Essay on How To Prevent Natural Disasters
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One of the twenty most important and urgent global issues in the 21st century is preventing natural disasters and reducing their impact. There is an increase and severity of this issue that makes it necessary to implement global procedures to reduce disasters… repeating disasters have forced the international community to take responsibility for them.
Table of Contents
Essay on How To Prevent Natural Disasters 150 Words
It is simply a sudden event or happening that can either be natural or man-made and may result in damage or loss of life to the surrounding environment. Disaster Management was established in order to promote preparedness and better response to unforeseen events that can cause harm to people and the environment.
Designing and planning efficient ways to deal with natural and man-made disasters is the purpose of Disaster Management. As part of this central function, the situation must be better controlled, evaluated immediately, medical aids and transports should be called up, food and drink supplies are provided, among other things, and the surroundings must be protected from further harm and remain lawful throughout the entire process. With climate change prevalent in the contemporary scenario, disaster management has gained further importance, as shown by the unprecedented wildfires in Australia.
As a result, the planet is becoming overwhelmed by technological devices, and their impact on climate and the environment cannot be avoided. As a consequence, disaster management has become an essential part of every country’s efforts to become efficient and prepared for natural as well as man-made disasters.
Essay on How To Prevent Natural Disasters 250 Words
The human and economic costs of disasters are tremendous. They may result in thousands of deaths, severe injuries, and food shortages. Depending on the nature and duration of the disaster, most severe injuries and deaths occur during the impact, while disease outbreaks and food shortages often occur much later.
In order to minimize the impact of disasters, it is important to anticipate their potential consequences before they strike. A community’s emergency response capability is ultimately tested during disasters. Three major steps must be taken to manage disasters, including pre-disaster preparation, during disaster preparation, and post-disaster preparation.
In pre-disaster management, information and data about disasters are collected, vulnerability zones are prepared, and people are made aware of them. The vulnerable areas have to take other steps to prevent disasters, such as disaster planning, preparedness, and prevention measures.
As part of emergency rescue and relief operations, victims are evacuated, shelters and relief camps are built, water, food, clothing, and medical aids are provided. It is crucial to conduct such operations on an emergency basis. Following disasters, victims should be rehabilitated and recovered. To cope with future disasters, capacity building is important.
Due to the vulnerability of about two-thirds of India’s geographical area and equal number of its people to disasters, these measures are especially important for it. In addition to passing the disaster management bill and establishing the National Institute of Disaster Management, the Indian Government has taken some steps to manage disasters.
Essay on How To Prevent Natural Disasters 500 Words
A natural disaster is any natural event that adversely affects human socioeconomic conditions. This would refer to accidents other than those caused by humans, such as earthquakes, floods, or volcanic eruptions. A natural phenomenon that is considered harmful only because it is accompanied by man-made physical systems.
There are many types of natural disasters, but their spread and impacts vary from country to country because man-made structures, settlements and movements are perishable in nature.
In developing countries of the world, disasters cause a greater number of deaths and property losses than in developed countries, because developing countries are more destructively vulnerable than developed countries are more likely to suffer a disaster. Natural disasters are more likely to affect people in developing countries than they are in developed countries, naturally.
Natural disasters are defined in terms of risk as the possibility of changes in the natural environment in a given area during a given period of time. The associated risk is the loss of life, property, or government activities following the event.
There has been an increase in major disasters since 1980, but the number of deaths due to disasters has declined to about 7%, while resource losses have decreased.
Natural disasters can be classified into the following types
The most common types of natural disasters are as follows:
- Storms, cyclones, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, etc., are atmospheric disasters caused by atmospheric processes.
- The Exogenetic Disasters caused by surface processes (such as erosion and groundwater pollution) are the Surface Exogenetic Disasters.
- Natural Disasters caused by endogenous underground processes (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) often overshadow the effects of endogenous underground catastrophes.
It is possible to identify natural disasters with seven key characteristics, namely the extent of event, the number of events, the duration, the aerial range, the onset speed, the spatial radiation, and the time interval between events.
The prevention of natural disasters and the management of them
It is essential to understand why natural disasters occur before we can prevent them. Natural phenomena cannot be stopped, but we can make them less damaging if we understand why they happen, and what we can do to prevent or mitigate them. Though most people are not directly responsible for natural disasters, they are indirectly responsible for many.
Natural Disasters can be reduced by following these tips
Science has yet to discover a cure for natural disasters. Only caution can minimize the effects of natural disasters, and it is equally true that different human civilizations also contribute to these disasters.
The growing trend of drought around the world can be mentioned in this context as a means of preventing some natural disasters by imposing some control on those self-destructive actions. The tendency of drought will increase as the earth is filled with wetlands and deforestation continues.
As a result, the global trend will also increase tremendously if we artificially control the flow of the river by building dams. Human beings must therefore immediately engage in their civilization’s development activities while keeping the environment in mind.
There have been a variety of national and international initiatives to prevent natural disasters around the world. Several governmental and non-governmental organizations are working around the world to protect the environment, while continental organizations have been established to provide early warnings of earthquakes, tsunamis, and catastrophic storms.
Currently, well-wishers throughout the world understand that if the environment is protected, people will be protected from disaster. This is why a huge campaign is taking place to protect the environment all over the world. Numerous international celebrities are participating in this campaign on a constant basis.
Each country has also formed disaster response teams at the national level, seeking to protect people from devastated areas through natural disaster response.
Thousands of people are killed each year by natural disasters, homes and infrastructure are destroyed, and money is lost. It is each of our responsibility to prevent these tragedies from taking place.
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Reducing the Impact of Natural Disasters
Haiti earthquake 7.0 earthquake.
The key lessons that have been learnt from the event is that those in charge of ensuring the safety of Haiti’s citizens need to recognize the risk of their location and acknowledge the advice of seismologists for any future seismic events. The implementation of early warning systems and the use of SMS messaging as seen in Japan would greatly reduce the hazard of an earthquake. In addition, environmental management is crucial for the long term survival of Haiti, strategies to reduce deforestation and claiming back land unsuitable for housing would lead to better soil quality and less risk of landslides and liquefaction to buildings should another event occur. However, the main lesson to be drawn from the disaster is the need for proper construction techniques and guidelines. Education and training to provide construction workers with enough knowledge to make future infrastructure earthquake
Federal Preparedness and Mitigation Programs Disasters can occur at any moment, anywhere; financial
Physical changes are typically very costly to a given community as they typically include a series of technical requirements such as; cumulative research and analysis, manufacturing, preservation and monitoring. Structural mitigation is often labeled as “man controlling nature.” (FEMA, 2014). Also, characterization includes compliance with localized codes, regulations, inspections, enforcement and other maintenance issues.
The Negative Effects Of Natural Disasters
Natural Disasters are an incidence throughout the world that is inevitable and impossible to control. Humans may believe Mother Nature can be controlled through technology and the newest inventions, but natural disasters dominate all of mankind. Humanity is continuously, to a great extent, devastated by terrible unavoidable disasters that shape the world. One of the many terrifying natural disasters that are common on the planet is earthquakes. An earthquake is a sudden, violent shaking of the ground, frequently causing great destruction. Often it is difficult for people to rebuild their lives after being affected by a destructive underground eruption. The cost to rebuild housing and replace material possessions is tremendous, especially when a family or country can’t afford to replace lost possessions. When a poor country is struck by a devastating disaster, such as an earthquake, their quality of life is greatly changed negatively due to low
The Federal Emergency Management Agency
The ability to rebuild after a natural disaster depends on the population strength and the government timely response to the disaster. The government’s response to natural
Hazard City: Earthquake Hazard
Hickory Estates is a community where buildings in the 1920’s through the 1940’s where build very quickly. This community has sloping streets, and is located above the Clearwater River. This area has single-family homes constructed with multistory, and wood-framed built homes. The population of this community is 6412 residents. Due to the era the homes were built in, a typical problem is the connection between the wood frame and the foundation. The lack of steel reinforcement can cause major damages due to its weak points0. An earthquake can cause the wood frame to come off its foundation, foundation cracks, the chimney breaking at the roof line, and the cripple walls (the walls between the top of the foundation and the floor diaphragm) to crack. This is why Hickory Estates has 8% of homes that will be uninhabitable after an Intensity IX earthquake.
A building or home can be seen as a place of comfort where individuals feel safe, relaxed, and at peace, but structures aren’t as safe as they really seem. Throughout time natural disasters as the name say’s just happen naturally without warning, and because of this, building codes exist to help prevent the worst when one occurs. However even with all these codes structures just aren’t safe enough to withstand disasters. Changing the simple things like building codes could greatly impact how much more reinforced a building can be in the wake of a disaster. Current structures are not up to code, and should be re-evaluated because buildings are vulnerable in the event of a natural disaster.
