing. 
The process of rehabilitation should start as early as possible after an injury and form a continuum with other therapeutic interventions. It can also start before or immediately after surgery when an injury requires a surgical intervention. 
Rehabilitation Plan [ edit | edit source ]
The rehabilitation plan must take into account the fact that the objective of the patient (the athlete) is to return to the same activity and environment in which the injury occurred. Functional capacity after rehabilitation should be the same, if not better, than before injury. 
The ultimate goal of the rehabilitation process is to limit the extent of the injury, reduce or reverse the impairment and functional loss, and prevent, correct or eliminate altogether the disability. 
Multidisciplinary Approach [ edit | edit source ]
The rehabilitation of the injured athlete is managed by a multidisciplinary team with a physician functioning as the leader and coordinator of care. The team includes, but is not limited to, sports physicians, physiatrists (rehabilitation medicine practitioners), orthopaedists, physiotherapists, rehabilitation workers, physical educators, coaches, athletic trainers, psychologists, and nutritionists. The rehabilitation team works closely with the athlete and the coach to establish the rehabilitation goals, to discuss the progress resulting from the various interventions, and to establish the time frame for the return of the athletes to training and competition. 
Communication is a vital factor. A lack of communication between medical providers, strength and conditioning specialists and team coaches can slow or prevent athletes from returning to peak capability and increase the risk of new injuries and even more devastating re-injuries. 
Principles [ edit | edit source ]
Principles are the foundation upon which rehabilitation is based. Here are seven principles of rehabilitation, which can be remembered by the mnemonic: ATC IS IT . 
A: Avoid aggravation. It is important not to aggravate the injury during the rehabilitation process. Therapeutic exercise, if administered incorrectly or without good judgment, has the potential to exacerbate the injury. 
T: Timing. The therapeutic exercise portion of the rehabilitation program should begin as soon as possible—that is, as soon as it can occur without causing aggravation. The sooner patients can begin the exercise portion of the rehabilitation program, the sooner they can return to full activity. Following injury, rest is necessary, but too much rest can actually be detrimental to recovery.  Athletes can however rest the portion of the body that is actually injured and work the rest of the body - often referred to as “relative rest”  .
C: Compliance. Without a compliant patient, the rehabilitation program will not be successful. To ensure compliance, it is important to inform the patient of the content of the program and the expected course of rehabilitation.  Setting goals and including athletes in decision making works as a motivation factor to continue the rehabilitation process  . Thus goals working as a motivating factor, increases the effort to reach the goal, and thereby increases focus, endurance, and direction for the athletes to continue, which is an important part of rehabilitation after an injury  .
I: Individualization. Each person responds differently to an injury and to the subsequent rehabilitation program. Even though an injury may seem the same in type and severity as another, undetectable differences can change an individual’s response to it. Individual physiological and chemical differences profoundly affect a patient’s specific responses to an injury. 
S: Specific sequencing. A therapeutic exercise program should follow a specific sequence of events. This specific sequence is determined by the body’s physiological healing response. 
I: Intensity. The intensity level of the therapeutic exercise program must challenge the patient and the injured area but at the same time must not cause aggravation. Knowing when to increase intensity without overtaxing the injury requires observation of the patient’s response and consideration of the healing process. 
T: Total patient. Treating the Whole Patient.  It is important for the unaffected areas of the body to stay finely tuned. This means keeping the cardiovascular system at a pre-injury level and maintaining range of motion, strength, coordination, and muscle endurance of the uninjured limbs and joints. The whole body must be the focus of the rehabilitation program, not just the injured area. Providing the patient with a program to keep the uninvolved areas in peak condition, rather than just rehabilitating the injured area, will help to better prepare the patient physically and psychologically for when the injured area is completely rehabilitated. 
