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How to Start an Art Collection

essay on art nouveau

Whether you consider it an investment, a hobby or just a cool way to decorate the walls in your home, acquiring new art can be a fun and exhilarating experience. Although many people assume collecting art is only for millionaires, the truth is you can start your own art collection on any budget. You may not have the funds to fill it with famous pieces, but all that matters is that you fill it with pieces you love.

Know What You Like

First, only collect what you like, even if it’s something obscure that others may not appreciate or understand. Unless you’re just trying to make a quick buck — and that’s often hard to do — putting together a collection won’t be fun if you force yourself to choose items just because they’re trendy. If you aren’t sure what you love, go to the library and check out some art history books. Go to art galleries in your community, and check out the artisan booths at local fairs and festivals. Do a simple internet search, visit an antique store or flip through the art at your local craft store or big box store. Figure out what appeals to you, and use that as a starting point.

Know Where to Look

The next step is knowing where to find the art you like. Some of the places you visit to discover your taste may also sell the types of pieces you like. Craft fairs, festivals, antique shops and galleries are good examples, but you can shop for art at many other places, including estate sales, where you may find rare and unique pieces, and art websites like Etsy, ArtStar, Uprise Art and Editioned Art. Some artists allow you to visit their studios, and auction houses typically have art in their inventories. If you go to auctions outside of major cities, you may even find a rare piece at an excellent price.

Do Your Homework

Before you make a purchase, especially an expensive purchase, you want to do your homework on the artist, the item and its background before signing on the dotted line. In some cases, the seller may not realize the value of an item and sell it for a bargain price, but you don’t want to pay too much for a piece, even if you love it. You also want to avoid buying something advertised as an authentic piece that is actually just a reproduction. Be on the lookout for fraudulent items, and learn how to read the documentation that verifies the authenticity and provenance of a piece of art.

Take It Slow

If you know your budget for starting an art collection, don’t rush out and spend it all in one day. Don’t expect to put together a huge, envious collection overnight. It takes time to curate the perfect collection for your interests, tastes and passions. For many art collectors, the hobby becomes a lifelong journey. You never know when a new artist you discover turns into a huge success, making that $100 painting you bought worth a small fortune — and bragging rights — one day. Starting slow also allows you to save up for the more expensive pieces you may want to buy one day.

Treat Your Art Well

Finally, after you purchase your first pieces, make sure you take care of them. Learn how to display and preserve everything you buy, and make sure you have plenty of space to keep your art. Sure, you could rent a storage building if you don’t have enough room in your home for all your treasures, but what’s the point in having an awesome collection if you can’t show it off? If you acquire expensive pieces, insure them against theft and disasters. You may also want to make a plan for what happens to your art after you pass away. If you don’t have family, you may want to donate art to a museum or charity, for example.


essay on art nouveau

Visiting The Met?

Masks are strongly recommended.

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Essays

Art nouveau.


Factory of Olivier de Sorra

Vase with peacock feathers

Vase with peacock feathers

Auguste Delaherche

essay on art nouveau

"Ombellifères" (cow parsley) Cabinet

Emile Gallé

Moulin Rouge:  La Goulue

Moulin Rouge: La Goulue

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec


Designed by Louis C. Tiffany


Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer

The Scream

Edvard Munch


Designed by Philippe Wolfers

Monumental vase

Monumental vase

Georges Hoentschel

Side chair

Edward Colonna

Milk jug

Alexandre Bigot



Gustave Serrurier-Bovy


Dress panel

Hector Guimard


Georges Fouquet


Pierre-Adrien Dalpayrat

Coffeepot (part of a service)

Coffeepot (part of a service)


René-Jules Lalique


Henry van de Velde


Charles Rennie Mackintosh


Designed by Henri-Jules-Ferdinand Bellery-Desfontaines

Maude Adams (1872–1953) as Joan of Arc

Maude Adams (1872–1953) as Joan of Arc

Alphonse Mucha

Tea service

Tea service

Josef Hoffmann

Mäda Primavesi (1903–2000)

Mäda Primavesi (1903–2000)

Gustav Klimt

Cybele Gontar Department of European Sculpture and Decorative Arts, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2006

From the 1880s until the First World War, western Europe and the United States witnessed the development of Art Nouveau (“New Art”). Taking inspiration from the unruly aspects of the natural world , Art Nouveau influenced art and architecture especially in the applied arts, graphic work, and illustration. Sinuous lines and “whiplash” curves were derived, in part, from botanical studies and illustrations of deep-sea organisms such as those by German biologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834–1919) in Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms in Nature, 1899). Other publications, including Floriated Ornament (1849) by Gothic Revivalist Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812–1852) and The Grammar of Ornament (1856) by British architect and theorist Owen Jones (1809–1874), advocated nature as the primary source of inspiration for a generation of artists seeking to break away from past styles. The unfolding of Art Nouveau’s flowing line may be understood as a metaphor for the freedom and release sought by its practitioners and admirers from the weight of artistic tradition and critical expectations.

Additionally, the new style was an outgrowth of two nineteenth-century English developments for which design reform (a reaction to prevailing art education, industrialized mass production, and the debasement of historic styles) was a leitmotif—the Arts and Crafts movement and the Aesthetic movement. The former emphasized a return to handcraftsmanship and traditional techniques. The latter promoted a similar credo of “art for art’s sake” that provided the foundation for non-narrative paintings, for instance, Whistler ‘s  Nocturnes . It further drew upon elements of Japanese art (“ japonisme “), which flooded Western markets , mainly in the form of prints, after trading rights were established with Japan in the 1860s. Indeed, the gamut of late nineteenth-century artistic trends prior to World War I, including those in painting and the early designs of the Wiener Werkstätte, may be defined loosely under the rubric of Art Nouveau.

The term art nouveau first appeared in the 1880s in the Belgian journal L’Art Moderne to describe the work of Les Vingt, twenty painters and sculptors seeking reform through art. Les Vingt, like much of the artistic community throughout Europe and America, responded to leading nineteenth-century theoreticians such as French Gothic Revival architect Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879) and British art critic John Ruskin (1819–1900), who advocated the unity of all the arts, arguing against segregation between the fine arts of painting and sculpture and the so-called lesser decorative arts. Deeply influenced by the socially aware teachings of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement , Art Nouveau designers endeavored to achieve the synthesis of art and craft, and further, the creation of the spiritually uplifting Gesamtkunstwerk (“total work of art”) encompassing a variety of media. The successful unification of the fine and applied arts was achieved in many such complete designed environments as Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde’s Hôtel Tassel and Hôtel Van Eetvelde (Brussels, 1893–95), Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald’s design of the Hill House (Helensburgh, near Glasgow, 1902–4), and Josef Hoffmann and Gustav Klimt’s Palais Stoclet dining room (Brussels, 1905–11) ( 2000.350 ; 1994.120 ; 2000.278.1–.9 ).

