Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Electronic Sources
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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7 th edition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs; special exceptions, however, are made for resources that are unarchived. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used.
Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
Webpage or Piece of Online Content
If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page . Site name. URL
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist . Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01
If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.
Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page . Site name. URL
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims . https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims
If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).
Title of page . (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/
If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page . Site name (if applicable). URL
National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions . https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions
APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.
Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page
Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantum_mechanics&oldid=948476810
Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.
Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs
Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.
Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi.org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page .
APA 7 also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.
Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned
Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.( Issue), page numbers. DOI
Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23 (2), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20105
Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned
If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time.
Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate . Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-adults-role-of-physical-activity-and-exercise
APA 7 th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.
Online News Article
Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.
If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication . URL
Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post . https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/best-music-of-2019-lana-del-rey-sings-lullabies-about-the-end-of-america/2019/12/06/6e82c5ec-15d8-11ea-a659-7d69641c6ff7_story.html
On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article . Name of publishing website. URL
Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market . BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200506-why-do-flats-dominate-spains-housing-market
Electronic or Kindle Books
It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book . Publisher. URL
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)
Dissertation/Thesis from a Database
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.
Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students (Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author
Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work . URL
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary . Retrieved January 13, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/braggadocio
Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (Ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI
Martin, M. (2018). Animals. In L. A. Schintler & C. L. McNeely (Eds.), Encyclopedia of big data . SpringerLink. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32001-4_7-1
Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL
Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NADAC/studies/37337
Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)
Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.
HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic]. HatchMed.com. https://www.hatchmed.com/blog/2017/1/30/8-ways-to-improve-patient-satisfaction
Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://email@example.com,-86.9233886,17z
Qualitative Data and Online Interviews
If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:
Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-new-yorker-interview/peter-dinklage-is-still-punk-rock
If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:
Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/interview-will-paynter
Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL
Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/carologic/ai-and-machine-learning-demystified-by-carol-smith-at-midwest-ux-2017
Computer Software/Downloaded Software
Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL
Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co. https://www.maplesoft.com/products/MapleCompanion/
E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Online Forum or Discussion Posting
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL
Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1p32dl/
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. URL
Note : If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://twitter.com/mlastyle
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/lirinps/
Instagram Photo or Video
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkWqbBwcf/
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher . URL
Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR . https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/08/11/742293305/a-century-later-the-treaty-of-versailles-and-its-rejection-of-racial-equality
YouTube or other Streaming Video
Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL
Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AMrJRQDPjk&t=148s
Note : The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL
Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/naif_al_mutawa_superheroes_inspired_by_islam#t-4909
Or (if on YouTube)
Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL
Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbdxeFcQtaU
Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast . Publisher. URL
Prime, K. (Host). (2019, March 29). For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab . WNYC Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/whom-cowbell-tolls
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How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples
Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 17, 2022.
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper , magazine , or dictionary ), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Formats differ for online videos (e.g. TED Talks ), images , and dissertations .
Use the buttons below to explore the format.
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Table of contents, citing an entire website, how to cite online articles, websites with no author, websites with no date, how to cite from social media, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.
When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site:
One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos.
For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page . However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry.
Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears.
Online articles from newspapers, magazines, and blogs
Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL.
The same format is used for blog posts. Just include the blog name where you would usually put the name of the magazine or newspaper.
Articles from online-only news sites
For articles from news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), italicize the name of the article and not the name of the site.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
When a web page does not list an individual author, it can usually be attributed to an organization or government . If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below.
If you can’t identify any author at all, replace the author name with the title of the page or article.
In the in-text citation , put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list. Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary.
When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations.
If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it.
As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound, links) in square brackets.
On some social media sites (such as Twitter ), users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets:
In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:
When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:
- Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
- Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Abbreviated heading: ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.
No publication date
If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).
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Caulfield, J. (2022, June 17). How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 13, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/website/
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Citing online articles in apa format, sources for apa citation.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition BF76.7 C66
APA Style online (use Style & Grammar Guidelines menu)
Information needed for citations:
- Author name(s)
- Date of publication
- Title of article
- Title of source (e.g. journal, etc.) plus volume number and issue number
- Inclusive page numbers of article
- DOI (if included)
The DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique number that provides a persistent link to the location of content on the internet. It should be formatted as a URL.