Components [ edit | edit source ]
Regardless of the specifics of the injury, however, here are fundamental components that need to be included in all successful rehabilitation programs:
Pain Management [ edit | edit source ]
Medications are a mainstay of treatment in the injured athlete - both for their pain relief and healing properties. It is recommended that they need to be used judiciously with a distinct regard for the risks and side effects as well as the potential benefits, which include pain relief and early return to play. Therapeutic modalities play a small but important part in the rehabilitation of sports injuries. They may help to decrease pain and oedema to allow an exercise-based rehabilitation programme to proceed. By understanding the physiological basis of these modalities, a safe and appropriate treatment choice can be made, but its effectiveness will ultimately depend upon the patient’s individualised and subjective response to treatment.  Massage therapy aims to relieve pain, control swelling, enhance performance and aid recovery  . Sports massage involves manipulation of soft tissue designed to assist in correcting problems and imbalances in soft tissue, that are caused from repetitive and strenuous physical activity and trauma  .
Flexibility and Joint ROM [ edit | edit source ]
Injury or surgery can result in decreased joint ROM mainly due to fibrosis and wound contraction.  Besides that, it is common for post-injury flexibility to be diminished as a result of muscle spasm, inflammation, swelling and pain. In addition to impacting the injured area, this also affects the joints above and below the problem, and creates motor pattern issues.  Flexibility training is an important component of rehabilitation in order to minimise the decrease in joint ROM. Also, a variety of stretching techniques can be used in improving range of motion, including PNF, ballistic stretching and static stretching. 
Strength and Endurance [ edit | edit source ]
Injuries to the musculoskeletal system could result in skeletal muscle hypotrophy and weakness, loss of aerobic capacity and fatigability. During rehabilitation after a sports injury it is important to try to maintain cardiovascular endurance. Thus regular bicycling, one-legged bicycling or arm cycling, an exercise programme in a pool using a wet vest or general major muscle exercise programmes with relatively high intensity and short rest periods (circuit weight training) can be of major importance. 
Proprioception and Coordination [ edit | edit source ]
Proprioception can be defined as ‘a special type of sensitivity that informs about the sensations of the deep organs and of the relationship between muscles and joints’.  Loss of proprioception occurs with injury to ligaments, tendons, or joints, and also with immobilisation.  Proprioceptive re-education has to get the muscular receptors working in order to provide a rapid motor response (Scott et al. 2000).  Restoration of proprioception is an important part of rehabilitation.  The treatment has to be adapted to each individual, considering the type of injury and the stress to which the athlete will be exposed when practising his or her sport. 
Coordination can be defined as ‘the capacity to perform movements in a smooth, precise and controlled manner’. Rehabilitation techniques increasingly refer to neuromuscular re-education. Improving coordination depends on repeating the positions and movements associated with different sports and correct training. It has to begin with simple activities, performed slowly and perfectly executed, gradually increasing in speed and complexity. The technician should make sure that the athlete performs these movements unconsciously, until they finally become automatic. 
Functional Rehabilitation [ edit | edit source ]
All rehabilitation programs must take into account, and reproduce, the activities and movements required when the athlete returns to the field post-injury.  The goal of function-based rehabilitation programmes is the return of the athlete to optimum athletic function. Optimal athletic function is the result of physiological motor activations creating specific biomechanical motions and positions using intact anatomical structures to generate forces and actions. 
The use of Orthotics [ edit | edit source ]
The use of orthotic devices to support musculoskeletal function and the correction of muscle imbalances and inflexibility in uninjured areas should receive the attention of the rehabilitation team.  Appropriate orthotic application will result in restraint forces that oppose an undesired motion (Kilmartin & Wallace 1994). A complete orthotic prescription should include the patient’s diagnosis, consider the type of footwear to be used, include the joints it encompasses and specify the desired biomechanical alignment, as well as the materials for fabrication. Communication with the orthotist, who will fabricate or fit the brace, is of utmost importance in order to obtain a good clinical result. 
Psychology of Injury [ edit | edit source ]
Injury is more than physical; that is, the athlete must be psychologically ready for the demands of his or her sport.  Sports Injuries do threaten athletes’ career and success and can end a career and have various consequences on athletes’ quality of life.  The most immediate emotional response at the point of injury is shock. Its degree may range from minor to significant, depending upon the severity of the injury. It is important to note that denial itself is an adaptive response that allows an individual to manage extreme emotional responses to situational stress.  Many individuals assist athletes through the recovery process and can foster psychological readiness, but they can also identify those who are physically recovered but require more time or intervention to be fully prepared to return to competition. Thus, rehabilitation and recovery are not purely physical but also psychological. 