Painting styles such as Post-Impressionism and Symbolism (the “Nabis” ) shared close ties with Art Nouveau, and each was practiced by designers who adapted them for the applied arts, architecture, interior designs, furnishings, and patterns. They contributed to an overall expressiveness and the formation of a cohesive style ( 64.148 ).

In December 1895, German-born Paris art dealer Siegfried Bing opened a gallery called L’Art Nouveau for the contemporary décor he exhibited and sold there ( 1999.398.3 ). Though Bing’s gallery is credited with the popularization of the movement and its name, Art Nouveau style reached an international audience through the vibrant graphic arts printed in such periodicals as The Savoy, La Plume, Die Jugend, Dekorative Kunst, The Yellow Book , and The Studio . The Studio featured the bold, Symbolist-inspired linear drawings of Aubrey Beardsley (1872–1898). Beardsley’s flamboyant black and white block print J’ai baisé ta bouche lokanaan for Oscar Wilde’s play Salomé (1894), with its brilliant incorporation of Japanese two-dimensional composition, may be regarded as a highlight of the Aesthetic movement and an early manifestation of Art Nouveau taste in England. Other influential graphic artists included Alphonse Mucha, Jules Chéret, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , whose vibrant poster art often expressed the variety of roles of women in Belle Époque society—from femme nouvelle (a “new woman” who rejected the conventional ideals of femininity, domesticity, and subservience) to demimonde ( 20.33 ; 32.88.12 ). Female figures were often incorporated as fairies or sirens in the jewelry of René Lalique, Georges Fouquet, and Philippe Wolfers ( 1991.164 ; 2003.560 ; 2003.236 ).

Art Nouveau style was particularly associated with France, where it was called variously Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro (after Hector Guimard’s iron and glass subway entrances), Art belle époque , and Art fin de siècle ( 49.85.11 ). In Paris, it captured the imagination of the public at large at the 1900 Exposition Universelle, the last and grandest of a series of fairs organized every eleven years from 1798. Various structures showcased the innovative style, including the Porte Monumentale entrance, an elaborate polychromatic dome with electronic lights designed by René Binet (1866–1911); the Pavillon Bleu, a restaurant alongside the Pont d’Iena at the foot of the Eiffel Tower featuring the work of Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858–1910) ( 1981.512.4 ); Art Nouveau Bing, a series of six domestic interiors that included Symbolist art ( 26.228.5 ); and the pavilion of the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs, an organization dedicated to the revival and modernization of the decorative arts as an economic stimulus and expression of national identity that offered an important display of decorative objects ( 1991.182.2 ; 26.228.7 ; 1988.287.1a,b ). Sharing elements of the French Rococo (and its nineteenth-century revivals ), including stylized motifs derived from nature, fantasy, and Japanese art, the furnishings exhibited were produced in the new taste and yet perpetuated an acclaimed tradition of French craftsmanship. The use of luxury veneers and finely cast gilt mounts in the furniture of leading cabinetmakers Georges de Feure (1868–1943), Louis Majorelle (1859–1926), Edward Colonna (1862–1948), and Eugène Gaillard (1862–1933) indicated the Neo-Rococo influence of François Linke (1855–1946) ( 26.228.5 ).

The Exposition Universelle was followed by two shows at which many luminaries of European Art Nouveau exhibited. They included the Glasgow International Exhibition in 1901 that featured the fantastical Russian pavilions of Fyodor Shekhtel’ (1859–1926) and the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna at Turin in 1902 that showcased the work of furniture designer Carlo Bugatti of Milan ( 69.69 ).

As in France, the “new art” was called by different names in the various style centers where it developed throughout Europe. In Belgium, it was called Style nouille or Style coup de fouet . In Germany, it was Jugendstil or “young style,” after the popular journal Die Jugend ( 1991.182.2 ). Part of the broader Modernista movement in Barcelona, its chief exponent was the architect and redesigner of the Sagrada Familia (Holy Family) cathedral (Barcelona, begun 1882), Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926). In Italy, it was named Arte nuova, Stile floreale , or Lo stile Liberty after the London firm of Liberty & Co., which supplied Oriental ceramics and textiles to aesthetically aware Londoners in the 1870s and produced English Art Nouveau objects such as the Celtic Revival “Cymric” and “Tudric” ranges of silver by Archibald Knox (1864–1933). Other style centers included Austria and Hungary, where Art Nouveau was called the Sezessionstil . In Russia, Saint Petersburg and Moscow were the two centers of production for Stil’ modern . “Tiffany Style” in the United States was named for the legendary Favrile glass designs of Louis Comfort Tiffany .

Although international in scope, Art Nouveau was a short-lived movement whose brief incandescence was a precursor of modernism, which emphasized function over form and the elimination of superfluous ornament. Although a reaction to historic revivalism, it brought Victorian excesses to a dramatic fin-de-siècle crescendo. Its influence has been far reaching and is evident in Art Deco furniture designs, whose sleek surfaces are enriched by exotic wood veneers and ornamental inlays. Dramatic Art Nouveau—inspired graphics became popular in the turbulent social and political milieu of the 1960s, among a new generation challenging conventional taste and ideas.

Gontar, Cybele. “Art Nouveau.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2006)

Further Reading

Arwas, Victor. Art Nouveau: The French Aesthetic . London: Andreas Papadakis, 2002.

Escritt, Stephen. Art Nouveau . London: Phaidon, 2000.

Fahr-Becker, Gabriele. Art Nouveau . Cologne: Könemann, 1997.

Greenhalgh, Paul, ed. Art Nouveau, 1890–1914 . Exhibition catalogue. London: V&A Publications; Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2000.

Weisberg, Gabriel P. Art Nouveau Bing: Paris Style 1900 . Exhibition catalogue. New York: Abrams, 1986.

Weisberg, Gabriel P., Edwin Becker, and Évelyne Possémé, eds. The Origins of L'Art Nouveau: The Bing Empire . Exhibition catalogue. Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, 2004.

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Art nouveau.