Discussion Questions: Critical Incidents
Critical incidents require immediate action (Levinson & Granot, 2002). Additionally, they also require ongoing support in order to ensure that they are correctly managed and the long-term effects are mitigated (Schneid & Collins, 2001). Addressed here are four specific events - earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tornados. There are ways to mitigate the damage of these events, and there are also ways to try to prepare for them. Additionally, the type of response to these events is important as is the recovery from them. For earthquakes, mitigation is limited. It is possible to build houses and buildings stronger and more able to withstand shaking, and in earthquake-prone areas the cabinets often have latches and large appliances are strapped to the wall (U.S., 2007). People who live there should also have emergency supplies of food and water, and should be prepared for an earthquake by knowing information about evacuation routes (U.S., 2007). The response to earthquakes and the recovery from them are usually strong, because the areas that are most prone are also most prepared. When an earthquake hits in an unusual area, however, it can take much longer to help people and to rebuild the infrastructure.
The Flood Of 1955 And Hurricane Katrina
Natural disasters affect thousands of lives each year, and have the potential to drastically alter a country/state and its people. Because of the destructive force Mother Nature can bring about, it is imperative to have mitigation plans set up in populated areas to protect people and reduce the structural damage to buildings, houses, etc. There are some mitigation plans, however, that have been unsuccessful, resulting in catastrophic disasters. Best examples of these are the Connecticut Flood of 1955 and Hurricane Katrina. Even though these are two different types of natural disasters; the level of destruction, preparedness, mitigation strategies, and the overall aftermaths had profound and lasting changes on the areas inflicted, mainly Connecticut and Louisiana.
Disasters are bound to strike at a given time and they more often find us unaware, this is the sole reason why the majority of the disasters that happen are usually fatal and destructive. This then calls for the need to try as much as possible to prevent these disasters and in particular in our cities. This is due to the fact that in the cities there are large populations that live close to each other or work in offices crammed together hence the likelihood of a disaster turning absolutely fatal if and when it strikes. However, due to the inevitable nature of these disasters, it is upon us to make adequate preparations that can enable us to minimize the effects of the natural disasters as much as possible when and if they happen.
Text Structure Of The Perfect Storm
Imagine living your life on a regular day for you and BOOM! Your life is now suddenly completely changed, everything you thought was normal or part of you has changed. This is what natural disasters tend to make happen in your life, they affect us in many ways. In this essay i will discuss the various elements each author uses to express the causes and effects of disasters. The author Jacqueline Adam clearly expresses the causes and effects of disasters through the use of text structure, choice of vocabulary and use of data and details.
Emergency Response Plan
There are also things that we will do, if we suspect that there is a problem with the structure or the roof, which includes knowing the warning signs for failures. Things we will do before there is a threat of any type of weather, including, things to do after the weather issue. Before a weather storm hits, we will take certain measures to help limit building damage and safety issues. First, we will always have an emergency response plan in place before a weather event occurs, and we will make sure that everyone has easy access to the plan. Next, the maximum safe distance from the building's roof and the structure will be determined. The roof and structure will be regularly inspected for the structural integrity before a storm. After a storm the structure will be inspected, documented and repaired if needed. Furthermore, we will be proactive, and petition a local contractor with the proper credentials for structures, to go back behind the original construction crew to hold us accountable to the highest level. This ensures that in the event of a storm, a proper contractor and the paper work will be on
Natural Hazards In California
Natural hazards — are different natural phenomena that disrupt the usual live of a population, destroy and demolish objects of material value. They often have a negative effect on nature, and can happen anywhere in the world. Many different types of natural hazards exist; for example, earth quakes, landslides, floods, snow drifts, hurricanes, droughts, volcano eruptions, storms, etc. Natural hazards can happen independently or can be related to each other. If there is an earthquake, it can lead to a tsunami or massive fires. Some of them happen as a result of mankind’s doings; construction work, depending on the location, can cause snow drifts, or massive fires.
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How to prevent Natural Disasters essay 2022 | For Students & Children’s
If you are searching about ‘How to prevent natural disasters essay’, then you are in the right place. In this article, you are going to know about the causes, effects, and solutions of how to prevent Natural Calamities essays. A detailed 10 lines essay for children’s and a long essay with more than 1000+ words is provided below, which you can use for your school projects, exams, etc. So, without any further delay let’s start the ‘How to prevent natural disasters essay’.
During these hundreds of years, the planet Earth has undergone many changes. These advances are significant because of the catastrophic events that have occurred over time. The most widely recognized situation we have seen is when we talk about catastrophic events, pollution, ozone depletion, and a dangerous atmospheric deviation.
How to prevent natural disasters essay (Short/10 lines):
Here are the best 10 lines short essays on Natural Disasters and their Prevention that can be used for the lower class, like- class 2,3,4,5,6.
- ‘Natural disasters’ in other words ‘Natural Calamities’ happen by nature so that there is no interference from the common man.
- The International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction is 13th of october.
- Human activities are also the causes of Natural Disasters and it cann’t be controlled by the human.
- Floods, Earthquakes, Volcanic eruptions, Cyclones, etc are the examples of the Natural Disasters.
- Natural Disasters cause a bgger loss in human life and properties, natures, animal lifes etc.
- There is no cure for natural disasters beyond the reach of science.
- If we want to artificially control the normal flow of the river through dams, the global trend will also increase tremendously.
- Continental agencies have been set up to provide early warning of earthquakes, tsunamis and catastrophic storms, to protect the people.
- We have to protect our enviorment to avoid Natural Disaster as much as we can.
- After all, people around the world need to come together to reduce environmental pollution so that they can stay away from natural disasters as much as possible.
How to prevent natural disasters essay (For class 7-12):
Here you can see the long version of ‘How to prevent Natural Disaster essay’, which students can use from 7th standard to 12th standard. So, read this section very carefully. It will help you in your competitive exams also.
What is Natural Disaster?
Natural disasters are any natural phenomenon that harms human socio-economic conditions. In other words, non-man-made accidents, such as an earthquake or a flood, or a volcanic eruption. These are natural phenomena that are considered harmful only because of the presence of man-made physical systems.
An important factor in the overall understanding of natural disasters is the perishable vulnerability of various man-made systems, settlements caused by disasters. The spread and impact of natural disasters are not the same in all countries of the world.
The number of lives and property lost due to disasters is much higher in developing countries of the world as compared to developed countries, because developing countries have greater destructive vulnerability rather than the greater number of disasters. Naturally, people in developing countries have a higher risk of natural disasters than those in developed countries.
The definition of a natural disaster in terms of risk is defined as the possibility of a change in the natural environment in a given area over a certain period and the associated risk is loss or destruction of life, property, and state activities after the disaster. Although the number of major disasters has increased since 1980, the number of deaths due to disasters each year has dropped to about 7%, while the loss of resources has gradually decreased.
Types of Natural Disaster:
Natural disasters can be divided into three major categories such as-
- Climatic Atmospheric Disasters caused by atmospheric processes (storms, cyclones, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, etc.),
- Surface Exogenetic Disasters caused by surface processes (erosion Groundwater pollution),
- Endogenetic Underground Catastrophes (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) caused by the internal processes of the Earth’s surface, often overshadow one another of these different natural disasters.
Natural disasters can be identified according to seven key characteristics, namely- the extent of the event, the number of events, the duration, the aerial range, the onset speed, the spatial radiation, and the time interval.
How to prevent natural disasters and disaster management:
To prevent natural disasters, we must first know why these disasters are happening. While most people are not directly responsible, they are somehow indirectly responsible for most natural disasters. We can’t stop natural phenomena from happening. But we can make them less damaging if we understand better why they happen, and what we can do to prevent or mitigate them.
Some of the best ways to reduce Natural Disaster are given below-
- In fact, there is no cure for natural disasters beyond the reach of science. Only with caution can the effects of natural disasters be avoided. But it is also true that the effects of different human civilizations also fall on this nature.
- It may be possible to prevent some natural disasters by imposing some control on those self-destructive actions. In this context, the growing trend of drought around the world can be mentioned. As the process of filling the earth with wetlands and deforestation increases, the tendency of drought will increase.
- On the other hand, if we want to artificially control the normal flow of the river through dams, the global trend will also increase tremendously. Therefore, keeping in mind the environment, human beings have to immediately reach out to the so-called developmental activities of their civilization.
- Various national and international initiatives have been taken in the world for the prevention of natural disasters and prevention of these disasters. Elsewhere, continental organizations have been set up to provide early warnings of earthquakes, tsunamis, and catastrophic storms, while several governmental and non-governmental organizations are working around the world to protect the environment.
- At present, the well-wishers of the world have realized that only if the environment is protected, people will be saved from various disasters. That is why there is a huge campaign going on all over the world for the protection of the environment. Various international celebrities are constantly coming forward in this campaign.
- In addition, special disaster response teams have been formed at the national level in each country. They work to protect people from devastated areas by fighting natural disasters.