When an athlete is injured, it does not affect his physical capabilities exclusively, but also contextual and psychological aspects. In fact, in given situations, injuries can deprive athletes of their compensation increasing life-stress, and determine fear to reinjury, sensation of loss, negative emotions, and other mood disturbances.   
Mental skills in sports are often viewed as part of an individual's personality and something that cannot be taught. Many physicians feel that injured athletes either have or do not have the mental toughness to progress through rehabilitation. Mental skills, however, can be learned. One example for this is to provide proper goal setting, which has a very important role in sports rehabilitation, because it can enhance recovery from injury. Goal setting needs to be measurable and stated in behavioural terms. The research indicates that goals should be challenging and difficult, yet attainable. It is important for physicians to help them focus on short-term goals as a means to attain long-term goals. For example, to set daily and weekly goals in rehabilitation process which will end in long-term goal like returning to play after an injury. It is important for sports medicine physicians to assist patients in setting goals related to performance process rather than outcomes, such as returning to play. 
Stages of Rehabilitation [ edit | edit source ]
Initial Stage of Rehabilitation [ edit | edit source ]
This phase lasts approximately 4-6 days.  The body's first response to an injury is inflammation.  Its main function is to defend the body against harmful substances, dispose of dead or dying tissue and to promote the renewal of normal tissue.  The goals during the initial phase of the rehabilitation process include limitation of tissue damage, pain relief, control of the inflammatory response to injury, and protection of the affected anatomical area. The pathological events that take place immediately after the injury could lead to impairments such as muscle atrophy and weakness and limitation in the joint range of motion. These impairments result in functional losses, for example, inability to jump or lift an object. The extent of the functional loss may be influenced by the nature and timing of the therapeutic and rehabilitative intervention during the initial phase of the injury. If functional losses are severe or become permanent, the athlete now with a disability may be unable to participate in his/her sport. 
The physiotherapist is usually the professional in charge of this phase although the process may be started by a medical doctor. 
Control pain and swelling  [ edit | edit source ]
Primary treatment in initial phase of rehabilitation is RICE .  It is the term that stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. RICE can be used immediately and 24 to 48 hours after many muscle strains, ligament sprains, or other bruises and injuries. 
Therapeutic modalities and medications are used to create an optimal environment for injury repair by limiting the inflammatory process and breaking the pain-spasm cycle. Use of any modality depends on the supervising physician's exercise prescription, as well as the injury site, and type and severity of injury. In some cases, a modality may be indicated and contraindicated for the same condition. For example, thermotherapy (heat therapy) may be contraindicated for tendinitis during the initial phase of the exercise program. However, once acute inflammation is controlled, heat therapy may be indicated. Frequent evaluation of the individual’s progress is necessary to ensure that the appropriate modality is being used. 
Despite the fact that rapid return to competition is crucial, rest is necessary to protect the damaged tissue from additional injury. Therefore, exercise involving the injured area is not recommended during this phase, although there are a few exceptions such as the tendinopathy protocols used to rehabilitate Achilles and patella tendon injuries.   However, it is important to realise that a quick return to function relies on the health of other body tissues.
Active range of motion is performed under one's own control, while passive range of motion occurs when another person or device produces the movement.  If movement of the injured limb is not contraindicated, isolated exercises that target areas proximal and distal to the injured area may be permissible provided that they do not stress the injured area. Examples include hip abduction and rotation exercises following knee injury or scapula stabilizing exercises following glenohumeral joint injury.  Isometric exercises are used for strengthening when range of motion is restricted or needs to be avoided due to the fracture or acute inflammation of a joint. Otherwise, isotonic strengthening can begin within the painless arc of joint motion. 