            In this introduction I will be talking about art nouveau and what art nouveau is and what it stands for and how it influenced art, architecture and fashion. Also I will be talking about how posters in the art nouveau period were designed and produced in mass with not many colours. Finally I will discuss the many famous art nouveau designers of the time, I will discuss them their work and what kind of effect they had on the public.              Art Nouveau, literally new art, It found expression in a wide range of art forms "architecture, interior design, furniture, posters, glass, pottery, textiles, and book illustration "and was characterized by its devotion to curving and undulating lines, often referred to as whiplash lines. The term Art Nouveau is derived from Maison de l'Art Nouveau, a Paris shop opened in 1896 by the dealer Siegfried Bing.Art Nouveau was an art movement, which lasted from the 1880's to the beginning of 1914; this movement changed many people's lives and lead the way to a new centaury of art and a new art form. Art nouveau influenced the design of everything in that period, architecture, interiors, furniture, ceramics, glass, jewellery, graphic posters, coffee pots, lamps, cutlery, cake tins and bikes. At Nouveau represented life and how it can be flowing and back to nature.              This form of art took mankind back to nature, as its main theme was the human womanly form and the buds of many plants. Art took the form of women's long exotic flowing hair, which often flowed into fames or water. The feminine art' or art nouveau is and was basically made up of a sensualist flowing line that often turns and twists into it. This one art movement expressed what the female body was about using her curves and lines to bring painting back to nature giving a very popular design. Art Nouveau took up and elaborated the Arts and Crafts manifesto, calling for the creation of a completely new style and a devotion to handicrafts.

Essays Related to Art Nouveau

1. art nouveau.

essay on art nouveau

The graceful lines seen in Art Nouveau were an expression of a new graphic style. ... Art Nouveau artists aimed at unifying all arts, centering it around man and his life. ... His architecture was dressed with art nouveau detail. ... Even though Art Nouveau was short lived its importance is crucial to the development of modern art styles. ... American Art Nouveau. ...

essay on art nouveau

The graphic style of Art Nouveau portrayed a balance between space and line. ... Art Nouveau artists aimed at unifying all arts, centering it around man and his life. ... His architecture was dressed with art nouveau detail. ... Even though Art Nouveau was short lived its importance is crucial to the development of modern art styles. ... The style of Art Nouveau has a modern appearance which makes it appealing to me....

3. Art movements

essay on art nouveau

Art Nouveau (1880's-1914) Art Nouveau is an elegant decorative art style characterized by intricately detailed patterns of curving lines. Somewhat rooted in the British Arts and Crafts Movement of William Morris, Art Nouveau became popular across Europe and in the United States. ... Art Nouveau remained popular until about the time of World War I, and was ultimately replaced by the Art Deco style. ... Post-Impressionism (1880-1910) Post-impressionism is an art-historical term coined (1910) by British art critic Roger Fry to describe the various styles of painting that flourished i...

4. Ukiyo-e And Art Nouveau

essay on art nouveau

Art Nouveau Art Nouveau was an international decorative stile that thrived for about twenty years. ... Art Nouveau designers and illustrators attempted to make art a part of everyday life. ... The Art Nouveau movement in England was primarily graphic design and illustration. ... Bradley, which was one of two major American Art Nouveau practitioners. ... Ornaments of Art Nouveau were on virtually every page. ...

5. Ukiyo-e and Art Nouveau

essay on art nouveau

6. Biography of Gustav Klimt

Gustav's early artwork very much followed the "guidelines" of Art Nouveau. ... The natural world is a main influence in Art Nouveau. ... Art Nouveau often incorporates a variety of mediums in order to unite all artists. Gustav Klimt was Art Nouveau. ... Gustav Klimt was Art Nouveau. ...

Pop Art first emerged in Britain as part of the general Pop movement. ... Influence also came from the revival of the decorative styles of Art Nouveau and Art Deco especially in terms of Cubism and Futurism incorporated into design. Surrealism was another form of art that inspired Pop art and can be found in the popularization of bizarre objects and also brightly colored interiors. More importantly, the use of Surrealism in Pop art interiors demonstrated the importance of fine art for interior design. ... Pop Art's contribution to modernism was that the designs used inexpensive methods to...





Sample by  My Essay Writer

essay on art nouveau

Where did Art Nouveau originate from? Thanks to a “true renaissance man,”  William Morris , Art Nouveau flourished throughout Europe. Without him, art nouveau would never have been the same. He “inspired artists for a century.” The forms and flowing lines of his work was to give art nouveau descriptive nicknames such as “noodle”, “whiplash,” “tapeworm” and “cigarette-smoke style.” The first revelation of art nouveau was on the cover of 1883’s  Arthur Mackmurdo’s  nook for Wrens City Churches, but it then grew to be recognized in the late 19 th  and early 20 th centuries. Roughly mid-century in the 1900s, the style of art was rejected by mainstream academics because more popular artists, the common Michelangelo and Picasso were more widely accepted as conventional historical artists.

But during its reign, art nouveau grew in popularity throughout Europe, in countries such as Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Czech Islands, Prague, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Austria and Germany. Perhaps the most widely accepted location for the art was in Paris, France, was touted as the supreme art forms after it was used to design the interior of the Grand Palais. The style was also famed as used to craft The Villa Schultzenberger in Strasbourg, Germany.

Poland Art nouveau, however, didn’t stop in Western Europe. The work continued East to Russia and was centre in the  Mloda Polska  movement in Poland. During this time, Poland didn’t exist on the map. The arts was considered the primary option to create a national identity and put Poland on the map. Polish artists took it upon themselves to join the art nouveau movement that had absorbed the attention of an entire continent. The art brought Poland into contemporary times by laying the style throughout the country with each and every piece of art that was designed in the art nouveau style. The Mloda Polska, meaning Yound Poland, took hold between 1895 and 1914 and absorbed the country, perhaps to an even greater degree than any other nation on Earth. The Art Nouveau movement sent a jolt into the cultural scene and set a new standard for all art forms that were important to the country – such as painting, poetry and music.

The City of Krakow became the heart of Mloda Polska, and bolstered numerous works of art influenced by Art Nouveau. In Poland, the style of art was closely tied to artist Alfons Mucha. In 1897, a Secession Group in close by Vienna was founded; this city has close ties to Krakow. But despite its extreme success in many parts of Poland, Art Nouveau was never able to become established in Warsaw because Communists destroyed much of the work that was created in the city.

Italy The silver and gold jewelry, pitchers, plates, ceramics, glass sculpture and clothing that were created with the style of art also made their way to countries such as Italy. In Turin, Art Nouveau in more known for its curving floral shapes and was named stile floreale. During the period where Art Nouveau was making its way into Italy, Turin was at the height of the nation’s economic growth and was at the centre of the Italian Art Nouveau movement.