Every year, natural disasters are responsible for hundreds of deaths, the destruction of homes and infrastructure, and the loss of millions of dollars. Every one of us is responsible for fighting against natural disasters.
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Natural Disasters and Prevention 10 Pages 2439 Words
We are at a time where our society is able to bring the full force of scientific and technological advances to reduce the number of human tragedy and economic losses due to natural disasters. Although, we must take an integrated and diverse approach to disaster reduction, bringing new emphasis to research on disasters, on pre-disaster planning, and on preparedness. It is up to us to include disaster education and preparedness of the public as well as early warning systems, in which people at risk receive, understand, and act upon the warning information conveyed. Natural Disasters are the consequences or effects of natural hazards. They represent human, property and economic losses and they signify a serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of economic and social progress. The overwhelming number of dead or seriously injured and homeless people after the occurrence of a natural disaster and the massive amount of money to be spent for reconstruction and rehabilitation equates to a natural disaster. They are nothing else but extreme environmental events that impact human activities. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are the most frequents threats, as well as flooding, tornadoes, and droughts, which are also prevalent (UNESCO). Because of these natural disasters there are one million people around the world that die each decade and millions more homeless each year (FEMA). Also, economic damages from natural disasters have tripled in the past 30 years, rising from 40 billion in the 1960s to 120 billio! In order to distinguish the amount of help needed after a natural disaster the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization has separated the amount of damages into three categories: direct, indirect, and secondary effects. Direct effects are the immediate but not necessarily the worst effects on a country. These encompass the lose of property of state, business enterprises and population, damag...
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A Safer Future: Reducing the Impacts of Natural Disasters (1991)
Chapter: 4. mitigation.
M itigation — actions taken to prevent or reduce the risk to life, property, social and economic activities, and natural resources from natural hazards — is central to the Decade initiative. Awareness, education, preparedness, and prediction and warning systems can reduce the disruptive impacts of a natural disaster on communities. Mitigation measures such as adoption of zoning, land-use practices, and building codes are needed, however, to prevent or reduce actual damage from hazards. Avoiding development in landslide- and flood-prone areas through planning and zoning ordinances, for example, may save money in construction and reduce the loss of life and damage to property and natural resources. Postdisaster studies continue to confirm the fundamental fact that community investment in mitigation pays direct dividends when a disaster occurs.
Development trends in the United States underscore the need to instill a new commitment to mitigation. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) projects a national investment of $4 trillion during the 1990s in new construction and infrastructure. Advances in the fields of hazard and risk assessments are providing decision-makers with increasingly accurate and useful information on the potential impacts of natural disasters on society. The challenge is to apply this information and translate current understanding of natural hazards into meaningful action at the community level to protect the substantial investments in new and existing development. Equally important is the human side of mitigation; programs should reflect the needs of an urban, aging, technologically oriented society.
Despite increasing vulnerability to natural disasters, many communities resist adopting mitigation programs. The barriers are economic, social, and political, and mitigation is often perceived as restrictive, costly, and incompatible with the community's economic development goals. Mitigation may involve solutions that are technically sound but politically unpopular. In this context, elected officials are often reluctant to pursue mitigation programs vigorously.
Progress toward adoption of mitigation practices will require community commitment, recognition of constraints and barriers, and innovative solutions. Flood-prone areas, for example, could be incorporated into community-enhancing open space, wildlife and recreation attractions, or hiking and physical fitness trails. New awareness and education programs need to be developed to foster incorporation of the lessons learned from disasters and the findings from social research into mitigation practice.
Mitigation initiatives, above all, need to involve the key groups that participate in developing, adopting, implementing, and enforcing mitigation — public officials, finance and insurance specialists, engineers, planners and architects, civic groups, marketing specialists, educators, and researchers. To be effective, mitigation requires a multidisciplinary team approach free from domination by any one special interest group; each discipline has a role and contribution to make. Close communication and coordination among researchers, practitioners, and policymakers increase the likelihood that effective mitigation programs will be implemented.
December 1990 floods in Washington state destroyed acres of young Christmas trees. The financial effect of the loss on this atypical agricultural crop may not befelt for a few years.
A program for enhancing the nation's hazard mitigation capabilities should capitalize on opportunities for immediate and near-term success and sustain progress into the next century. Numerous cost-effective mitigation programs should be recognized and profiled. Transferable solutions need to be closely examined. At the same time, a balanced Decade program should address the fundamental problems associated with mitigation — the economic, social, and political barriers.
The Committee recommends that every community at significant risk adopt and enforce an appropriate mitigation program, including both nearterm goals and a comprehensive long-range plan for reducing the impacts of natural disasters.
To achieve this goal, the Committee proposes that local jurisdictions take the following steps:
incorporate both structural and nonstructural mitigation measures in new development,
examine ways to reduce the vulnerability of existing structures,
take steps to reduce the vulnerability of natural resources, and
undertake mitigation training with support from state and federal governments.
A program for enhancing the nation's hazard mitigation capabilities should include:
Protection of schools and hospitals. All new schools and hospitals should be located and constructed to ensure that high-hazard areas are avoided and that special provisions are made to reduce the potential for damage by natural hazards. In addition, existing school and hospital buildings should be surveyed to determine their levels of resistance to relevant hazards. Strenuous efforts should be made to strengthen facilities that would fail in a disaster. In some instances, legislation may be required to ensure that mitigation actions are taken.
The Committee believes that special emphasis should be placed on implementing mitigation measures in schools and hospitals because of their critical role in community life and their heightened importance during disasters. One of this nation's greatest resources — children — spends a large portion of time in school buildings. Schools also serve as primary shelters for evacuees during disasters. All too often, however, school buildings are neither constructed nor maintained to withstand the physical effects of natural hazards, and in many states they are exempt from building codes. As a result, they are potential death traps for the students or evacuees within them. Hospitals and other health care facilities minister to the sick and injured and are the locus of the medical technology and expertise that are essential in a disaster. When hospital facilities fail during a disaster, as they have in numerous recent earthquakes and hurricanes, not only are patients and medical personnel killed or trapped within them, but stricken communities are also deprived of needed medical resources, equipment, and supplies.
Wherever economically feasible, communities should strengthen other essential facilities such as emergency operations centers, police and fire stations, utilities, and telecommunications and transportation networks, all of which are critical to emer-
Response and recovery plans need to be incorporated into communities ' disaster preparedness. Family plans should include specified meeting places in case family members are separated before or during an event, and local schools need to make plans for protecting and accommodating children until they can be reunited with family.
gency response and recovery. Museums, convention centers, theaters, and other places of public assembly should also be included in a program to strengthen buildings. Plans are also needed to include the private sector in mitigation activities for both public and private structures.
Adoption of nonstructural measures. Businesses and homes should incorporate nonstructural mitigation measures to minimize injuries and property damage from natural disasters. Furniture and equipment, for example, can be easily secured to reduce injuries and damage from earthquakes. Other nonstructural measures are management of vegetation to reduce damage from wildfires and location of structures away from high-hazard areas.
Nonstructural mitigation represents a major opportunity for immediate low-cost action to reduce the impacts of natural hazards on the home and the workplace. The private sector can contribute significantly to promoting nonstructural mitigation. Lending institutions are ideally positioned to incorporate mitigation provisions as conditions for loans, and the insurance and reinsurance industries can adjust underwriting rate structures as an incentive for mitigation.
Incorporation of mitigation into new development. Local jurisdictions should ensure that new development is located, designed, and constructed to withstand natural hazards. They should use information from hazard and risk assessments, land-use plans, and zoning regulations to limit development of hazard-prone areas. Compatible uses of floodplains and other hazardous areas should be incorporated into local planning and zoning so that losses are reduced. Such areas could have a high value for recreation, fish and wildlife reserves, open space, or other community use.
Building codes that set minimum specifications for design and construction can be a powerful tool for mitigating the effects of natural hazards; lives were saved in the Loma Prieta earthquake as a direct result of seismic design and construction practices implemented two or more decades earlier. Fire codes, dam safety standards, and emergency provisions (e.g., ensuring that power is cut off to broken utility lines) have significantly reduced the damage from natural events. Building codes should be a central part of a mitigation strategy for new construction. Barriers to the adoption and enforcement of modern codes should be identified and strategies developed that
include incentives and other mechanisms to overcome community and industry resistance.
Although land-use planning, zoning ordinances, and building codes and regulations are the responsibility of local and state government, technical and financial assistance will be needed to adopt and implement these mitigation measures. This assistance should be provided through NIST, FEMA, and professional organizations such as the Applied Technology Council, the Building Seismic Safety Council, and the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Protection of cultural properties. Protection of libraries, monuments, historic buildings, works of art, and other cultural resources should be incorporated into mitigation planning and action. Losses in the historic district of Charleston, South Carolina, from Hurricane Hugo show the particular vulnerability of cultural properties to natural disasters.