- Example: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222224
If there is no DOI listed for an article, the citation ends after the page range of the article. Do not include database information for works obtained from most academic research databases or platforms because works in these resources are widely available.
- Authors are typed as Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Marie L. Jones would be Jones, M. L.)
- If there is no author listed, list the title of the article first, capitalizing the first word.
- Note that only the first word, proper nouns, and the word immediately after a colon are capitalized within the title of the article.
- Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.
- Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.
In-Text Citations: Narrative Citations
- Example: Jones (2009) found that diabetes symptoms improve with exercise.
- Example: Jones and Smith (2010) found that aerobic exercise improved circulation problems of diabetics.
- Example: Jones, et al. (2008) observed that blood glucose levels decreased following aerobic activity.
In-Text Citations: Parenthetical Citations
- Example: Increased exercise resulted in diminished diabetes symptoms (Jones, 2009).
- Example: Increased exercise resulted in diminished diabetes symptoms (Jones & Smith, 2009).
- Example: Blood glucose levels were observed to decrease following aerobic activity (Jones, et al., 2008).
- Example: Increased exercise promoted cardio-vascular health within diabetics ("Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes," 2010).
- every in-text citation must have a corresponding citation on the References page
- no source should be included on the References page if there is no corresponding in-text citation in the paper
Sample reference citations for online journal articles with and without DOI
(no author, with DOI)
Title of article. (year). Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
- Do not capitalize “a,” “an,” or “the” unless it is the first word of the title or subtitle.
(no author, without DOI)
Title of article. (year). Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number.
(one author, with DOI)
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. Author’s middle initial (if known). (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(one author, without DOI)
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. Author’s middle initial if known. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number.
(two authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(two authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number.
(three to twenty authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(three to twenty authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number.
(more than twenty authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(more than twenty authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number.
Sample References Page
- Plagiarism and grammar
- Citation guides
Cite a Website
Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, citing a website in apa.
Once you’ve identified a credible website to use, create a citation and begin building your reference list. Citation Machine citing tools can help you create references for online news articles, government websites, blogs, and many other website! Keeping track of sources as you research and write can help you stay organized and ethical. If you end up not using a source, you can easily delete it from your bibliography. Ready to create a citation? Enter the website’s URL into the search box above. You’ll get a list of results, so you can identify and choose the correct source you want to cite. It’s that easy to begin!
If you’re wondering how to cite a website in APA, use the structure below.
Author Last Name, First initial. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of web page . Name of Website. URL
Example of an APA format website:
Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? FiveThirtyEight. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/
Keep in mind that not all information found on a website follows the structure above. Only use the Website format above if your online source does not fit another source category. For example, if you’re looking at a video on YouTube, refer to the ‘YouTube Video’ section. If you’re citing a newspaper article found online, refer to ‘Newspapers Found Online’ section. Again, an APA website citation is strictly for web pages that do not fit better with one of the other categories on this page.
When adding the text of a post, keep the original capitalization, spelling, hashtags, emojis (if possible), and links within the text.
Structure: Facebook user’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Monday Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of Facebook post [Source type if attached] [Post type]. Facebook. URL
Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached]
Post type examples: [Status update], [Video], [Image], [Infographic]
Gomez, S. (2020, February 4). Guys, I’ve been working on this special project for two years and can officially say Rare Beauty is launching in [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/Selena/videos/1340031502835436/
Life at Chegg. (2020, February 7) It breaks our heart that 50% of college students right here in Silicon Valley are hungry. That’s why Chegg has [Images attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/LifeAtChegg/posts/1076718522691591
Structure: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [Twitter Handle]. (Year, Month Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of tweet [source type if attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL
Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached], [Poll attached]
Example: Edelman, J. [Edelman11]. (2018, April 26). Nine years ago today my life changed forever. New England took a chance on a long shot and I’ve worked [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Edelman11/status/989652345922473985
APA citation format: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [@Instagram handle]. (Year, Month Day). Up to the first 20 words of caption [Photograph(s) and/or Video(s)]. Instagram. URL
Example: Portman, N. [@natalieportman]. (2019, January 5). Many of my best experiences last year were getting to listen to and learn from so many incredible people through [Videos]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BsRD-FBB8HI/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link
If this guide hasn’t helped solve all of your referencing questions, or if you’re still feeling the need to type “how to cite a website APA” into Google, then check out our APA citation generator on CitationMachine.com, which can build your references for you!