At the turn of the century, the city hosted the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna, which was essentially a massive display of international decorative art. Furniture designers Agostino Lauro and Vittorio Valabrega were the leaders in Art Nouveau furniture design and they were both featured at the exhibit. Perhaps the most captivating work presented by Lauro was a design that he originally created for a villa that belonged to a textile manufacturer. The room combined furniture, architecture and decoration, utilizing the Art Nouveau style of Gesamtkunstwerk.

The Italian paintings that used Art Nouveau appeared mostly like watercolor. Each colour seamlessly flowed into the other, with the observer only being able to slightly notice the transition. Painting followed the curvy and floral appeal that was inherent in virtually every Art Nouveau piece. The work often depicted people, as did much of the paintings during this period of time. Not a lot of detail was given in each piece, as most of it was capturing emotion with the positioning of bodies and the colours used in each piece.

The style of art took hold throughout Italy quite late in the movement and it was well into the 20 th  century. The art held strong in the nation into the 1930s. Even at its late outset,  Italian artists  – such as the most famous Balla, Boccioni, Pellizza da Volpedo, Previati and Segantini – contributed to the overall impact the art had on the world. The Italians largely contributed nature, particularly animals and vegetables. This combination was considered at the time to bring together polar aspects of nature and this led to massive inspiration for the artists. Even the most small animals, such as insects were featured in the art. All the animals and plants were depicted as curving lines and unusual shapes. The work was always put into the light that mankind dominated nature, or at least this was always implied. The Italians put on Art Nouveau an eclectic and varied appeal. The style is comparable to a Neoclassical feel that seeks expression in an Italian context. The Italian architecture that utilizes the Art Nouveau style were more known for their internal appeal, rather than establishing the style on the outside of buildings. The Italians were more known for painted ceilings and murals, which could have gained experience through artists such as Michelangelo.

Spain Spain came on board with the Art Nouveau movement late in the 19 th  century. The country experienced significant development, which lent itself well to the new style of art. The many new buildings that were sprouting throughout the country carried with them an Art Nouveau feel. In 1880, painter Ramon Casas brought the Art Nouveau movement to Spain. Some would argue, however, that Antoni Gaudi led the new style into Spain but blended it with Gothic architecture.

Gaudi’s swirling designs and material that appeared like clay throughout his buildings, made his work look more like a Smurf village. His work is still a main attraction for visitors to the country, particularly in  Barcelona , where he completed much of his work. His buildings were taller than most at the time, and often featured observation towers that resemble oddly-configured heads with helmets from a gladiator-esk era. Many of his buildings spiraled around, with many stairs that accommodated the flowing light from above. His gothic style was intertwined with the floral appeal of Art Nouveau, as he created balcony railings that are dark and mysterious. Gaudi’s work appears throughout Barcelona and other areas of Spain and it is difficult to visit anywhere without being confronted with the beauty of his designs. Whether it is apartment buildings, offices, churches or libraries, Gaudi brings together a consistent feel throughout the Barcelona. In the details of Gaudi’s designs one can take notice of not entirely practical creations, but art that is endlessly beautiful. Take for example a mirror arrangement in one building in Barcelona that spirals mirror and a frame in a fashion that would make it difficult for anyone to observe themselves in the mirror.

In one of his most famous pieces, which is the Church of the Holy Family, created in 1883 and construction is ongoing, he features four spires that are disproportionate. Many have compared the look of the church to an outgrowth of the Earth. In the Casa Mila apartments, which were built between 1905 and 1907, he designed the illusion of a limestone reef that was hollowed by seawater over the course of centuries of erosion. The complex was built with cut stone, yet not a single straight line is noticed throughout the building.

Russia The Russians called Art Nouveau “stil modern,” or modern style English.  St. Petersburg was the country that was most affected by the style, and the city’s architecture stills brings tourists out to this day. Art Nouveau was considered the most significant art movement that shaped St. Petersburg and Moscow. Other major cities throughout the country, such as Nizhnij and Novgorod were also largely affected by the movement. At the time, Riga, which is now in Latvia, also depicts much of the Art Nouveau work that was showcased throughout the country.

In St. Petersburg alone, several thousand Art Nouveau buildings are erect. But, unlike, Spain, which was just experiencing a massive build, many of the building in Russia were already erect and then altered to accommodate the new style.

Russia included many artists that featured the Art Nouveau style. Architect Paul Susor designed 80 buildings in St. Petersburg, all in the new style. His designs are much more basic than Spain’s Gaudi. Much of it is apartment building that are constructed with a flat and simple design facing the street. But he was also known for architecture that resembles a palace. Take, for example, his Anichkov Palace, which was one of two structures he named with the same title. One of the buildings marks the edge of Alexandrian Square, which was built in 1817 by famous architect Carlo Rossi.

In Moscow, famous communist writer, Maxime Gorki, resided in one of the most marvelled Art Nouveau houses, which would later become a Gorki Museum. Every inch of the former home is created in the style, whether it’s the stained-glass windows or the railings.

Unlike in many of the countries that were most inspired by Art Nouveau, which featured massive and elaborate buildings, the Russians often used the style to design suburban homes. Many of these homes are still standing. These homes were often made of wood and windows that featured points near the top. The roof and siding sloped and created a look that resembled waves.

The Russian empire arrived at the economical level similar to the rest of its European counterparts during the second half of the 19 th  century. This allowed the nation to afford a new style of architecture and to embrace Art Nouveau. At this time, the country was experiencing a considerable amount of growth. In the late 19 th  and early 20 th  centuries, a 9,000 kilometre railway called the Transsiberian Railway that linked many of the important areas of the country was built.

In closing, Art Nouveau helped create what the rest of the world still identifies to be inherently European. Much of the architecture still exists today, as many countries have kept their traditional design and have avoided more contemporary designs that those who live in North America have come to know. While one of the first statements made by Art Nouveau came in Paris in 1896 when the Maison de l’Art Nouveau opened, it was what happened after that, during the spread of Art Nouveau that made it into what would be one of the most famous art movements in history.

The art was used to express and define the emotions of a culture. While this essay delves into five countries where Art Nouveau made its claim, countless other nations have remnants of the style throughout the land. In France, where the movement began, the movement was put into applied arts, particularly in glassware. The style was expressed through the Societe des Vingts in Belgium. The United Kingdom also had its say in the spread of Art Nouveau, with the expression of architect Rennie Mackintosh, as well as the deisgns of the Macdonald sisters. The styles ideals were perhaps most strongly felt in illustrations such as periodicals and presses.