There is a need for both information and practical assistance to reduce this kind of loss. Following a disaster, preservation of historic sites can be an emotional and costly aspect of recovery and reconstruction. Mitigation training should include the issue of preservation to promote informed decision-making and community involvement.
National and international groups are working under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Council of Museums, and other organizations to raise awareness of the threat of natural hazards to cultural properties and to mitigate or prevent damage and losses. Foundations and private groups can contribute to these efforts.
Protection of natural resources. Particularly valuable natural resources such as endangered species of wildlife, fish, and plants should be identified in mitigation plans and protection measures included in disaster response plans. Such natural resources are found not only in the wild, but in zoos and parks as well.
Mitigation plans might include particular attention to the location and design of facilities so that a fire or windstorm does not act as a conduit for unexpected damage to important natural resources. For example, pipelines and power lines frequently traverse important natural resources areas. In such cases, it is possible to anticipate probable damage to adjacent natural resources caused by rupture of a pipeline or a broken power line. Automatic flow controls, special breakers, and other features are readily available and can dramatically reduce damage. For particularly valuable and endangered populations of wildlife and plants, prudent planning might include relocating a portion of the population so that a natural event does not result in the loss of the entire population.
Government leadership of mitigation implementation. Government at all levels should set an example by requiring that new facilities that it funds, regulates, or leases be designed, built, and located in accordance with modern building codes and sound
Whether sparked by lightning or by powerlines downed in a storm, the path of forest fires is unpredictable, leaving behind a stark landscape, here including the blackened remains of a chimney and cement foundations of a cabin.
land-use practices. On the national level, in January 1990, the President issued an executive order requiring that federal agencies design and construct all new buildings to be earthquake resistant. Similar directives, supported by active enforcement programs, are needed at the state and local levels, and they should encompass all relevant natural hazards. Such standards should be considered for all publicly funded infrastructures and lifelines such as highways and bridges. As resources permit, the requirements should be extended to existing buildings in a phased program that reflects their vulnerability.
Mitigation training. Training programs that focus on contemporary challenges associated with implementing mitigation should be developed and offered. A national training program, supported by the federal government and fully integrated with the preparedness training proposed here, should be developed for this purpose. Its curriculum would include land-use planning, zoning, building codes and regulations, tax incentives, and nonstructural mitigation measures. Case studies from throughout the nation and around the world should be included. Mitigation training programs offered by FEMA and USFS should include more participants, disciplines, and subjects.
Mitigation training should be highly interactive, reflecting real problems and issues. For example, how can hazard and risk data be used to promote mitigation at the community level? How can hazardprone land be used in ways that are important to communities but less vulnerable to natural disasters? How can a local emergency manager or other official develop a cost-effective mitigation program? How can mitigation policy and practice be moved up on the political agenda? How can local commitment to hazard reduction be developed? How can historic structures be cost-effectively protected to avoid expensive salvage attempts following a disaster? These and other issues need to be addressed in a nationwide training program.
Hazard-specific research. Recent disasters have demonstrated the benefits of mitigation efforts while pointing out the need for research to improve mitigation practice. Although all hazards would benefit from such study, research agendas for earthquakes, landslides, and extreme winds are illustrated below.
Earthquakes: There is a need to complete a national seismic monitoring network and establish a cooperative international program in strong-motion measurement and data analysis. Local networks should be established, as needed, to determine the effects of local site conditions on ground motion and the relationship between specific ground motion parameters and the degree of structural damage.
The behavior of structures founded on different soil types is another area of research opportunity. The damage distribution in the Marina District during the Loma Prieta earthquake dramatized the effects of soil properties on structures and underscores the need for additional research in this area.
Research is needed to develop cost-effective methods for strengthening existing buildings and structures, especially unreinforced masonry and brittle reinforced-concrete buildings. Federal and state governments should encourage the development and implementation of active and passive control systems and other new techniques to improve the seismic resistance of both existing and new buildings. Additional research should be conducted to improve techniques for controlling damage to nonstructural elements such as ceilings, windows, the electrical supply, and domestic gas pipes. Research to improve the design and construction of lifeline systems should be accelerated.
Landslides: Each year, landslides in the United States cause approximately $2 billion in damage. Better understanding of the conditions that generate landslides would significantly improve hazard and risk assessments by local jurisdictions. Research is needed to develop designs that mitigate ground deformation and damage to structures, provide a technical base for mitigation measures such as landslide zoning, and test and evaluate innovative landslide stabilization techniques.
The application of new techniques in satellite remote sensing, geophysics, and geotechnical engineering for delineating landslide hazard areas should be accelerated. Research is needed to identify the economic, political, and social processes that encourage or impede landslide mitigation programs. This information could be valuable when landslides are considered in insurance programs and local planning and zoning, including the location of key facilities.
Extreme winds: Knowledge about wind-force effects on buildings is critical to developing wind speed provisions in building codes and designing wind-resistant structures. Research in this area is lacking; measurements of wind speeds at the height of mid- to high-rise buildings are rarely available.
The stucco facade of this building shattered like an eggshell as lava flowing around the base of the three-story structure applied such pressure that the walls shifted and collapsed.
A national wind hazard reduction program, modeled on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, is needed to improve building performance in high winds and severe weather. The program should emphasize mitigation. Schools and medical facilities, in particular, should be subject to stringent building codes. Home and business owners should be provided with “do-it-yourself” instructions on how to strengthen individual structures to withstand winds. High winds can cause substantial property damage and economic loss. Research needs to focus on whether current mitigation practice, including the wind-resistance provisions of building codes, is responsive to the potential magnitude of the problem.
Overcoming resistance to mitigation. Barriers to the adoption of mitigation measures need to be clearly identified and innovative strategies developed to overcome resistance. Success stories, computer models, and simulations should be components of such a program. Real experiences can provide both insight into the factors that contribute to successful mitigation programs and the means for communities to capitalize on opportunities that follow a disaster. Computer simulations and other tools that incorporate the tax base, revenues, loss estimates, and other key variables can provide government and industry with information critical to their decision-making. Simulations of past recovery and reconstruction efforts, including decisions and trade-offs, may contribute to appreciation of the value of mitigation.
Response and recovery need to be a coordinated effort of local, state, and federal government, private voluntary organizations, and community volunteers. During and after Hurricane Hugo, U.S. Marine Corps volunteers worked with the Salvation Army to move bottled water and other requisite supplies through relief centers and to appropriate locations in a timely manner.
Initial priorities for U.S. participation in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, declared by the United Nations, are contained in this volume. It focuses on seven issues: hazard and risk assessment; awareness and education; mitigation; preparedness for emergency response; recovery and reconstruction; prediction and warning; learning from disasters; and U.S. participation internationally.
The committee presents its philosophy of calls for broad public and private participation to reduce the toll of disasters.
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Avoiding Natural Disasters
Avoiding Natural Disasters Natural disasters kill more people on a global scale than wars. According to the United Nations, in the last decade alone, natural disasters have caused the deaths of more than a million people, affected 1.8 billion people in terms of loss of health, homes and livelihoods, and cost $685 billion in economic and structural damage. It is virtually impossible to prevent natural disasters such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. Such events are caused by climatic and geological occurrences that are inevitable and cannot be avoided. Hence, our focus should be placed on lessening the severity of the impact they have on every aspect of our lives. We can successfully reduce their damaging effects by implementing effective monitoring and warning systems, building codes, flood defences, comprehensive disaster management plans and educating citizens on disaster preparedness. The best way to minimise the effects of a natural disaster is to establish early detection systems that allow for advance warning to be given to national and global communities. Sophisticated seismic monitoring networks can identify significant movements of the earth’s crust, therefore providing early notification of an imminent volcanic eruption. Close examination of the boundaries between tectonic plates can indicate the build-up and intensification of tension at convergent plate boundaries. While it is impossible to predict exactly when an earthquake will happen, scientists can utilise seismic data to forewarn people that such an event is expected to occur. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad... ... middle of paper ... ... in advancer and prepare for its effects. While it is impossible to completely prevent human casualties, loss of homes and livelihoods and damage to the economy, every country can take steps to lessen the occurrence of such loss and quickly move towards rescue and recovery after disasters have struck. Monitoring and warning systems are of critical importance, and this fact has been emphasised by recent tidal waves that killed thousands of people who were caught unaware in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean. Places such as California and Japan are testimony to the value of building codes that minimise structural damage and therefore lessen the loss of life. These examples prove that the effects of natural disasters can indeed by reduced so long as proper measure are put in place before such inevitable events occur.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that natural disasters kill more people on a global scale than wars.
- Opines that the focus should be placed on lessening the severity of their impact on every aspect of our lives by implementing effective monitoring and warning.
- Explains the importance of early detection systems that allow for advance warning to be given to national and global communities.
- Explains that scientists can utilise seismic data to forewarn people of an imminent volcanic eruption.