Intermediate Stage of Rehabilitation [ edit | edit source ]
This phase lasts from day 5 to 8-10 weeks.  After the inflammatory phase, the body begins to repair the damaged tissue with similar tissue, but the resiliency of the new tissue is low. Repair of the weakened injury site can take up to eight weeks if the proper amount of restorative stress is applied, or longer if too much or too little stress is applied. 
Joint ROM and Muscle Conditioning  [ edit | edit source ]
The goals during the second phase of rehabilitation include the limitation of the impairment and the recovery from the functional losses. Early protected motion hastens the optimal alignment of collagen fibers and promotes improved tissue mobility. A number of physical modalities are used to enhance tissue healing. Exercise to regain flexibility, strength, endurance, balance, and coordination becomes the central component of the intervention. To the extent that these impairments and functional losses were minimized by early intervention, progress in this phase can be accelerated. Again, the maintenance of muscular and cardiorespiratory function remains essential for the uninjured areas of the body. The strength and conditioning professional has considerable expertise to offer the other members of the sports medicine team regarding selection of the appropriate activities. 
Possible exercise forms during this phase include strengthening of the uninjured extremities and areas proximal and distal to the injury, aerobic and anaerobic exercise, and improving strength and neuromuscular control of the involved areas  :
- Isometric exercise may be performed provided that it is pain free and otherwise indicated. Submaximal isometric exercise allows the athlete to maintain neuromuscular function and improve strength with movements performed at an intensity low enough that the newly formed collagen fibers are not disrupted. 
- Isokinetic exercise can be an important aspect of strengthening following injury. This type of exercise uses equipment that provides resistance to movement at a given speed (e.g., 60°/s or 120°/s). 
- Isotonic exercise involves movements with constant external resistance and the amount of force required to move the resistance varies, depending primarily on joint angle and the length of each agonist muscle. Isotonic exercise uses several different forms of resistance, including gravity (i.e., exercises performed without equipment, with gravitational effects as the only source of resistance), dumbbells, barbells, and weight-stack machines. The speed at which the movement occurs is controlled by the athlete; movement speed can be a program design variable, with more acute injuries calling for slower movement and the later phases of healing amenable to faster, more sport-specific movement. 
- Specific types of exercises exist to improve neuromuscular control following injury and can be manipulated through alterations in surface stability, vision, and speed. Mini-trampolines, balance boards, and stability balls can be used to create unstable surfaces for upper and lower extremity training. Athletes can perform common activities such as squats and push-ups on uneven surfaces to improve neuromuscular control. 
- Exercises may also be performed with eyes closed, thus removing visual input, to further challenge balance. 
Finally, increasing the speed at which exercises are performed provides additional challenges to the system. Specifically controlling these variables within a controlled environment will allow the athlete to progress to more challenging exercises in the next stage of healing. 
Advanced Stage of Rehabilitation [ edit | edit source ]
This phase begins at around 21 days and can continue for 6-12 months.  The outcome of the previous phase is the replacement of damaged tissue with collagen fibres. After those fibres are laid down, the body can begin to remodel and strengthen the new tissue, allowing the athlete to gradually return to full activity.  This phase of rehabilitation represents the start of the conditioning process needed to return to sports training and competition. Understanding the demands of the particular sport becomes essential as well as communication with the coach. This phase also represents an opportunity to identify and correct risk factors, thus reducing the possibility of re-injury. 
Functional Training [ edit | edit source ]
The combination of clinic-based and sport-specific functional techniques will provide an individualised, sport-specific rehabilitation protocol for the athlete.  Rehabilitation and reconditioning exercises must be functional to facilitate a return to competition. Examples of functional training include joint angle-specific strengthening, velocity-specific muscle activity, closed kinetic chain exercises, and exercises designed to further enhance neuromuscular control. Strengthening should transition from general exercises to sport-specific exercises designed to replicate movements common in given sports.  Cross-training is encouraged, especially with activities that do not produce any symptoms from the injury. 
It is essential that the rehabilitation and training be sufficiently vigorous to prepare the injured tissue for the demands of the game.  With each increase in activity, signs of recurring pain or weakness should trigger a slowdown or a reversal to a tolerable level of activity.  The player will have returned to game during this phase and will have ceased physiotherapy or individual rehabilitation while this process is still continuing.  Unrestricted sports activity is not allowed until all of these steps have been completed and full-effort sports-specific activity is tolerated without symptoms. 