Throughout Europe the style was most widely characterized by the spiraling plants and various other designs that resembled the rugged surrealism of Earth. The movement is represented though new architectural designs that were, until then, often difficult to accomplish.

Whether it was in Poland, where the art helped put the country on the map, in Italy, where some of history’s most famous artists were born, in Spain, where the style dominates the country and especially Barcelona, or Russia, where the movement captivated the country and led to the creation of some of the most amazing buildings in St. Petersburg, it will be this style of art that has left its mark on Europe.

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Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau was an artistic movement that united the architecture and decorative arts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These were the European enthusiasts who practiced the variety of styles. The objectives of Art Nouveau were to escape the traditional historical styles and modernize a design. Consequently, the representatives of the movement united natural and flowing forms with the angular figures and evolved elegant designs. One should mention that both geometric and organic forms inspired the artists to create. As a result, the traditional hierarchy of the arts was abolished as the representatives of Art Nouveau did not consider sculpture and painting superior to craft-based decorative arts. Besides, this essay explores the relationship between the history of Art Nouveau and the emergence of global modernity.

The Key Ideas of Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau was the result of leaving behind the historical styles and the way of transferring to modernism and creativity. Earlier periods were characterized by poorly made objects and the decorative arts were necessary to make the revolution in art. One should mention that the representatives of Art Nouveau raised the status of craft, produced modern and genuine design and revived good workmanship. Such forgotten crafts as silver-smoothing and furniture design had become the most sophisticated work and proved the necessity of craftsmanship.

The artists of Art Nouveau changed the vision and beliefs about crafts and inspired others to create the art of buildings and interiors. The attention was paid to the smallest objects and details that were decorated to be ornamental and unique. The representatives of Art Nouveau believed that this was the object that should dictate its form. The movement was short-lived as it was less collective. Not every artist supposed geometric forms of plants such as rectangles and squares attractive and exciting. Architects, visual artists, and designers were united to create the style of design for the modern art. Additionally, Art Nouveau was the reaction against Victorian-era decorative art that was too predictable and traditional.

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One should mention that the movement did not have boundaries presenting graphic art, printing of works on playbills, magazine advertisements, and exhibition catalogs. New forms of Art Nouveau were controversial, debatable and ambiguous. The natural world was the key muse of the artists. As a result, they were free in the choice of objects, forms, and meaning. The main features of Art Nouveau were curvy, elongated and sinuous lines, exotic woods, semi-precious stones and silver, female forms, stylized nature and vertical lines. Art Nouveau was influenced by botanical research, rococo style and crafts.

It is evident that objects were in the center of Art Nouveau. The artists designed flowers, ornaments, fireplaces, lighting, door handles, stained glass, furniture, tiles, wallpaper, walls color schemes and floors. The conceptual traits of Art Nouveau were imaginary, abstraction, conceptualization, minimalism, orientation on the natural world and simplicity. The ambiguity that provoked a lot of interpretations was another feature of Art Nouveau that proved transferring to the global modernity and leaving behind traditionalism of Victorian era. Art Nouveau was so rich that it was difficult to predict whether it evoked magic atmosphere and charm or shock and fear. The distinction of lines and colors was a proof of modernization of art and its movement to era of technologies. Calmness and non-aggressiveness of colors of the depicted objects made them different from the traditional art forms.

Conceptual meaning of objects was more important than their depiction. As a result, abstract expressionism did not always provoke astonishment and approval. It means that the representatives of Art Nouveau should not only present their vision of the modern art but fight against stereotypes and traditionalism of art forms that deprived craftsmanship of the place during the Victorian period. Imagery and physicality of objects were the driving forces of the representatives of Art Nouveau. Expressionism, minimalism, and cubism were the ways of the depiction of the natural world differently through colors, compositions, space and abstraction. The artists ruined the boundaries and limitations between the real and imaginary. The attention was paid to the perception and vision of the depicted objects.

The advantage of the artists of Art Nouveau was that they were not afraid to experiment with different materials making them look alive and realistic. They could make panels and floors depict the state of consciousness and perception. They fused with the objects involving creativity and creating mystery.

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Georgia O’Keefe and her Works

Georgia O’Keefe was one of the brightest and most talented artists of Art Nouveau whose works revealed the traits of that movement and presupposed modernization not only of art but even of its perception. Her vision of the modern art was not aimed at shifting art trends. On the contrary, it intended to look for abstract and essential forms in nature. It means that Georgia O’Keefe concentrated her attention on natural objects. One should mention that her great finesse and powers of observations made her paintings unusual and untraditional. She ruined the canons of Victorian art that was too pompous, sophisticated and complicated.

Bones, flowers, and landscapes fascinated her the most. Her life experience and place of living were the sources for her creative ideas. She contributed to Art Nouveau as she was one of the American representatives, and she was a woman that was a rare case among painters. One should mention that Georgia O’Keefe had developed as an artist and a painter under the influence of the modernist photographers and painters.

Her work “Cow’s Skull: Red, White, and Blue” was created in 1931. Her depiction of this painting on canvas made it a bit traditional. However, the subject of that work was really shocking and unexpected for the audience. The colors of the painting were meaningful and symbolic as red, white and blue were the colors of the American flag. It means that Georgia O’Keefe wanted to identify and promote the American artistic style as it lagged behind the European one. Her symbols of America are not stereotypical as she did not use landscapes and natural beauty as regionalist artists did. On the contrary, she managed to reveal urban problems and represent American enduring spirit.

“Cow’s Skull: Red, White, and Blue” was an iconic painting as it symbolized also the American West and was like a joke on the American art scene. One should mention that the work was based on perception and cultural background of the audience. Cow’s skull was an unusual object for depiction that provoked fear and disgust. However, peaceful colors and association with the American flag changed the opinion about the work. Vertical lines also made “Cow’s Skull: Red, White, and Blue” calmer and not so aggressive. Minimalism and abstractness reinforced the depth and symbolism of the depicted objects.

Another distinctive work of Georgia O’Keefe was “White Canadian Barn” that was painted with oil on canvas. That painting differed from the previous one with the commitment to the geometric forms. Summer trip to Gaspe Peninsula of Canada inspired her to create such work that belonged to the theme series. The barn was the key object that was stark in design and color. The narrow and horizontal proportion of “White Canadian Barn” and flat rectangular forms of the walls and roof proved its belonging to Art Nouveau. Three distinct areas such as ground, building and denoting sky divided the space into three areas.