- Explains that noaa has established tsunami warning stations in the united states, and 26 pacific countries have jointly created their own warning system that monitors the ocean floor using data collection buoys.
- Explains that monitoring and advanced warning systems are crucial in reducing the disastrous effects which natural disasters can have as they allow sufficient time to carry out necessary preparations to minimise damage to property and loss of human life.
- Explains that strict building codes can reduce human casualties and property destruction in areas prone to earthquakes, tornadoes and tsunamis.
- Explains that the vulnerability of wooden structures means that they are often the first to collapse. governments need to ensure that buildings meet high standards of tremor and fire resistance.
- Explains that building codes play an important role in protecting property and, consequently, decreasing property damage.
- Explains that the construction of flood defences is vital in preventing damage caused by inundation of land surfaces and populated areas. many rivers and ocean fronts in japan are lined with extensive dike systems.
- Explains that crops are grown in polders, or fields that have been created by building dikes to hold back the sea during storms. areas that are surrounded by water should implement dike systems.
- Opines that disaster management and emergency response are imperative to lessen the effects that natural disasters can have in terms of death toll and human suffering.
- Opines that coordinated plans regarding the establishment of first-aid centers and the provision of medical care must be implemented immediately after a natural disaster has struck.
- Opines that disaster response plans and agencies help to diminish the impact that natural disasters can have on a nation's citizens.
- Advises people to stock up on emergency food and water supplies and store valuables in case of a tornado or earthquake.
- Explains that people who live along coastal areas know the warning signs of a tsunami. the water recedes and often leaves fish exposed on the sand.
- Concludes that the only way to reduce the effects of natural disasters is to detect the threat in advance and prepare for its effects.
- Opines that every country can take steps to lessen the occurrence of human casualties and quickly move towards rescue and recovery after disasters have struck. monitoring and warning systems are of critical importance.
- Explains that the earth has been producing natural hazards for millennia, such as earthquakes and volcanoes caused by the movement of tectonic plates, and also wind and water elated disasters like tornado and tsunamis.
- Explains that land can contribute greatly to the hazards it faces. all of these cause great destruction and can involve lots of energy, these events do not become disasters unless there are human factors involved.
- Explains that loss of land, employment, and homes is a hazard that can be short-lived for decades. providing adequate preparation and protection from physical hazards can reduce the risk.
- Explains that earthquakes in the sahara dessert affect nobody, since no one lives there. the location of the hazard can also mean large differences in lives lost.
- Explains that many homes will not be strong enough to withstand the impact and the spread of information will be lessened due to not having an intergraded television and radio system, and many medcs are able to forecast hazards by using highly sensitive and expensive equipment.
- Explains that the greek city of pompeii was engulfed by a volcano with very little warning the result being the loss of almost all of the city and its inhabitants.
- Explains that the increased urbanisation of land, concrete, and other impermeable surfaces mean that water reaches rivers faster which can cause the river to burst its banks.
- Explains that the mississippi was straitened to be better for human usage, and that those building on unstable or perilous land can have future problems.
- Explains that the increased weight on buildings on cliff tops can mean that they crack and erode at a faster rate than normal. to prevent these hazards from occurring mitigation is needed.
- Explains that reclaimed farmland is being returned to floodplain in essex. volcanologists have recommended for many years that buildings are not located on volcano sides, but many feel the benefits far outweigh the risk.
- Explains that earthquakes can cause liquefaction on reclaimed land, turning the once stable base of people's homes into mud and sand.
- Explains that regina was hit by its first ever tornado on june 30, 1912, but it is still the deadliest tornado in terms of human lives to have occurred in all of canada to date.
- Describes how the tornado, popularly called the regina cyclone, touched down 18 km south of regina, saskatchewan, on june 30, 1912. it demolished farms, residential areas, the downtown core, and the warehouse and railway districts.
- Explains that the 1912 tornado occurred in the prairies of canada, as they are flat, low-lying, and devoid of topographically features that block the movement of air masses.
- Explains the fujita scale, invented in 1971 by tetsuya "ted", which provides a method of approximating tornado wind speeds through qualitative assessments of damage to buildings and trees.
- Compares the number of tornadoes in the united states with those in canada, where they cause two deaths, 20 injuries, and millions of dollars of damage.
- Explains that regina had never been hit by a tornado in recorded history until 1912, because many farm, residential, and commercial buildings were constructed with wood and nails.
- Opines that it is unclear how much human activity contributed to the formation of the tornado itself, but it's clear that human settlement and building construction gave it something to ravage.
- Explains that the tornado caused $1.2 million in damage to property, claimed the lives of 28 people, injured more than 200, and rendered 2500 homeless.
- Explains the reason for the human and monetary losses was the magnitude of the f4 tornado. the poor construction of wooden buildings was a contributing factor.
- Opines that tornadoes could have been prevented by meteorological, communication, and building construction technology limitations of the time. regina's population in 1912 was only about 30,000.
- Explains that there were 15 to 16 tornadoes reported by witnesses from june 27 to around july 6. the lack of tornado predicting technology and warning broadcast technology saw that some people were not aware of the tornado until it was upon them.
- Explains that regina has learned to be much more prepared to encounter a tornado since 1912 — there are online, televised, and radio tornado warning systems put in place by environment canada.
- Cites abbott, p. l. (2009). chapter 10: tornadoes, lightning, heat, and cold.
- Explains that regina is a different city than one hit by cyclone of 1912.
- Cites heidorn, k.c. (2008). canada's deadliest tornadoes.
- Describes regina public library's prairie history blog. retrieved march 7, 2014.
- Cites the regina cyclone of 1912. introduction to the archives. the tornado project online.
- Explains the path of the tornado superimposed on the map of regina, 30 march 2006. the regina plains museum. (2014). a window into the regina tornado of 1912.
- Analyzes the damage to the ywca by cyclone, year 1912. regina: the early years (2014).
- Explains regina: the early years. (2014). cyclone of 1912. warehouse district after the cyclone.
- Explains the definition of natural hazards by i. burton and r.w. kates.
- Explains that the higher the level of development, the more damage caused by hazards. the earth is always moving and the tectonic plates are constantly grinding next door to each other.
- Explains that the death rates from natural hazards and disasters seem to be increasing due to population growth, economic growth and the increasing use of hazardous environments.
- Explains that natural hazards claim more lives in poorer countries with over 90% of deaths occurring in developing countries.
- Explains that avalanches can occur wherever there is snow lying on ground of sufficient angle. increased popularity of winter climbing and hill walking, along with the growth of interest in off-piste skiing, add to the list of injuries.
- Explains that avalanches can be defined as mass movement hazards. they occur when the downward force becomes larger than the upward slope.
- Explains the most important triggers of an avalanche are; heavy snowfall due to increased mass, rain or thaw - decreasing friction, or an increase in the dynamic loading.
- Explains that victims of avalanches can be buried just a few feet below the surface and not escape, as the snow becomes extremely dense due to its fall.
- Explains that peru has the highest number of deaths due to avalanches in the world, and many villages have been destroyed several times.
- Explains that when snow came to rest 10 miles from its starting zone, it had killed around 18,000 people. flooding is another hazard that people can be blamed for the intensity of the impact.
- Explains that the u.k. has tarmac streets and drainage systems for excess rainfall, but this strategy doesn't always work.
- Explains that tarmac, which does not let water infiltrate, causes over land flow and flooding. vegetation is destroyed in order to build houses and other human needs.
- Explains that earthquakes are a natural hazard, which the impact can be influenced by humans. an earthquake in japan, for example, can have greater impact than in india, because of economic development.
- Explains that 75,000 buildings were destroyed and nearly 6,000 people killed in an earthquake 7.2 on the richter scale. most deaths happened in the old residential areas where buildings had been constructed before the introduction of designs to help withstand earthquakes.
- Explains that even with the most developed countries and lots of money, man cannot stop a hazard from occurring, and affecting their lives.
- Explains that earthquakes can cause more damage to buildings and less deaths and injuries. many thousands of people can be killed and injured where proper earthquake warnings are not available.
- Explains that the level of response from each individual hazard area can determine human impact on hazards. some simply accept they live in a hazardous area and do nothing, while others try and respond by controlling it.
- Explains that hazards are inevitable but can be controlled by early warning systems, insurance, etc. responses can make things worse depending on when they take place.
- Explains that humans affect the impact of some natural hazards, and in some cases also the causes of hazards.
- Opines that natural hazards are present all over the world, and no matter how man tries to prevent damage to their lives, they will never be stopped.
- Explains that the natural hazards center was established in 1973 to enhance and contribute to the knowledge base of the then young, academic field of disaster research and to help reduce the destruction caused by disasters.
- Explains that nhc receives funding from the national science foundation, national oceanic and atmospheric administration, federal emergency management agency, us geological survey, and centers for disease control and prevention.
- Explains that the nhc publishes books, papers, and reports on disaster research and emergency management, as well as maintaining one of the largest collections of literature regarding natural hazards.