Return to Sport [ edit | edit source ]
At some point in the recovery process, athletes return to strength and conditioning programs and resume sport-specific activities in preparation for return to play. The transition is important for several reasons. First, although the athlete may have recovered in medical terms (ie, improvements in flexibility, range of motion, functional strength, pain, neuromuscular control, inflammation), preparation for competition requires the restoration of strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance at levels exhibited in sport. 
Return to play is defined as the process of deciding when an injured or ill athlete may safely return to practice or competition. Early return to training and sport are considered sensible goals if the rate of return is based on the affected muscle, the severity of the injury and the position of the athlete. 
Criteria for return to play must emphasise gradual return to sport-specific functional progressions. Sport-specific function occurs when the activations, motions and resultant forces are specific and efficient for the needs of that sport. Sport-specific functional rehabilitation should focus on restoration of the injured athlete’s ability to have sport-specific physiology and biomechanics to interact optimally with the sport-specific demands.  That means that they need to be replicated at the same speed, on the same surface and with the same level of fatigue to be truly effective. 
Once a athlete has been medically cleared to return-to-play there are some fundamental steps that need to be followed  :
- The athlete has to fulfil the fitness standards of the team he is returning to.
- The athlete needs to pass some skill specific tests applicable to his playing position.
- The player may then begin practising with the team.
- Exposure to the match situation should be gradual, with the match time gradually increasing.
There are simple guidelines which need to be developed by each team with contributions and support from each member of the medical team. 
Monitoring [ edit | edit source ]
Regarding these aspects from the text above, there are several problems to look out for: are all the mechanic parameters of the performance (force, velocity, power) regained at that time?, are there any ways to conduct the rehabilitation program in order to obtain better parameters and so the return to the sports activity to be safely done? and, which could be the most suitable evaluation methods in order to be sure about the athletes well-training?. 
Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures (mood disturbance, perceived stress and recovery and symptoms of stress) are all options for athlete monitoring.  Appropriate load monitoring can aid in determining whether an athlete is adapting to a training program and in minimising the risk of developing non-functional overreaching, illness, and/or injury. 
In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. There are a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Other monitoring tools used by high-performance programs include heart rate recovery, neuromuscular function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments, questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality and quantity.  Coaching staffs and administrative personnel must work to ensure that care can be provided at all points of the rehabilitation process, especially when funding dictates the need to hire personnel capable of addressing injuries at multiple levels. A clear understanding of the injury and of the interventions from each provider is vital to an efficient and successful return to play. 
Appropriate monitoring of training load can provide important information to athletes and coaches; however, monitoring systems should be intuitive, provide efficient data analysis and interpretation, and enable efficient reporting of simple, yet scientifically valid, feedback. If accurate and easy-to-interpret feedback is provided to the athlete and coach, load monitoring can result in enhanced knowledge of training responses, aid in the design of training programs, provide a further avenue for communication between support staff and athletes and coaches and ultimately enhance an athlete’s performance. 
References [ edit | edit source ]
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 Frontera WR. Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries: Scientific Basis. Vol X of Encylopaedia of Sports Medicine. An IOC Medical Comittee Publication in collaboration with the International Federation of Sports Medicine. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2003
- ↑ James SL, Abate D, Abate KH, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1789-858.
- ↑ https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rehabilitation
- ↑ Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries: Scientific Basics. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9780470757178.fmatter
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Christakou A, Lavallee D. Rehabilitation from sports injuries: From theory to practice. Perspectives in Public Health. 2009
- ↑ http://nccsir.unc.edu/files/2014/05/2011Allsport.pdf
- ↑ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 Buschbacher R, Prahlow N, Dave SJ. Sports and Medicine Rehabilitation - A Sport-Specific Approach. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2009
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Anderson MK, Foundations of Athletic Training: Prevention, Assessment, and Management. 4th ed. In: Therapeutic Modalities. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2008
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Human Kinetics. Excerpts. Employ the seven principles of rehabilitation. http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/employ-the-seven-principles-of-rehabilitation (accessed 26 May 2016).