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Website Citation
How to Cite a Website in APA
This guide explains all of the important steps to referencing a website/web page in your APA research papers. The guidance below follows APA style, 7th edition.
APA format is much different than MLA format and other styles. If you need to cite websites in MLA , or you’re looking for more styles , check out the other resources on EasyBib.com!
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
What is a website? Am I citing a website or a web page?
Citing a website in the text (in-text citation), citing a website on the reference page, citing a general web article without an author, titles of pages on the web, extra information, publisher information, web addresses and dois, apa format for online news articles, additional website citation examples, troubleshooting.
A website is a place on the Internet that holds a group of individual pages (called web pages).
Think of a website like a tree. A website is the tree, and the individual web pages are the branches. Use YouTube as an example. YouTube is the site, and the individual channel pages and video pages are the branches. Wikipedia is a site, and each article has its own individual web page on that site.
Most of the time, you aren’t trying to cite a whole, entire site, but actually an individual web page. If you used a YouTube video to help you with your research project, you wouldn’t cite the entire YouTube site, you would cite the specific YouTube page the video was found on.
Here’s a similar question we’re often asked when it comes to the APA citation of a web page:
Q: This page describes citing specific pages and articles. Can I cite an entire site?
A: According to the APA manual (7th edition), it is not necessary to cite a site in its entirety in a reference list. Instead, include a reference to the website in the body of your paper and cite any web page individually.
The Department of Justice has just released a new site called ReportCrime.gov at https://www.reportcrime.gov/ to help people identify and report crimes in their area.
In the above passage, the website is stated in the text rather than cited. This guide focuses on how to cite individual pages found on the web (web pages). If you used an entire website, it’s perfectly acceptable to cite the whole site in the text of your paper, as shown above, but for the most part, you want to cite the page where the information was found.
If you’re seeking out an APA citation website to take the stress away from proper referencing, try out EasyBib.com! Stop typing into the search bar, “how to cite a website APA” or “APA in-text citation website.” EasyBib.com is the answer to your referencing questions and needs!
When you include a piece of information from a site in your project, you must include two citations: a brief citation in the text and also a full citation on the reference page.
When it comes to mentions in the text, students are sometimes tempted to put the web address in the body of a project. However, URLs can be long, clunky, and distracting. They should never be written in the body of a project.
Instead of writing the full address in the text, use the last name of the author and the date the source was published. If no author is shown, write the title of the individual page and the date.
For direct quotations, you may use paragraphs to indicate the quotation’s location in the work. Count the paragraphs manually if needed and use the abbreviation “para.” for paragraph.
Check out this in-text citation APA website example:
Cite your source
The above APA website in-text citation (the author’s last name and the date the information was published) corresponds to the information on the final page of the project, the reference page.
Here’s how the full APA citation for a web page looks on the final page of the project:
Need more in-text citation APA website info? Here’s more on how to build an APA parenthetical citation . You may also like our full-length guide on how to create an APA in-text citation .
If you’re looking for information on structuring other styles in the text of your paper, check out our page on MLA in-text and parenthetical citations .
In the next section of this APA citation website guide, we’re going to focus on how to format an APA website citation. If you’re wondering how to create an APA citation of a web page, the majority of web references use the structure shown below.
General structure for how to cite a website in APA
Note: A retrieval date is no longer required for online sources. It’s only needed if the content is likely to change over time (such as wikis and social media). The article or page title should be italicized. The URL is at the end and does not have a period after it.
Full reference example:
View Screenshot | Cite your source
Example of an in-text citation for a website in APA:
If you’re looking for an APA format website to do the work for you, try out EasyBib.com’s citation generator. Our APA citation website makes referencing a breeze!
APA citation for website structure:
Do you need to cite a source with no author in APA ? No problem. Wikipedia pages, online dictionary sites, and online encyclopedia sites are just a few examples of sites without an author. When there is no clear individual author, use the website organization (group author) as the author.
There are plenty of times when an individual’s name isn’t listed as the author, but the information on the site is written by a group, organization, or company.