- Explains that the center engages students in research activities to give them hands-on training in disaster and social science research and allows them to participate in multidisciplinary projects undertaken by renown staff.
- Explains that kathleen tierney, nhc director, and dennis s. mileti, senior research scientist, are at the helm of the center and have published extensively on various aspects of disaster management.
- Explains that the working relationships with us federal governmental agencies have enabled the nhc to contribute to the understanding and improvement of disaster management in this country and around the world.
- Explains the national hazards center's history and mission. mileti, d.s., lindell, m.k. and perry, r.w.
- Explains that hazards are the bane of most ledc's throughout the world retarding development and causing colossal amounts of destruction and death.
- Explains that there are many natural hazards that people suffer from and many different ways by which governments and people control and manage them.
- Compares how drought, which causes amazing amounts of damage and affects 30% of all people affected by hazards, is managed since unlike flooding, the damage is more superficial.
- Explains that floods occur all over the world and are due to multiple factors, both eustatic and isostatic. the uk suffered a flash flood in 1953.
- Compares the high spring tide and storm surge with india, which suffers frequent floods.
- Explains that india can suffer severe flooding when the monsoon rains are heavier than normal, like that in 1998 which made 30 million people homeless, destroyed over 300'000 homes and caused the deaths of at least 700 people.
- Proposes that embankments should be built around major cities, such as dhaka, to protect city dwellers.
- Proposes a management scheme to reduce the effects of heavy monsoon rains with the idea of planting trees in the himalayas.
- Opines that flood forecasting using satellites, self-help with escape centres up hills, and specially designed schools for locals to take refuge in is the most affordable method.
- Opines that there is conflict over these proposals since they seem to favour the rich city dwellers.
- Explains that drought cannot be controlled, though omaha has tried cloud seeding, but this has not been proven to work. many people refer to drought in the hydrological context, which can be easily controlled.
- Opines that the sahel drought is a perfect example of bad control as people changed their crops to rain fed agriculture and increased their crop size due to 'good' rainfall in the 1950s and 1960s.
- Explains that 90% of wood is used for firewood increasing the albedo affect of the earth and reducing rainfall further.
- Explains that people in the sahel, to survive the drought, have developed several ways of handling it, such as selling livestock, wage labour, borrowing cash for food.
- Explains that the government has helped to manage the drought by conserving food stocks, using supplementary food supplies from aid agencies, careful seed drilling to use pockets of moisture in the soil, and the use of drought resistant crops.
- Opines that it is more beneficial for a country not to ignore the fact that they are at risk of drought and preparing.
- Explains that countries based on subsistence farming are more at risk from drought, and richer countries never suffer to this extent, due to the great control they have.
- Explains that controlling factors are the best way of reducing the effects of natural hazard as demonstrated by medc's, though they are unlikely to be affected by drought even if they abuse these.
- Compares san francisco's 7.1 richter earth quake in 1989 with an eruption in iran.
- Explains that mortality is based purely on management by rich countries, because it is not even possible to predict earthquakes yet, though hazard areas can be deduced by looking at fault lines.
- Explains that shock resistant buildings are not affected by resonance in the earth, allowing the energy to dissipate, out of the building stopping them from cracking or braking.
- Concludes that there are many ways of controlling, and managing hazards, if the amount of resources put in is adequate.
- Explains that even when there is no way, death and destruction can still be kept to a minimum through management. this can be seen in poor countries where mismanagement by governments is trying to make more money.
- Explains that disaster preparedness is a central issue in disaster management. it reduces the risk of loss of lives and injuries and increases coping capacity when hazard occurs.
- Explains that the lack of preparation takes place in different places and involves different hazards. kenny (2009) found that most residents in south florida, hurricane-prone area, failed to take preparatory measures such as securing bottled water and food.
- Explains that people are reluctant to take action because they perceive some disasters have low probability. in 1974, kenny concluded that only 12 percent respondents in california households have taken action measure preventing earthquakes.
- Illustrates how governments are frustrated to convince people to take a proper action before, during and after disasters. 91% (2.682 persons) from indonesia destroyed by merapi volcano rejected to move to other places provided by government.
- Explains that public education aimed at increasing awareness, level of knowledge and correcting the risk perception has a little success in adopting protective behavior.
- Explains that public awareness programs failed to promote protective behaviours due to limited budget, performance problems and timing. paton and prior criticized the development of risk communication that did not take into account the local characteristics.
- Explains that the failure of most interventions in promoting health behavior is due to not using behavioral theory as the basis of their intervention. this study will be based on theory of planned behavior-based persuasive communication.
- Explains that using this approach, it implies that by intervening community with the various means of communication it will increase community awareness, knowledge about risk, level of preparedness, better risk perception and in turn adjusting behavior toward protective behavior
- Describes how the space shuttle columbia was lost due to structural failure in the left wing.
- Opines that it's hard to say what steps could have been taken to prevent the space shuttle columbia disaster. all programs do not carry equal risk nor do they offer the same benefits.
- Explains that a major blackout swept across portions of the northeastern united states and canada on august 14th, 2003.
- Explains that the power industry has supported the formation of entities called "regional transmission organizations" or independent system operators, which operate independently from utilities to ensure reliability and standard operating procedures within the regional transmission grids.
- Opines that engineers learn from their mistakes and do their best not to repeat them. in the case of the space shuttle columbia disaster, nasa is taking major steps at their own expense to keep such incidents from happening
- Explains that natural disasters can occur anywhere at anytime, and that everyone needs to be prepared mentally and physically to deal with the aftermath.
- Explains that hurricanes are a tropical storm with winds more than 74 miles per hour (mph). hurricane wind damage is influenced by the duration and change of wind direction, amount of rainfall and how well land structures are built.
- Explains that hurricanes can be predictable and residents will have hours or days for storm preparation. make plans to secure their property and know your emergency evacuation routes.
- Explains that tsunamis are seismic sea waves created by a disturbance under the water such as an earthquake.
- Explains that tornadoes are often called nature's most violent storms and can devastate an area in seconds. they can develop so quickly that little, if no warning may be possible.
- Explains that the national weather system can disseminate a tornado watch where tornadoes are possible.
- Advises walking cautiously around the outside and checking for loose power lines, gas leaks, and structural damage. wait for authorities to declare the area safe.
- Opines that disaster recovery is a slow process, and that everyone is affected by it in some manner. to cope, talk to someone about feelings and seek help from professional counselors.
- Explains that it is crucial to monitor local media sources for information about where to obtain emergency housing, food, medical, and financial assistance. direct assistance to individuals and families may come from different organizations.
- Opines that safety is the number one priority in order to survive and recover from any major catastrophic event.
- Explains that earthquakes are one of the most disastrous natural hazards and result in unexpected and tremendous earth movements. they leave behind destruction of property, extensive disruption of services like sewer and water lines, and loss of life.
- Explains the different vibrations received from earthquakes have different velocities and recurrence intervals. earthquake depth is also an eminent characteristic.
- Explains that benioff zones are characterized as extensive dipping, irregularly shaped planes that have experienced frequent earthquakes. they are formed as a result of collision of the crustal plates.
- Explains that the earth's interior structure is made up of crust, mantle, and core.
- Explains that effective earthquake prediction saves life to a great extent and the economy in general. forecast prediction finds its foundation on extensive research work.
- Explains how earthquakes can be minimized by inducing shocks produced by seismic waves. this reduces the accumulation of elastic energy, and aids in evacuation.
- Explains that the recent earthquake in japan had many consequences such as extensive loss of life, destruction of a wide range of properties, disruption of various services, and destabilization of the japan's economy.
- Explains that communities throughout the country and the world are susceptible to disasters. understanding the types of disaster for which the community is susceptible is essential for emergency preparedness.
- Explains that the older population has a higher prevalence of chronic conditions, limited transportation, and is more vulnerable. the responsibility for evacuating persons is given to communities and determine through local governments.
- Explains that natural and man-made disasters are increasing in their prevalence. nurses have an expanded role in the community that is faced with a disaster.
- Explains that there are different types and causes of disasters; man-made, natural, and a combination. communities must have effective emergency preparedness in place to reduce the causalities.
- Explains that floods are a combination disaster and can often be predicted. the nuclear facility at three mile island outside of the state capital has an emergency alert system.
- States that pema is responsible for coordinating the response of all state agencies to every disaster since it was signed into law in 1951.
- Opines that communication is an essential component for minimizing mass causalities. the boston bombing demonstrates how man-made disasters can be unpredictable.
- Explains that al-rousan, rubenstein, & wallace, r. b., preparedness for natural disasters among older us adults a nationwide survey.
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How to Avoid Natural Calamities and How to Prepare for Them
Natural calamities have been a cause of great destruction and devastation on Earth. Some are more violent in nature as compared to the others, and sometimes, it’s simply impossible to estimate a death count – a great example is of a volcanic eruption that lead to tsunami and completely wiped out the Mediterranean Island of Stroggli.