One can say that “White Canadian Barn” is made in three-dimensional form that made it modernist and innovative. It is evident that commitment to geometry and form proved the orientation of Georgia O’Keefe toward Art Nouveau and violation of traditional and old-fashioned subjects and forms. Frontal presentation put forward the barn as an object of the painting. The massive size and somber coloring added it some mystery and unpredictability. Every detail from the geometric shape and architectural element to black doorways proved the breadth of the painting and depiction of every object as a small and important painting with its own meaning and form.

In conclusion, one should say that Art Nouveau is the movement and design, creativity and modernization that violates the canons of the traditional and stereotypical art vision and benefits the emergence of global modernity. The value of Art Nouveau is that it managed to turn the usual objects in the masterpieces and symbolic things. Flowers, ornaments, fireplaces, lighting, door handles, stained glass, furniture, tiles, wallpaper, walls color schemes and floors could be the inspiring subjects for the artists of Art Nouveau. The conceptual traits of Art Nouveau are imaginary things, abstraction, conceptualization, minimalism, orientation toward the natural world and simplicity.

Georgia O’Keefe is not only a revolutionary artist of Art Nouveau but also of the American painting that was not as famous as a European one. Her modernist vision of art is reflected in her works “White Canadian Barn” and “White Canadian Barn”. Both paintings are oriented toward the abstractionism and geometric simplicity. However, design of every object showed depth of meaning and symbolism.

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essay on art nouveau

Essay On Art Nouveau

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The History and Concepts of Art Nouveau

Introduction, the concepts and tendencies of art nouveau, the national aspects of art nouveau, the uniqueness of art nouveau, works cited.

Art Nouveau is a common name for a decorative style that was flourishing during roughly 1890-1910. Not only did it exist in graphics and architecture, but it was also used for the decoration or designing furniture, utensils, fabrics, ceramics, jewelry, door frames, subway entrances, and many other things. The term first appeared in 1895 as a name of a Paris gallery, which has later become an artists’ international meeting place. Without any doubt, each art style is unique, but the fact that distinguishes Art Nouveau is that this style has broken barriers between fine arts and applied arts, i.e. connected the elite world of masterpieces with the mundane realm of painted kitchen utensils.

Art Nouveau is an art phenomenon that emerged from a complicated substratum of late 19 th -century art and fashion. It was influenced by such factors as 19 th -century scientific findings, Japanese art, medieval tradition, and quite a lot of others.

Despite its specificity, Art Nouveau cannot be classified as mere surface decoration. It rose from historicism that was an essential feature of the art of 19 th century and it is considered a bridge from Victorian art to modernism. The complexity of this period leads to a double interpretation of Art Nouveau: on the one hand, its decorativeness can be seen as a part of late 19 th -century aesthetics; on the other hand, its mystical values are viewed as a reaction to the materialism of this time (Meggs and Purvis 200).

Symbolism can be identified as a significant element of Art Noveau. “Religion, mythology, history, literature, botany, oceanography, opened an endless vista of subject,” states Arwas (13), “but it was the Symbolist approach to those subjects that made them the stuff of Art Nouveau.”

It is often considered that Art Nouveau was a reaction against such styles as the Gothic revival, neo-Rococo, and neo-Baroque. In fact, these styles seriously contributed to Art Nouveau. It must be admitted, though, that Art Nouveau was an anti-movement at its birth, it rejected the old elements of previous style conceptions, and its color scheme differs dramatically from what was before (Tschudi-Madsen 137-138).

As it was already mentioned, Art Nouveau rose under considerable influence of Japanese art. In general, the popularity of all things Japanese was at its peak in Western Europe. The folie for collecting Japanese artifacts, particularly ukiyo-e art pieces, has got a name of Japonism. Some supporters of Art Nouveau were collectors of such things as well. For the central part, the influence of Japanese style touched interior decoration and applied art. Simple, fragile structure of the furniture and rectilinearism in decoration became the features adopted from Japanese style, along with floral ornament with eliminated background plane (Tschudi-Madsen 191-195).

Speaking of flowers, it must not be forgotten that Art Nouveau has developed something that Stephen Tschudi-Madsen called “the cult of plant and line” (Tschudi-Madsen 164). “Colorful, exquisitely crafted glass vases; silver serving vessels in elegant shapes; lavishly decorated bronze statues; richly ornamented and engraved silver and pewter, and imaginative jewelry, such as intricate necklaces and pendants combining enameled metals and jewels” – such is the description of an Art Nouveau collection (“Collectibles” par. 2). The preferred motifs of this style were flowers, grape tendrils, birds, and female forms (Meggs and Purvis 200).

Female images is another impressive aspect of Art Nouveau. An Art Nouveau “new woman” is no longer a cold, prude, Victorian-like lady: she is daring, she can even be “dark, sexy and scandalous” (Smith par. 4). For instance, the women depicted by Jules Chéret, the so-called Chérettes, were depicted as self-confident women who did not fit into sexist standards, but were having a good time, drinking, and smoking (Meggs and Purvis 202).

Art Nouveau was definitely an international movement, but, nevertheless, in each country it expressed itself in a different way.

English Art Nouveau was concerned with drawing rather than architecture or commercial production process. It took a lot of features from Gothic and Victorian painting. English artists had a strong urge to make the movement international, and for that reason they created “The Studio” – the first international art periodical (Meggs and Purvis 205). Conversely, in France Art Nouveau was more of a way of decorating things. It appeared as a suburban phenomenon, but it managed to become a nationwide fashion once it reached Paris (Arwas 10). Belgium has become an Art Nouveau center as early as at the beginning of the 1890s due to its talented architects, who practiced designing Art Nouveau buildings (Meggs and Purvis 220). German Art Nouveau (under the name Jugendstil ) has experienced strong French and British influence, but still had links to traditional academic art (Meggs and Purvis 224). Art Nouveau has also affected the art of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands, Austria, Czech Republic, Nordic countries, and even Russia and Poland. The style has also reached America through French and British influence (Meggs and Purvis 214).

It is probably the most perplexing quality of Art Nouveau that this kind of style is all-embracing, no matter whether it is architecture and interior design or an ornament on a teacup, a placate or a glass lamp, jewelry or a piece of pottery. Art Nouveau was a new way of thinking, the way that aimed to make art surround people everywhere, even at usual moments of life such as having breakfast. The artists of this direction were using their fine art skills for commercial printing process (Meggs and Purvis 200). Such attitude has made art products available for various social classes, not only for the elite. This approach means an absolutely new, modern understanding of the purpose and meaning of art.