In an APA website citation, it is completely acceptable to use the group’s name in the author position. Type it out in its entirety and add a period at the end. Check out the various APA citation of web page examples at the bottom of the page to see group authors in action!
Note: If the author name and website name is the same, just list it once in as the author; leave out the website name section in the APA citation.
APA citation for website example:
If you’re wondering whether to include the full date in your APA citation for web pages (month, day, and year) or just the year, we have the answer for you here.
An APA citation of web page reference includes the month, day, and year if it’s a site that is updated with new information frequently. Blog posts, newspaper articles, posts from social media profiles, and YouTube videos are just a few of the sources that would display the full date. In an APA citation for web pages, it’s written in this order in parentheses: (Year, Month Day).
If there is any information missing, simply include what is available. Also, if there is no date , indicate this by using (n.d.).
No date APA website example:
If you’re using the EasyBib citation generator to create an APA citation for a web page, our technology structures dates for you in their proper order. It’s the APA format website (and also the APA in-text citation website) you’ve been waiting for. Give it a whirl!
Here’s the advice we provide on many of our guides:
- If the source you are citing is a standalone source, meaning an entire book, television series, or film, the title of such sources should be in italics.
- If, however, you are citing a piece of a larger source, i.e., a journal article, a page on a site, or an episode of a show, the title should be in sentence case and not in italics.
Long story short, do not italicize an APA citation for web pages’ title in the text and on the final page of references.
For full references on the final page of the project, only include capital letters at the beginning of the title, at the beginning of each proper noun, and at the beginning of the first word in the subtitle.
The title is written in the text only when there isn’t an author listed. So, instead of showing the reference as (Author, Date), use (“Title of Page,” Date) in any APA citation for web pages. Notice the switch from sentence case to title case in the text reference.
A little extra information goes a long way when it comes to site citations. If you’re including a unique source type, include information about the medium directly after the title. This information is placed in brackets. Only the first letter is capitalized.
Here are a few examples you might see in an APA citation for a web page:
To see some of the extra information in action, scroll down to the examples towards the bottom of this page.
Speaking of extra information, it may not hurt to get some extra details on grammar topics in that brain of yours. Brush up on your adjective , pronoun , and interjection knowledge with our comprehensive guides!
Any information related to the publisher is not invited to the web citation party. In an APA citation of a web page, you do not need to include information about the company that made the site, where its offices are located, or any other similar information about the company in any web references. One thing less to worry about in your APA citation for web pages!
Other source types are much different, so before you exclude publisher information from all of your references, make sure you check out our APA citation page. While you’re at it, check out our other helpful resources, such as APA reference page and MLA works cited .
We also need a web address and DOI number in an APA citation for a web page. Including site addresses and DOIs are an absolute necessity. Addresses and DOIs (which stand for direct object identifiers) are usually the last item in an APA website citation.
For sites, after adding the full URL to the APA citation for a web page, do not end it with a period. If the address is very long, it is acceptable to roll it onto the next line, but break it up so that a type of punctuation mark or symbol is the first item closest to the left margin. Check out the APA citation of a webpage URL below.
APA citation of a webpage example of a properly structured URL:
DOI numbers are assigned by publishers to electronic sources such as journal articles, e-books, datasets, and more. They’re a string of numbers and sometimes other characters. If the source you’re using has a DOI number assigned to it, place it at the end of the APA website citation, instead of the URL, in this format: https://doi.org/10.XXXXXXXXX. Place the DOI string in place of the X’s shown above.
DOIs were created to combat the problem of broken links and 404 errors (pages taken down). Think about it: if a webpage is taken off of the Internet, it can be pretty difficult to find a copy of it. If you’re lucky, an archive site may have a copy stored somewhere, but for the most part, when sites are gone, they’re gone. DOIs are permanent, making them the ideal choice to include in any APA citation for webpages.
APA properly structured DOI:
APA differentiates between traditional newspapers that are online versus news websites with no daily/weekly/monthly newspaper or magazine edition. Unsure what you’re citing? Follow this decision tree:
- YES –> Cite it as a newspaper article.
- NO –> Cite it as a web page or a news site article.
- NO –> Cite it as a web page or news site article.