- ↑ https://www.theballetblog.com/portfolio/relative-rest/
- ↑ https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation
- ↑ Paine, T., 2007. Sports Massage. 2nd ed. London: A&C Black publishers.
- ↑ Cash, M., 1996. Sports & Remedial massage therapy. London: Ebury Press.
- ↑ 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 Australian Fitness Network. Injury and Rehab: The Components of a Successful Post-Injury Rehabilitation Program. http://www.fitnessnetwork.com.au/resources-library/injury-amp-rehab-the-components-of-a-successful-post-injury-rehabilitation-program (accessed 25 May 2016).
- ↑ O’Connor, E., Heil, J., Harmer, P. & Zimmerman, I. (2005). Injury. In J. Taylor, & G. Wilson (Eds.), Applying sport psychology (pp. 187-206). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
- ↑ Naoi, A. & Ostrow, A. (2008). The effects of cognitive and relaxations interventions on injured athletes’ mood and pain during rehabilitation. The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10(1).
- ↑ Vergeer, I. (2006). Exploring the mental representation of athletic injury: A longitudinal case study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, pp.99-114.
- ↑ Sparkes, A.C. (2000). Illness, premature career-termination, and the loss of self: A biographical study of an elite athlete. In R. L. Jones and K. M. Armour (Eds.), Sociology of sport: Theory and practice (pp. 14–32). Harlow: Longman.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 Gray J. Phases of Rehabilitation after Injury: An Evidence-Based Literature Review. Bok Smart. 2009
- ↑ Sports Injury Clinic. General Injuries and Conditions. Inflammation. http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/sport-injuries/general/inflammation (accessed 25 May 2016).
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 University Health Services. RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation for Injuries. http://www.uhs.wisc.edu/health-topics/muscles-and-bone/rice.shtml (accessed 25 May 2016)
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Sports Injury Clinic. Rehabilitation and Exercises. http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/rehabilitation-exercises (accessed 26 May 2016)
- ↑ Beam, Joel W. Rehabilitation including sport-specific functional progression for the competitive athlete. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Volume 6, Issue 4. 205 - 219. http://www.bodyworkmovementtherapies.com/article/S1360-8592(02)90291-3/abstract (accessed 26 May 2016)
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Home — Essay Samples — Life — Sports Medicine — Sport Injuries And Rehabilitation
Sport Injuries and Rehabilitation
- Subject: Nursing & Health , Life
- Category: Other Diseases & Conditions , Medical Practice & Treatment , Sports
- Essay Topic: Injury , Rehabilitation Programs , Sports Medicine
- Words: 1359
- Published: 26 April 2019
- Downloads: 31
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The American Physical Therapy Association describes a physical therapist as a “Healthcare professional; who maintains, restores, and improves movement, activity, and health, enabling individuals of all ages to have optimal functioning and quality of life while ensuring patient safety and applying evidence to provide efficient and effective care.” Becoming a Physical Therapist could be one of the best jobs in the world for me; it is actually my dream job. The study of exercise science, and the actual work of physical therapy would allow me to best utilize my education and the work experience of my residency. As a former soccer player, I know the difference that can be made in sports rehabilitation. Although therapist work with many different people, it is often difficult to not only become emotionally invested in
Sports Massage And Athletic Massage Essay
Athletes know what to do about their muscle aches and pains. Many employ the services of a sports massage therapist to help them. Sports massage can be used as a preparation for play, during games or events, after events and for maintenance during the off-season. It takes a focused and trained sports massage therapist to know how and when to do the bodywork, and exactly how to communicate about what they do with the athlete and the how to integrate with a sports medicine team. Most athletes are strong believers in the power of a good massage.