Natural calamities are unpredictable in nature and often occur all of a sudden. Due to this nature, avoiding them is almost impossible. However, we can take certain precautions that will help keep the level of devastation down and save precious human lives.
The nature of protection against natural disasters depends on the type of the disaster. For disasters like floods and landslides, plantation of trees is a good long-term solution. On the other hand, there are disasters like lightening or earthquake against which there is not much a man can do. No matter what type of disaster you face, you can always plan something to increase your chances of survival.
As far as earthquakes are concerned, people all over the world are told to calmly leave the building they are in when the quake strikes. In case of damage, people are encouraged and taught to help pull out other people from the debris. On a larger scale, buildings can be constructed in a way that ensures they are less likely to collapse during an earthquake. In Japan for instance, there are shock absorbers installed at the base of the buildings which enables the building to move with the earthquake and prevents collapse.
Floods and landslides are hard to avoid. However, to protect against them, measures can be taken on a government level. These could include passing of laws that prohibit cutting down of trees and building of houses in regions that are flood prone. Disasters like drought can be avoided by proper planning and allocation of resources. Measures can be taken at community level so that no one is misusing or overusing their share of resources like water and food.
Regions where strong winds and tornadoes are a frequent occurrence need different precautionary measures. Tornadoes and storms can be predicted to an extent in today’s world. Once one is predicted, it is important not to wander out without reason. Asking the kids to stay at home is another good measure. These regions usually have strongly built houses to withstand the storms. However, having a basement where you can stay and wait for the storm to pass is not a bad idea. Make sure though that the basement has a door that takes you directly out of the house so that in case the house collapses, you can get out of the basement.
To protect against natural calamities, safety measures need to be taken at all levels. Governments need to play their part by passing laws that can result in safety for people while people themselves can learn the basic ways to respond to natural calamities. Communities need to have small plans in place because in case of a disaster, the nearest people who can help you will be those living in your neighborhood.
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Essay on Disaster Management
- Updated on
- Jul 27, 2022
Disaster Management has been essentially included in the study curriculums of secondary education. Whether it is natural or man-made, disasters can wreak havoc on our surroundings and cost human lives as well. To familiarise students with efficiently preventing and ensuring the safety of living beings and our environment from unprecedented events, the study of Disaster Management has been included as an important part of the Geography class 10 syllabus. This blog aims to focus on imparting how you can draft a well-written essay on Disaster Management.
Related Article: Geography for UPSC Preparation
This Blog Includes:
What is disaster management, essay on disaster management: tips & tricks, sample format for essay on disaster management for 150 words, sample essay of disaster management (150 words), sample essay on disaster management (300 words) , sample essay on disaster management (500 words), essay on disaster management for class 9 onwards, essay on disaster management in india.
To begin with your essay on Disaster Management, the most important thing is to comprehend this concept as well as what it aims to facilitate. In simple terms, Disaster Management is termed as the management and utilisation of resources as well as responsibilities to tackle different emergencies, be it man-made disasters or natural ones. It concentrates on preparing human beings for a varied range of calamities and helping them respond in a better way as well as ensure recovery thus lessening their overall impact.
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Before drafting your essay on Disaster Management, another thing you need to ensure is familiarising yourself with the structure of essay writing. To help you understand the do’s and don’ts, we have listed down some of the major things you need to keep in mind.
- Research thoroughly about your topic. For example, while writing an essay on Disaster Management, explore the recent happenings and mention them to provide the reader with a view into your understanding of this concept.
- Create important pointers while researching that you can further incorporate into your essay.
- Don’t mug up the definitions but comprehend them through examples.
- Use transitions between paragraphs to keep a coherent flow for the reader as a long paragraph might seem too lengthy and segregating your introduction and conclusion can provide a better structure.
- Quote important examples not only in your introduction but also in the following paragraphs where you detail the given topic.
- Revise and add finishing touches once you have completed the essay to locate any grammatical errors as well as other mistakes.
Now that you are aware of the key elements of writing an essay on Disaster Management, take a look at the format of essay writing first:
Introduction (30-40 words)
Begin with defining your topic explained in simple terms. For Disaster Management, You can make it more interesting by adding a question or a recent instance. The introduction should be understandable aiming to become more specific in the subsequent paragraphs.
Body of Content (80 words)
Also termed as the thesis statement , the content after the introduction should explain your given topic in detail. It should contain the maximum content out of the whole format because it needs to be detailed. For Disaster Management, you can delve deeper into its process, how it is carried out for different situations as well as prevention and protection.
Conclusion (30-40 words)
This section should mainly wrap up what you have described in the above paragraphs. For an essay on Disaster Management, you can focus on summing it up by writing its aim, types and purposes briefly.
Disaster can be simply termed as a sudden incident or happening which can be either natural or man-made and can potentially cause damage to the surroundings or loss of human life. To facilitate preparedness and better responsiveness to unforeseen events which can harm human beings and the environment, Disaster Management came into the picture.
Disaster Management aims to lessen the impact of natural and man-made calamities by designing and planning efficient ways to tackle them. It centrally comprises ensuring better control of the situation, its immediate evaluation, calling up required medical aids and transports, supplying drinking and food sources, among others and during this whole process, protecting the surroundings from more harm and keeping the lawfulness. The importance of Disaster Management has further increased in the contemporary scenario with the prevalent climate change and some of its latest examples include the unprecedented Australian wildfires.
Thus, the planet is getting bogged down by infinite technological devices, and their possible effects on the climate and the environment are inescapable. This has led to Disaster Management becoming the need of the hour as every country is aiming to become efficient and prepared to face both natural and man-made calamities.
Since the dawn of time, disasters, whether natural or man-made, have been a part of man’s evolution. Tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, floods, accidents, plane crashes, forest fires, chemical disasters, and other natural disasters frequently strike without notice, leading to massive loss of life and property. Disaster management refers to the strategies and actions put in place to lessen and prevent the effects of a disaster.
The word “disaster management” refers to all aspects of catastrophe mitigation, including preventive and protective measures, preparedness, and relief activities. The disaster management process can be separated into two phases: pre-disaster planning and post-disaster recovery. This encompasses measures such as prevention, mitigation, and preparedness aimed at minimising human and property losses as a result of a possible danger.
The second category is activity post-disaster recovery in which response, rehabilitation, and reconstruction are all included. Search and rescue evacuation, meeting the victims’ basic needs, and rapid medical support from regional, national, and international authorities were all part of the response phase. The immediate purpose of the recovery phase is to restore some degree of normalcy to the afflicted areas. In resource-scarce countries, ex-ante risk mitigation investment in development planning is critical for decreasing disaster damage. It would be prudent to go from a risk-blind to a risk-informed investment decision.
We cannot prevent disasters, but we can reduce their severity and arm ourselves with knowledge so that too many lives are spared.
The globe is plagued with disasters, some of which are terrible and others that are controllable. Natural calamities, for example, are sudden occurrences that wreak significant devastation to lives and property. Disasters can occur either naturally or are man-made. To repair the damage caused by these disasters, emergency management is required. Through a disaster management procedure, the damage is contained and the hazards of the event are controlled. The procedure is aimed at averting disasters and reducing the effects of those that are unavoidable. Floods, droughts, landslides, and earthquakes are all threats to India. The Indian government’s disaster management measures have vastly improved over time.
The Process of Disaster Management:
The disaster management process is split into four stages. The first phase is mitigation, which involves reducing the likelihood of a disaster or its negative consequences. Public education on the nature of the calamity and how people may prepare to protect themselves, as well as structural construction projects, are among the actions. These projects are intended at reducing the number of people killed and property destroyed in the event of a disaster.
Preparedness is the second phase of disaster management, and it aims to improve government-led preparedness to deal with emergencies. The majority of the preparations are aimed toward life-saving activities. Plan writing, communication system development, public education, and drills are all part of the preparation process. The disaster management team implements measures to keep people alive and limit the number of people affected in the third phase, reaction. Transport, shelter, and food are provided to the afflicted population as part of the response. Repairs are being made, and temporary solutions, such as temporary housing for the impacted population, are being sought.
Recovery is the ultimate stage of disaster management. This normally happens after the tragedy has subsided and the harm has been done. During the recovery process, the team works to restore people’s livelihoods and infrastructure. Short-term or long-term recovery is possible. The goal is to return the affected population to a normal or better way of life. During public education, the importance of health safety is highlighted. The recovery phase allows catastrophe management to move forward with long-term solutions.
Disaster Management Challenges:
The management of disasters is a difficult task, and there are certain flaws to be found. Since the individual dangers and disasters in some countries are not well understood, the government is unable to deploy disaster management in the event of an unforeseen disaster. There’s also the issue of a country’s technical and framework capabilities being insufficient. Government support is required for disaster management frameworks. Due to the general large population, the disaster management approach includes public education, but there is no psychological counselling for individuals. People are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric illnesses.