Online news article APA example:
News sites with no associated daily/weekly/monthly publication should be cited like a web page. That means the article title is italicized and the publisher/site name is in plan font. This format applies to articles from these sites:
- MSNBC Fox News
Newspaper article online APA example:
Sites associated with a daily/weekly/monthly publication should be cited as a newspaper article. That means the article title is in plain font and the publisher/site name is italicized. This format applies to articles from these sites:
- The New York Times
- The Guardian
- The Times of India
- The Wall Street Journal
- The Washington Post
- Yomiuri Shimbun
Below are various web reference examples to give you a quick visual of how pages are structured and organized. Quick reminder that if you’re trying to create a reference for an e-book found on the web, use the APA book citation page. In addition, if it’s an online article from journal, use our APA journal page.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to build your references, EasyBib.com is an APA citation website that does the work for you. Try it out and say hello to stress-free referencing and goodbye to constantly searching for “how to cite a website APA” or “how to cite APA” on search engines. The APA offers more information here .
How to cite a group/organization/company:
How to cite a blog post in apa:.
The structure is the same, but the format is slightly different: The blog article title is in plain text, and the name of the blog is italicized.
APA citation of a web page example for Facebook:
The text of the post is italicized, while the site name (Facebook) is in plain text.
APA citation of a web page example for Twitter:
Cite your source
If the name of the author is unknown, start the APA citation of a web page for Twitter with the username.
Need another set of eyes to check your paper for grammar and spelling edits? Not quite sure if every determiner , preposition , or conjunction is where it belongs? Check out our grammar and plagiarism checker . It’s the answer to all of your grammar questions!
If you’re still confused and typing into the search bar, “how to cite APA” or “how to cite a website APA,” try out EasyBib.com’s reference generator. It’s fast, easy, and allows you to focus on your writing and research, and less on your references. The best part? It creates both types of references. It has an in-text citation website APA generator and also a full reference generator! What are you waiting for? Go see the magic happen!
Here’s a quick video overview of how to cite a website in APA:
Solution #1: Determining the website company, the author, the publisher, or both (APA)
A website citation included in an APA-format bibliography doesn’t need a publisher, so you do not need to worry whether the website company is the publisher of a page you want to cite!
If an author isn’t credited on a given webpage, the website company should be listed as the author. This also goes for online encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc.
Here’s an example for a full bibliography:
Roman empire. (2022, February 6). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire
Here is an example for an in-text citation:
(“Roman Empire,” 2022)
Solution #2: How to cite images and videos from social media in APA format
Making a bibliographic citation for a photo or video from social media is similar to making a citation for any website. Examples that fall into this category include photos, videos, or social media-specific mediums like highlights, reels, moments, or lives.
For your full citation in your bibliography, use the caption of the photo or video, up to 20 words, as the title. Denote the style of media in brackets, following the title.
For sources like Instagram Reels, Highlights, and other media whose exact date of posting is hard to discern, include the date you found and cited the photo or video rather than the original date the media was shared.
Here are examples of bibliographic citations:
World Wildlife Foundation [wwf]. (2021, October 20). This year marks our 60 years of action for people and nature. Together, we’ve done so much… [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVQQbF_KmA6/
New York Times [nytimes]. (n.d.) NYC Marathon 2021 [Highlight]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/17928514339867051/
Here are the corresponding in-text citations:
(World Wildlife Foundation, 2021)
(New York Times, 2021)
Solution #3: How emojis are cited in APA format
If the website or social media post you are citing contains an emoji, keep the emoji in your full bibliographic citation without altering it.
Reference list example:
Grande, A [arianagrande]. (2021, October 18) the final #voicebattles begin tonight @nbcthevoice.🧚🏼♂️ thank you @kchenoweth, i love you. [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVLfY_vv_3c/
In-text citation example:
If you have trouble pasting the emoji into your full citation, put the emoji’s name followed by the word “emoji” all in brackets within your citation instead. Use Unicode’s Emoji Charts to look up the widely accepted, technical name of the emoji you want to cite.
Grande, A [arianagrande]. the final the final #voicebattles begin tonight @nbcthevoice . [woman fairy emoji] thank you @kchenoweth , i love you. [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVLfY_vv_3c/
This guide is not officially associated with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, but it does provide information in line with the manual.
APA Formatting Guide
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You will need the webpage’s author’s name, publication date, title of the page, website name, and the URL.