A Career in Physical Therapy Essay
Colleges with a medical department often have a master’s program for physical therapy. (“Physical Therapists”) Physical therapy students have a required amount of field work in order to complete a program. Each candidate must work in an accredited workplace for the field work assignments. This part of the program is extremely valuable and helpful for a new therapist entering the field. Working one on one can be difficult even with all of the educational tools. (Curtis 37)
A Career in Sports Medicine Essay
A sports medicine expert is a physical therapist. Many people do not recognize it as that but it is. Both fields try assist their patients in their healing process on many levels beyond just the physical. Although the training teaches them to focus on the physical body as the cause of pain and disease, experts have found that many of our physical problems stem from and are modulated by emotional, mental, psychological, and spiritual issues. Not all people heal on the same schedule or in the same way. This is why therapists provide a healing model with a loving environment. They don't deal in disease only deal in healing, which is an active process. The patients are taught to create the concept and feeling of health. they often have to remove a person's diagnosis that he or she has been branded with by other doctors. Pain does not mean that a person is broken. X-rays and MRI scans frequently do not tell the truth. So you sometimes have to run a number of different tests to find out exactly what the problem is with the patient, you would be surprised on how many patients have serious mental problems and think that they are hurt in some way shape or form but most often it is just a mental problem they have.
Physical Therapy as a Career Essay
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In order to be successful in the profession as a physical therapist there are several prerequisites a person has to accomplish. One of the first prerequisites to become a physical therapist is you must graduate from a physical therapist educational program and obtain a master or doctoral degree. The master's degree programs for physical therapy typically are two to two and a half years in length, while doctoral degree programs usually last 3 years. In addition to classroom and laboratory instruction, students will complete supervised clinical experience to get a feel of the work environment. The coursework will include physics, biology and chemistry. Other additional coursework included during the physical therapy program is therapeutic procedures, biomechanics, examination techniques, human development, manifestations of disease, and neuroanatomy. You can specialize in one of those certain topics, which will concentrate more on a certain area. Students must also obtain a license in order to practice physical therapy. A license can be obtained by
My Job Outlook Of Physical Therapy Field Essay
Physical therapists are required to complete at least six years or higher of education before work begins. This means that a master’s degree or a bachelor’s degree must be achieved. Only a few colleges or universities offer master’s programs, therefore a student must enter a doctoral program to attain this profession. Acquiring a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree requires three years of education only after receiving a bachelor’s degree. Most students join residency programs that can last anywhere from nine months to three years to
(David Hayes ,1998). According to the Physical Therapist Assistants (2007), "There were, 238 accredited physical therapist assistant programs in the United States as of 2004. Accredited physical therapist assistant programs are designed to last 2 years, or 4 semesters, and culminate in an associate degree." Programs are divided into academic study and hands-on clinical experience. Academic course work includes algebra, anatomy and physiology, biology, chemistry, and psychology. Many programs require that students complete a semester of anatomy and physiology and have certifications in CPR and other first aid even before they begin their clinical field experience. (Physical Therapist Assistants ,2007) Both educators and employers view clinical experience to ensure that students understand the responsibilities of a physical therapist assistant. Employers typically require physical therapist aides to have a high school diploma, strong interpersonal skills, and a desire to assist people in need. Most employers provide clinical on-the-job training.
Obtaining A Physical Therapist Assistant's Degree
A Physical Therapist Assistants Degree can be obtained in two years with an Associate's Degree. A Physical Therapist license and degree can only be obtained through either a Doctoral or Master’s Degree, and in some cases, a Bachelor's Degree.
Physical Therapist Research Paper
Physical Therapist has extensive education training. First, in order to become a Physical Therapist, he or she will need to take many years in college studying in areas such as Kinesiology, Anatomy, Biology, and Physical Fitness. Also, the students will need to receive extensive training in patient psychology. (“Become
Accredited Physical Therapy
Physical Therapy programs are presented as a master’s (MPT, MSPT, MS) or doctoral (DPT) degree from an accredited physical therapy program. In order to be admitted to a DPT, MPT, MSPT, or MS program you have to first either completely obtain, or have been working at least three years closer to an undergraduate baccalaureate accredited
MPT programs areas long as two to three years of schooling that needs plenty of devotion towards school work and the last year of teachings. A Direct Entry Doctorate(DPT) prepares graduates for entry positions into the physical therapy field. There also is a Transitional DPT which is a two year program that helps people earn their Bachelors and Masters degree to finish with their Doctorate degree in order to ”bridge the gap”. Schooling is a major part in being successful in this field of work, it takes dedication, hard work, and commitment.