Art Nouveau was a complicated style, which basically was a transition from old patterns to modernism. It borrowed a lot from Victorian, Gothic style, Japanese style, neo-Rococo, and neo-Baroque. An essential achievement of Art Nouveau was that it blurred the boundaries between elite art and the art of decoration of utilitarian objects. Due to this style, fine art has become available for different social classes. Art Nouveau artists have made art an integral element of people’s life, thus changing the previous understanding of the purpose of art. Unfortunately, using art for commercial production eventually (and inevitably) led to a dramatic decrease in the quality of the art, while the World War I made the aesthetics of Art Nouveau almost completely irrelevant. However, the artworks of those times still earn excited gasps and are presented on contemporary expositions. These precious objects are kept in museums or sometimes are very pricy lots on auctions.

Arwas, Victor. Art Nouveau: The French Aesthetic. London: Andreas Papadakis Publisher, 2002. Print.

“Collectibles: Restoring Art Nouveau’s Legacy.” Los Angeles Times  1995: n.pag. Web.

Meggs, Philip B. and A.W. Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.

Smith, Stephen. “Art Nouveau – a Magical Style.” The Guardian. Web. 2012.

Tschudi-Madsen, Stephan. The Art Nouveau Style: A Comprehensive Guide with 264 Illustrations. Mineola, Dover Publications, 2002. Print.

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The Rococo period in France brought about a new style of painting, focusing on nature, soft color palettes, fictional places, and other lighthearted subjects. Compared to the previous Baroque style with its use of classical art as inspiration, idealized bodies, and use of ancient mythology, we are able to see how drastic this artistic change was. Partially this was due to the change in society ideals. Painters were not being commissioned by the Catholic Church, but by the Monarchy and aristocratic patrons who were leaning way from the rigidness of religion towards the variability of nature. This period was ruled by King Louis XV , and the decades before the French Revolution in 1789 were full of opulence and luxury which manifested itself in the aristocratic love for art. Naughtiness won out over holiness and this can be seen in Nicolas Lancret’s 1735 painting, Luncheon Party in a Park (65.2649) . This painting exemplifies the themes of French Rococo, their favoritism with the natural world and the intimate sensuality of aristocratic outings, along with the style of soft brush work and light palates. With these three ideas of nature, a light color palate, and whimsicality in mind, we can see how Lancret’s painting demonstrates the laidback and frivolousness mentality of French society around the period of the 1730’s.

Post Impressionism and Art Essay

Modernism is an art movement that is characterized by a deliberate departure from tradition to a more expressive form that distinguishes many styles in the arts and literature of the late nineteenth and twentieth century. Emile Bernard was part of this modern art movement as can be seen in his painting, "Breton Woman and Haystacks", painted around 1888. Impressionists were modern artists who tended to paint outside landscapes and street scenes and were concerned with the effects of light. Bernard was a Post-Impressionist artist who considered Impressionism too casual or too naturalistic, and sought a means of exploring emotion in paint. Bernard's work, "Breton Woman and Haystacks", depicts a woman in

Contemporary Art Essay

of art as a finished product, signed by the artist and authenticated by the art market,

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essay on art nouveau

Essays on Art Nouveau

A history of art nouveau designs, biography and life path of egon schiele, art issues during gilded age, what university should you choose, textbook analysis: views and preferences for art, the description of art of cyprus, feeling stressed about your essay.

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essay on art nouveau

Why Is Art Nouveau Important

essay on art nouveau

Show More d active until the early 20th century (1905 or arguably 1910). After a life span of 25 years, Art Nouveau went out of style, as it was succeeded by Art Deco as well as suffered from the social shift caused by World War I. If Art Nouveau was forgotten, how important must it have been? Art Nouveau was immensely important since it was more than an art style. It was a lifestyle of its own. During those 25 years of existence, it was omnipresent. From graphic design, jewelry, architecture, product design, furniture, to even the subway gates in Paris, Art Nouveau was the dominant inspiration. Additionally, Art Nouveau was unique as it was one of the first art styles to expand beyond a single country and find its way throughout Europe and Northern …show more content… Because its far reaching influence brought art into daily life ranged from art to architecture, it is difficult to establish one clear element starting art nouveau. The launch in 1880 by the English designer William Morris of the Arts and Crafts movement could be considered as the start of the Art Nouveau since his movement was rejecting Victorian-era historical decorative art. Over the 1880s and 1890s, European artists like Gustav Klimt, Emile Galle and James Abbott McNeill Whistler were influenced by Japanese art. Flowers and curves were widely used stylistic features on Japanese wood-block prints and became representative of the upcoming Art Nouveau. In France, Vincent van Gogh’s flowing lines and patterns, Paul Gauguin’s pieces rich with flowery and vivid colors or Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec’s lithographs for example La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge (1891) could mark the start of Art Nouveau. In the United Kingdom, a book jacket featuring floral motif similar to Japanese-style wood-block prints on 1883 volume Wren's City Churches written by Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, an English architect and designer, is said to mark the start of art …show more content… However that’s not all, in 1880 when art nouveau still wasn’t officially born yet the arts at the time were highly academic, to be considered an artist, the requirement was to attend one of the many arts academy. Students would need to commit to the rigorous study of line, form, shape, and texture, with the ultimate goal of producing paintings of idealized figures and landscape, and of course for all the artists who did just that, some though academic art was not in line with their expectations, and reacted accordingly. These artists believed art should not be studied like an academic subject, since doing such limited art only to the privileged and upper class. These “rebel” artists driven to impart their own style in the art world, were the innovators of the very short, but highly influential movement known as Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau which means New Art in French moved away from imitation of real subjects and moved towards the flowing and twisting lines and shapes of nature, art nouveau pieces are organic in their ornamentation featuring what many art historians call the whiplash curves, decorating every available

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Japanese art influence.