Here is an example with an author:
Geggel, L. (2021, July 6). A brief history of dinosaurs . LiveScience. https://www.livescience.com/3945-history-dinosaurs.html
Usually, if no author is shown the website is assumed to be the author. In these cases, the website name replaces the author name in the beginning of the reference.
National Park Service. (2018, July 23). Night skies as a cultural-historical resource . https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nightskies/cultural.htm
The URL of a website is mandatory if you cite a website or a webpage. Where you include the URL depends on the type of citation. To cite a website as a general reference without any reference to a specific page or particular details, simply add the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. There is no need to add a reference list entry. However, to cite a webpage on a website, you need to provide both an in-text citation and a reference list entry. Do not add the URL in the in-text citation. Just add the author’s name and year. The URL is given only in the reference list entry. Templates for in-text citations and reference list entries of a website or webpage along with examples are given below.
Website as a general reference
We took the data from the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India (https://censusindia.gov.in/).
Webpage of a website
In-text citation templates and examples:
Author Surname (publication year)
(Author Surname, publication year)
Note that month and day are not mentioned in in-text citations.
Reference list entry template and example:
Author Surname, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title of the webpage. Name of the Site. URL
Skelton, R. (2017, February 16). Fact check’s return perfect timing in ‘post truth’ age. ABC Opinion. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-16/fact-check-return-perfect-timing-in-post-truth-age/8277268
APA Citation Examples
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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Newspaper Articles
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Newspaper article from a library database, newspaper article from a website, webpage from a news website, newspaper article in print, newspaper article with an unknown author, how do i know if it's a newspaper.
Photo from Flickr, created by user NS Newsflash. Available under a Creative Commons license.
Not sure whether your article is from a newspaper? Look for these characteristics:
- Main purpose is to provide readers with a brief account of current events locally, nationally or internationally.
- Can be published daily, semiweekly or weekly.
- Articles are usually written by journalists who may or may not have subject expertise.
- Written for the general public, readers don't need any previous subject knowledge.
- Little, if any, information about other sources is provided.
If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.
If, and only if, the article is signed "Anonymous", put the word Anonymous where you would normally place the author's name.
Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize the titles of articles.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.
If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.
If an article has no page numbers provided, leave that part of the citation out in the References List.
If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14).
Note : All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper , p. SectionPage if given.
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper . URL
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of News Website. URL
Use this format for articles published in online news sources such as BBC News, HuffPost, CNN, Salon etc.
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper , SectionPage.
Title of article: Subtitle if any. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Name of Newspaper , p. SectionPage.
Note : If instead of having no author, the article is signed as being written by "Anonymous", put the name "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name. Only use the word Anonymous if the article is specifically credited that way.
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Basic Journal Article (Sec. 10.01 APA Publication Manua l)
- IMPORTANT! APA requires the DOI as a hyperlink when available. For journal articles without a DOI that come from common library databases do not include a URL or any database information (9.30 APA Publication Manual ).
- In some cases instructors may ask for the library database persistent link instead of the DOI in which case add the persistent link URL in place of the DOI. Camosun database persistent links begin with this prefix: https://libsecure.camosun.bc.ca:2443/login?url=
- Please check with your instructor to see which they prefe r!
Journal Article without a DOI, with a URL, 3 to 20 authors (Sec. 9.34 APA Publication Manua l)
- If the article does not have a DOI and does not come from a library database use the URL.
- Check with your instructor to confirm they will accept a database link e.g. permalink, persistent link, etc.
- For articles with 2 to 20 authors list all authors in the reference citation and use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name (9.8 APA Publication Manual ).
- For 3 or more authors include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in the in-text citation (8 . 17 APA Publication Manual ).
Journal Article with a DOI, 21 or more authors (Sec. 9.8 APA Publication Manual )
- For 21 or more authors, include the first 19 author names followed by an ellipsis (three dots ...) but no ampersand (&) and then add the final author's name.
- For 21 or more authors, list only first author in the in-text citation followed by "et al." (8.17 APA Publication Manual )
Print Journal Article without a DOI (Sec. 9.34 APA Publication Manual )
- If a print journal article does not have a DOI leave it blank.
- References for electronic journal articles without a DOI from common library databases will look the same as a reference for print version of the article with no DOI or URL.