Finding A Career May Be A Physical Therapy
To make accomplishing my occupation possible, education and training will be required in the near future. A PT can choose over 200 programs that lead them to a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. The prerequisite classes consist of the following: anatomy, physiology, biology, chemistry, and physics. After completing prerequisites, which typically is within a Bachelor’s degree, an aspirant must apply through the Physical Therapist Centralized Service (PTCS) to become a DPT. DPT programs frequently contain classes such as biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, and pharmacology. Students are required to complete at least 5,040 hours of clinical work, during they must be administered in areas in care. All PTs are obligated to become licensed through the National
Physical Therapy Scholarship Essay
To earn a Physical Therapy Degree, one must go through a rigorous education program. One University with a tough program is Grand Valley State. The program at GVSU requires 120 credits over a three year
Physical Therapy For Becoming A Licensed Physical Therapist
In today 's ever changing medical scene, the educational requirements necessary to graduate from college and receive a job are constantly changing. As science advances and more people seek out healthcare, the prerequisites needed to provide this healthcare are becoming more and more rigorous. This is especially evident in the field of physical therapy. Over the last 135 years, the entry-level education requirements have slowly changed from a simple masters degree to a new doctorate degree, the Doctor of Physical Therapy (Threlked and Paschal). While most people agree with this new requirement, others argue that the time and effort required to receive this degree result in minimal benefits. Contrary to these claims, physical therapists should be required to graduate from a Doctor of Physical Therapy program prior to becoming a licensed physical therapist because this level of education teaches them the skills necessary to be a successful physical therapist.
Disadvantages Of Physical Therapy
Student’s will have to go through seven years of schooling to achieve their goal of becoming a Physical Therapist. When applicants start their journey of becoming a Physical Therapist, applicants must go through a bachelor 's degree program of 4 years and major in a health related field such as Anatomy, Physiology, Biology, Chemistry, or Physics. After completing 4 years of Bachelor 's program applicants should apply for a Doctorate of Physical Therapy program. When applying for a D.P.T program competition can be very competitive because for certain D.P.T programs only 30 applicants out of 200 or more can get accepted. Stated from the website, “Learn How to Become”, “As of 2014, there were 228 physical therapy programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (C.A.P.T.E), most of which last 3 years”. When an applicant finally gets accepted into a D.P.T program students must complete a clinical internship in a certain area they wish to pursue with supervised experience. When applicants graduate from
- Physical therapy
- Sports medicine
Rehabilitation techniques increasingly refer to neuromuscular re-education. Improving coordination depends on repeating the positions and movements associated with different sports and correct training. It has to begin with simple activities, performed slowly and perfectly executed, gradually increasing in speed and complexity.
Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation means an injured athlete's compliance (or not) to a sports medicine/injury personnel's instructions of participating in a rehabilitation programme...
The primary goal of any rehabilitation process is to reduce the extent at which an injury has occurred by either reducing or reversing the loss of functionality. It also aims at controlling swelling and restores the full mobility of the knee and to maintain strength in the hamstrings and quadriceps.
If the athlete is struggling, try having them watch sports on TV to help motivate them further to work hard at their rehabilitation. The Mind Often Recovers After the Body As rehab progresses, it is common for an athlete to be physically ready for competition, but not psychologically ready.
Sports Rehabilitation Decent Essays 799 Words 4 Pages Open Document This article was written by N. Caddick and B. Smith where sport rehabilitation is strongly supported. It showed support for veterans who have PTSD, brain injuries, spinal injuries, and other disabilities that may affect the well-being of combat veterans.
A sports physical therapist is a physical therapist who specializes in the field of sports medicine. This type of therapist is qualified to work with patients who have suffered debilitating injuries from sporting events (Thyberg). Sports physical therapists work with a number of patients with problems ranging from muscle pains to sports ...