The vibrant color was applied with a looser brushstroke, Cut off composition and the use of silhouette became valid in their paintings. There were many Western Impressionist artists influenced by ukiyo-e. It is said Edgar Degas were among the earliest collector of Japanese art in France. Edgar Degas was collecting ukiyo-e prints which slowly shows the influence in his painting. Edgar Degas assimilated the lessons of Japanese dramatic composition, viewpoint and perspective, such as cutting off figures with the picture frame.…

Samurai Attacks Woman Analysis

Another way in which they differ is that the Meiji era sought to revitalize the traditional, Japanese style of art (Source 1). While the Italian Renaissance wanted to not dwell in the past. The fall of Rome brought about many dark years that were better not relived. During this time of self-reflection, the people of this era became infatuated with the artwork that came from ancient Greece (Source 2). They saw the art from this past time as enlightened; The very definition of beauty.…

Impressionist Art Movement

Claude Monet highlighted the modernization and industrialization of Europe by incorporating train stations and factories into his works of art. In addition, in 1892 and 1893, Monet created a series of paintings called the “Rouen Cathedral”. This series was painted of a cathedral in France during different times of the day and year. As an impressionist painter, Monet captured the cathedral as the lighting and atmosphere changed. Monet rented a place across the street from the cathedral and started his work.…

Modern Architecture In America

Although the mission was canceled in a glimpse, it was considered as the beginning of the Chinese Revivalism, a phenomenon were Chinese architects were convinced of Western Classicism. Examples like the Wing On and Sincere Building in the Hong Kong and the formation of architecture firms were also evidence that the Chinese began to adapt to the Western architecture style. Similarly, the technical competence of the American architects mentioned in Reading 5 also took part in influencing the movement around the globe. For instance, the Gianicolo built by McKim, Mead & White in Rome in 1913 has shown the precise detailing that the Americans were chasing for, in which inspired the modern work of the Italians in the interwar period. Furthermore, reading 3 and 6 also shown a strong emphasis on the impact of Le Corbusier to this global movement.…

Romanticism: An Artistic Movement

For example, revivalism in architecture is using visual elements that are similar to previous artistic movements. Revivalism was also used in paintings, where artists focused on historical events and painted them in a way that reflected the horrific details that others may not have highlighted in their work. William Blake, Ancient of Days, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794, is a prime example of how an artist incorporates classical reference alongside the inner obscure visions that so categorizes the artistic movement of Romanticism. Blake envisions the Almighty Creator surrounded by dark clouds that emit little sunlight, which the red sun is placed behind God. The viewer will also see how Blake how the Creator used power, shooting from his fingers, is based on the based on an architect’s measuring…

Christobal Blenciaga Case Study

In that same year he had taken part in the Theatre de la Mode. This was a display of haute couture which was produced in Paris A few years later in 1947 ventured from his traditional couture line and debuted his firs perfume line. Christobal was also known for incorporating lace of brown and black colors on top of garments that were of a bright pink color. His design shaping had been different from the usual shapes during that time period. Designer like Christian Dior created designs that were curvy hourglass shape, while…

Essay On Art Nouveau

An early example of the paintings of Art Nouveau is Edvard Munch’s “The Scream.” This painting was created in 1893 and later showcased during the artist’s first Paris show at La Maison de l’Art Nouveaux gallery. This setting was the interior design house for which Art Nouveau is named. Europe was given a share of magazines, including “Art Nouveau”, due to advances in printing. The clear prints of Art nouveau are important for understanding the movement. The copy of the “Tropon” by Henry van de Velde (1898) shows the different color choices of an Art Nouveau Print with brilliant ochre, dull green, and orange,…

Symbolism In The Flowers Of Evil By Edgar Allan Poe

Its influence on the other arts can be seen in the music of Debussy and the paintings of Odilon Redon, Gustave Moreau, Van Gogh and Gauguin (Murray 1999: 1086).The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and '70s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestoes and attracted a generation of writers. (Olds 2006: 155-62) Symbolism is a part of modernism. As a school, symbolism has some major features. First, the authors of symbolism change their perspectives from the material world to the inner world.…

Pierre-Auguste Renoir: Art Analysis: The Seine At Chatou Analysis

Renoir focused mainly on modern Parisian lifestyle in the late 19th century. In October of 1881, in the middle of his career, Renoir left Paris for Italy to study Renaissance art. This experience inspired him to integrate more line and detail into his mature works. These later works of Renoir are often omitted from art history. In 1883, Renoir painted the clearly Renaissance-inspired Reclining Nude.…

Pierre Auguste Renoir The Bathers Analysis

Pierre-Auguste Renoir is well-known for being a Parisian painter but mainly for being a French impressionist painter. Renoir and his interest in art is partially attributed to his family in recognizing his artistic talents by setting him up with a porcelain painter. This marked the beginning of his journey in the art world. In reference to the impressionist movement, which emerged from Paris, France around the late 1860s and 1870s, it is associated with the manner of painting emphasized by a specific circle of French artists. However, during the period of 1884-1887, Renoir went through what has been labeled as the “anti-impressionist” phase marked by the creation of The Bathers.…

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essay on art nouveau

The History Of Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau was an artist movement that started in Europe and peaked in popularity between the years of 1890 and 1910. It had a great influence on graphic design, but was also practiced in the fields of art, architecture and applied art. Art Nouveau is a French term meaning “new art” and is characterized from the highly stylized forms as well as organic and plant motifs. “The organic forms often took the shape of sudden violent curves which were often referenced by the term whiplash” (Eskilson, 56). It took on many different characteristics, and some of it’s well known designers from the era created new artistic vocabulary that could best express the modern world. “ Art Nouveau ’s success was a reaction against the late 19th century academic art and was replaced by the development of 20th century modernist style” (Eskilson, 56). Relative to graphic design, it was popular in poster printing and book production, although it was used by artists for a variety of other types of work including magazines, labels, advertisements, and typography. The typography was so heavily ornate that it was not desirable for text faces but great for display work. It was a during a time when people were dissatisfied with the new ideologies of science, rationalism, and literal interpretation and rather embraced spiritualism, mysticism, and influences from newly accessible cultures such as Japan, India, and Africa. These diverse locations reflected the widespread adoption of the movement. Art Nouveau in Britain evolved from the already established Arts and Crafts Movement. A man named William Morris, emphasized the importance of handcrafted work. Morris was devoted to handmade articles that were against machine-made products that were taking over the ... ... middle of paper ... ...n American design” (Eskilson, 57). Art Nouveau was a reaction against the increasing industrialization of Europe during the latter half of the nineteenth century. It was a dominant style until the beginning of the twentieth century. “An essential principle of the Art Nouveau movement was the belief that the New Art must consist of a style that could be applied in all situations, and would not be unique to any one type of design” (Eskilson, 65). Designers working in the Art Nouveau aesthetic were drawn to nature, and much of their work was linear and organic. It was an extraordinary movement in art history and represented the beginning of modernism in design. Art Nouveau designers eliminated the barrier of strict regiments of academic art and expressed a different kind of organic reality. Although short lived, art nouveau was a remarkable step in design and style.

In this essay, the author

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