Disaster management is a very important activity that countries should embrace to prevent disasters and lessen the negative consequences of disasters. However, disaster management has limitations that restrict the techniques’ ability to be implemented successfully.
Disasters can cause chaos, mass death of humans and animals, and a rise in crime rates. Disasters are unfavourable events that cause widespread anxiety and terror. They also make it difficult for society to respond to its causes.
Natural or man-made disasters can emerge. In both circumstances, they have the potential to cause significant loss of life and property. A combination of man-made and natural disasters can occur in severe circumstances. For example, violent conflicts and food scarcity. As a result, disaster management is required to limit or prevent massive loss and damage.
Disaster management includes disaster avoidance, disaster awareness, and disaster planning. These ideas will be discussed further down.
Prevention of Disaster:
Countries all across the world have taken precautions to prevent diseases or viruses from spreading. These initiatives include the funding of research into natural disaster aversion. Other sources of revenue include food distribution, healthcare services, and so on. In Africa and the Middle East, the latter is commonly used in economically challenged areas.
Improved scientific research has also made it feasible to predict potential natural disasters. For example, equipment to detect earthquakes and tsunamis has been developed. As a result, more people are concerned about the environment. In this sense, consciousness translates to a reduction in all forms of pollution in the environment.
Disaster Awareness :
Another strategy to minimise the excesses of widespread epidemics is to raise disaster awareness. Members of the public must be made aware of the importance of maintaining peace, de-escalating dangerous circumstances, and prioritising safety in the face of any possible tragedy.
The goal of disaster management is to reduce human death and suffering. The impact of disasters can be reduced if all of these factors are successfully managed. As a result, the necessity of disaster management cannot be emphasised.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the main agency charged with establishing rules and guidelines for disaster management in order to ensure prompt and effective disaster response. There is also a separate fund for mitigation called the “national disaster management fund” (NDMF). Functions performed by this agency are:
- Formation of policies for disaster management
- Approval of the strategies made up for disaster mitigation
- Formation of revenue or funds for disaster mitigation
- Managing multiple programmes and disseminating instructions.
The disaster has had both direct and indirect repercussions on human life, both of which have been deadly devastating and detrimental. There have been fatalities as well as stock losses. Natural disasters are unavoidable; even if we have mechanisms in place to predict or forecast them, we cannot prevent them from occurring. While preparing plans for our disaster management, the best that can be done is to prevent behaviours that are detrimental to the environment and lead to environmental deterioration. When a disaster strikes, it causes widespread devastation and loss of life. In the event of a disaster such as earthquakes, floods, or other natural disasters, a large number of people are displaced, and a large number of people die as a result of the disaster. This is when the true emergency begins by providing first aid to the injured, as well as rescue and relief efforts for the victims. To limit the risk of human life, everyone must participate actively in disaster management. When a crisis happens, the appropriate disaster management team can seize over as soon as possible.
Also Read: Career in Ecology and Environment
Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery .
naturals, man-mades, and hybrid disasters .
On 23 December 2005 , the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act
Hence, we hope that this blog has helped you understand the key steps to writing a scoring essay on Disaster Management. If you are at the conclusion of the 10th grade and confused about which stream to take in the next standard, reach out to our Leverage Edu expert and we’ll guide you in choosing the right stream of study as well as gain clarity about your interests and aspirations so that you take an informed step towards a rewarding career.
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Sonal is a creative, enthusiastic writer and editor who has worked extensively for the Study Abroad domain. She splits her time between shooting fun insta reels and learning new tools for content marketing. If she is missing from her desk, you can find her with a group of people cracking silly jokes or petting neighbourhood dogs.
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Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English
- Natural Disasters Essay for St...
Read Natural Disaster Essay on Vedantu
The planet earth has gone through many changes over these centuries. These changes are majorly due to natural disasters happening throughout time. When we talk about natural disasters, pollution, ozone depletion and global warming are the most common scenarios we witnessed.
Growing industrialisation and exploitation of natural resources have changed the echo system bringing on the verge of imbalance. However, over these decades, humans have also introduced many disaster warning systems helping to predict natural occurrence in advance. You can read more about Natural Disasters on Vedantu.
Different Faces of Natural Disasters
Nature possesses the character of a special balance in which all living beings live together in harmony with their environment. But whenever this balance is disturbed, we see the disastrous form of nature which wreaks havoc upon this world. Natural disasters come in various forms like earthquakes, Tsunami, Storms, Cyclones, droughts etc. These disasters have always occurred throughout history but the current threat of climate change has severely increased its risks. Man has to learn that he cannot control nature and his life should revolve around the conditions present in the environment and not the other way around.
We have tried to change the basic character of the Human-Nature relationship with every metric of development being centred on financial interest and the rise of global consumerism. This way of life promotes greed and has fundamentally made human beings disoriented towards nature. Our festivals celebrate the intrinsic relationship between humans and the environment where we celebrate Mountains, Rivers, and Animals etc. Natural disasters are a reminder that humans must never take the gift of nature for granted and always reciprocate for the resources that we have received from the environment. Clean Air, Clean Water and harmony in the ecosystem is a prerequisite for Human well being.
How to Deal with Natural Disasters?
India, due to its unique geographical character, faces natural disasters every year which cause massive harm to lives and property. Whether it be the floods of Uttarakhand in 2013 or the landslides in Western Ghats of Kerala. The cost of our blind exploitation of natural resources without showing reverence for the delicate balance of Nature has severely harmed us and we must learn lessons from these incidents.
One of the greatest stories of the Indian government in dealing with disaster readiness has been the story of the Indian state of Odisha. Odisha is a coastal state in eastern India that regularly faces cyclones that have caused great harm to the state. To deal with the menace of these cyclones the Odisha Government made an elaborate plan by taking the local communities in confidence and have successfully reduced the number of deaths in Odisha to a very small number which used to be in thousands earlier. Other Indian states should also learn from the experience of Odisha on how to improve disaster preparedness.
Keeping our environment safe and following the right process will help in bringing down the natural disasters. It is vital to learn about them.
FAQs on Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English
1. What are natural disasters increasing?
Over the years, natural disasters have increased. Regular earthquakes, massive flooding, cyclones, etc. have increased. According to the office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) which maintains an emergency disaster database, if a natural disaster kills 10 people, then it leaves 100 people injured. Increase in hydro-meteorological disasters, the combination of natural and man-made factors is leading to an increase in natural disasters.
2. What are the natural disasters that happened in 2020?
From wildfires in the US to locusts attack in India and back-to-back cyclones in India, there are many natural disasters in 2020. According to the Global Catastrophe Recap’s First Half of 2020 report, there were more than 207 natural disasters in just the first six months of 2020, causing \[＄\]75 billion loss globally.
3. What natural disaster is the worst?
Every natural disaster causing the loss of both property and human lives is the worst. Be it the earthquake, wildfire or cyclone; each disaster can be the worst in its sense.
4. What are the causes of natural disasters?
Natural disasters are caused by a number of reasons which may or may not be linked to Human interference. Floods, for example, occur generally because of a sudden increase in water level which cannot be supported by the natural geography of the river, however, it has been observed that floods have also occurred due to human interference like encroachment of river banks, illegal sand mining and obstructions in the natural flow of the river.
5. What are the agencies that deal with natural disasters?
On the National level, Natural disasters are dealt with by the National Disaster Relief Force or the NDRF. The NDRF has its own commissioned force which is highly experienced and trained to deal with situations when a disaster has occurred. Apart from the NDRF, there is also the SDRF which is present in every state. The central and state governments work in coordination during Natural disasters and saving lives along with restoration of normalcy is the primary concern of the relief operations.
6. What are the ways to deal with floods and droughts?
It may sound surprising to some people but India is a unique country where due to its vast geography, we have seen conditions where some parts of the country are facing floods while other parts suffer from drought in the same year. These are especially tough to deal with as the volume of water in floods just cannot be stored and once a region is facing drought, access to water becomes a question of survival. Linking rivers is a very grand scheme which can solve some of our problems but this also needs to be dealt with caution.
7. What can I do to contribute to disaster relief programmes?
The central and state governments carry out various programmes which are directly related to disaster relief work, coordinating with the agencies and donating to these relief operations are some things that we can do as citizens. There are various NGOs that provide relief material to people who are suffering from natural disasters. Creating awareness about such an important issue is also an essential activity. You can learn more about it on Vedantu website and download it in PDF format.
8. Which regions are the most affected by natural disasters in India?
Every part of the country has a unique geographical character and in some way or the other, they face the threat of natural disasters. Bihar and Assam are two such states which face floods on an annual basis, The Himalayan states have a very delicate ecology and save the menace of flash floods and landslides. Maharashtra has a problem of flooding in the Western Ghats while Vidarbha faces drought. Innovative ways must be discovered by states to deal with natural disasters.
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