Article from an archival database such as JSTOR or ERIC (Sec. 9.30 & 9.34, APA Publication Manual )
- Generally, it is not necessary to include the information about which database your article is from. An exception is made for primary resources, or resources with limited circulation unique to databases such as JSTOR or ERIC. In these cases provide the document number if applicable, the name of the database and the URL of the database homepage. The retrieval date is not necessary unless you think the content is meant to be changed or updated.
Magazine Article --print or electronic (Sec. 9.25 APA Publication Manual )
- Print magazine articles do not require a URL
- If the magazine article is retrieved from a common library database no URL is required
Newspaper Article --print or electronic (Sec. 9.25, APA Publication Manual )
- See also 10.1 example 16 and example 110 for difference between online newspaper articles and online news websites
- For articles without an author use article title as the first element and an abbreviated form in quotations for the in-text citation.
Blog post (10.1, Example 17, APA Publication Manual )
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APA 7th Referencing: Journal Articles
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- APA Referencing: journal articles (video)
Basic format to reference journal articles
- Referencing journal articles: Examples
Related links within this guide
- What is a DOI? Information about digital object identifiers.
- In-text referencing The basics of an in-text reference in APA
- Quotes in APA 7th How to include quotes within the text of your work.
- The Reference List Compiling a Reference List using APA Style.
- Secondary sources Referring to the ideas or words of an author who has been cited in another authors work.
APA Referencing: journal articles
APA Referencing: journal articles from Victoria University Library on Vimeo .
Select the 'cc' on the video to turn on/off the captions.
A basic reference list entry for a journal article in APA must include:
- Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
- Year of publication of the article (in round brackets).
- Article title.
- Journal title (in italics ).
- Volume of journal (in italics ).
- Issue number of journal in round brackets (no italics).
- Page range of article.
- DOI or URL
- The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.
Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care , 26 (8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162
Referencing journals articles: Examples
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How to Cite Online Material from a Computer Network in APA
A computer network, such as the Internet, provides access to material such as journal articles, newsletters, and even entire books.
World Wide Web Site
Provide the following information:
- author's name (if known)
- date of publication or last revision (if known), in parentheses (year, month, day)
- title of document
- title of complete work (if applicable), in italics
- the word “Retrieved” followed by the date you accessed the source (month, day, year)
- the word “from” followed by the URL
Harris, J. G. The return of the witch hunts. Witchhunt Information Page . Retrieved May 28, 1996, from <http://liquid2-sun.mit.edu/fells.short.html>.
An Article from a Database
- cite as you would a normal periodical or book
- the number of pages or paragraphs, followed by “p.” (or “pp.”) or “par.” (or “pars.”); if neither is specified, use “n. page.” for “no pagination.”
- the word “Retrieved” followed by the date you accessed the source
- the word “from” followed by the title of the database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M.A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology , 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
The information written on this page has been excerpted from three handbooks of the IUP writing center: Hacker, D. A Writer's Reference . (2003). (5th ed.) Boston: St. Martin's. Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E. (1996). Online! A reference guide to internet sources. New York: St. Martin's. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Updated January 28, 2005 by Renee Brown
- Kathleen Jones White Writing Center
- Stabley Library, Room 203 431 South Eleventh Street Indiana, PA 15705
- Phone: 724-357-3029
- [email protected]
When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7th
When citing a webpage or online article, the APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and year of publication. For example: (
Information needed for citations: · Author name(s) · Date of publication · Title of article · Title of source (e.g. journal, etc.) plus volume number and issue
Citing a website in APA · Structure: · Example of an APA format website: · Structure: Facebook user's Last name, F. M. (Year, Monday Day of Post). · Examples:.
A: According to the APA manual (7th edition), it is not necessary to cite a site in its entirety in a reference list. Instead, include a reference to the
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of online content: Subtitle. Website Name. URL. Type of citation, Example citation. Reference List
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper
Author, A. A. (year, Month day). Title of newspaper article: Subtitle information.Title of Newspaper, page number. Author, A. A. (year, Month day)
For an online journal article with no DOI (other than those retrieved from a Library database), provide the direct URL for the article. For
World Wide Web Site · author's name (if known) · date of publication or last revision (if known), in parentheses (year, month, day) · title of document · title of