Computer Viruses: Spreading, Multiplying and Damaging Essay
A computer virus is a software program designed to interfere with the normal computer functioning by infecting the computer operating system (Szor, 2005). These viruses have the capability of spreading from one computer to another. They are also capable of multiplying. Viruses cause myriads of working challenges to computers ranging from destruction of files, slowing down computer performance, renaming files in computers and eventually making it difficult to access stored files (Szor, 2005).
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These viruses can spread from one computer to another through an internet connection and sharing of floppy disks, flash discs and any other external and portable device that can transfer data from one machine to another. Viruses are distinguished from worms because they cannot run automatically (Szor, 2005). Therefore, the user of a computer must perform a function that will necessitate their operations.
The virus programs are not-self generated within a computer system. However, they are designed and produced by computer hackers. The hackers who design most common computer viruses usually come up with the names (US-CERT , 2012).
Some of these viruses include Melissa, the Anna Kournikova, MyDoom, Sasser & Netsky, the ILOVEYOU virus, The Klez Virus, Code Red and Code Red II, Nimda virus, SQL Slammer/Sapphire virus, Leap-A/Oompa-A virus, and Storm Worm (US-CERT , 2012). All these viruses are tools used by hackers to destroy and access remote computer files.
There are many ways through which a computer can be infected by a virus. These may range from direct access such as file sharing to remote access portals such as using internet connectivity. For a computer virus to be effective, it must be allowed to run by the user through various means (US-CERT, 2012). A computer user can accept any new message on the screen without knowing the information in the file.
In this way, a computer virus is then allowed to run, causing harm to the computer. If a computer user opens unknown attachments, then viruses can easily find access into files in a computer. If a computer’s operating system is not updated, it will not be able to filter viruses, making it more vulnerable to attacks (US-CERT , 2012).
In addition, downloading files from unsecure sources allows viruses to gain access to a computer. Viruses can also be hidden within some software. For instance, during software installation, viruses are allowed to infiltrate into computer files (US-CERT , 2012).
Viruses have become a major challenge to several companies across the world. However, some measures can be taken to regulate the spread of these computer viruses. For instance, the use of an updated antivirus program sourced from a reputable vendor offers computer protection against most viruses (US-CERT , 2012).
The antivirus must be frequently updated and configured to automatically start as the computer is switched on. Besides, the antivirus should be configured to allow regular virus scanning and virus check when running executable file on the computer. Backing up data is also an important method of protecting a computer from loss of data due to virus infection. The internet is the most common source of viruses.
When dealing with any form of data from an online source, make sure that the source is well known. The use of USB data transfer gadgets should be well monitored and conducted with caution. The antivirus in this case should be used to scan USB drives before accessing the files. The most important protection is making sure that the operating system is updated and the firewall is always activated.
It is also possible to erase crucial information from hard disc drives using viruses. This information may be data collected from a crime scene, banking records, confidential files, and even important government files (Szor, 2005). The use of viruses can manipulate important computer information such as bank records resulting into an individual accessing vital and confidential records. The development and use of viruses has always been aimed at committing crime either directly or indirectly.
Szor, P. (2005). The Art of Computer Virus Research and Defense. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional. US-CERT (2012). Virus Basics. Retrieved from https://www.us-cert.gov/publications/virus-basics
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Computer Virus - Essay Examples and Topic Ideas
Computer virus is a software program capable of copying itself from an infected object to another object (objects can be program files, text, computers …). The virus has many ways to spread and of course there are many ways to destroy it, but you just need to remember that it is part of programs and programs that are often used for bad purposes. Computer virus created by humans. Indeed, to this day, we can consider computer viruses to be pathogens for computers, we are doctors who must always fight disease and find new ways to limit it. handle and destroy them. As complex problems in society, it is inevitable that diseases that we must try to treat or have diseases that cause incalculable consequences (Irimia R, 2016).
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Computer Viruses A Quantitative Analysis
This report will hopefully pull together the research available with regard to this issue, and also identify what users are most at risk for virus attacks. The research currently available also confirms that modern viruses are becoming more insidious and complex, with the potential to incur more damage to computers and data than in the past. Studies suggest that newer versions of viruses may escape detection using standard anti-viral software. This presents a new threat to computer users that must be addressed, hence it is more important than ever that effective methods of prevention and control are designed to prevent future data loss. Methodology Design of the Study The research study takes into consideration multiple factors when deciding the methodology. The history of viruses, positive and negative effects, organizational impacts, etc. will all be examined. These factors will be measured using a variety of techniques including field research that will…
Hickman, J.R. (1995). "Viruses: New strains, new solutions." ABA Banking Journal,
Hopkins, W. (000). "Quantitative Research." Sports Science. 30, October 2005: http://www.sportsci.org/jour/0001/wghdesign.html
Horn, R.V. (2003). "Technology: Prudent computing." Phi Delta Kapan, 85(3): 183.
Hunton, J.E. (1998). "Facts and fables about computer viruses." Journal of Accountancy,
Computer Terrorism According to Weimann
Hacking, the apolitical counterpart of hacktivism, is also not necessarily a form of terrorism. However, cyberterrorists often use hacking as a tool of terrorism. Terrorists may be tempted to use computer attacks for several reasons including the following. First, cyberterrorism can be relatively inexpensive. Second, terrorists can easily remain anonymous when they use computer terrorism. Third, the scope of the attack can potentially be larger than physically combative ones. Fourth, cyberterror can be launched and managed remotely and fifth, computer terrorism can garner instant and widespread media attention. Cyberterrorism is not only in the province of international terrorist organizations but may also be used by fanatical religious groups or even by disgruntled employess. Using computer terrorism can also become an adjunct to traditional forms of terror like bombs. The National Security Agency (NSA) has investigated vulnerabilities in their own systems and have hired hackers to expose weaknesses in their systems.…
Weimann, G. (2004). Cyberterrorism: How Real Is the Threat? United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr119.html
Computer Is a Device That Accepts Information
computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Used the right way, computers can be an enormous personal and business productivity tool for automating numerous routine tasks and increasing information storage, retrieval and exchange. Unfortunately, computers also facilitate and expand crime. Computer crime pertains to any intentional or unintentional harm done to or with information and/or hardware that may result in losses of, or injury to, property, services, and people. Many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers. Some examples include: Using a computer and peripherals for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old-fashioned printing press with ink. Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers…
Eder, Karen. Defining Computer Crime and Technology Misuse." Technology Studies in Education Research Portal. 23 Nov. 2003. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/crime/definition.htm.
Standler, Ronald B. "Computer Crime." 2002.
23 Nov. 2003. http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm .
TechTarget. 23 Nov. 2003. http://searchwin2000.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid1_gci211829,00.html .
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Information technology and related systems provide multiple benefits to business, government, and individual users. Databases, Internet transactions, and emails contain sensitive customers, employee and operations data that are extremely vulnerable. The following study focuses on various components of IT and related systems used for the storage of information like computers, servers, and website databases. Whilst identifying the ways the date can be compromised and exposed to abuse, the study identifies ways of protecting and enhancing their integrity. Types of information systems that that hold data Computers Computers do their primary work in parts that are not visible when using them. To do this, a control center that converts data input to output must be present. All this functions are done by the central processing unit (CPU) a highly complicated set of electric circuits that intertwine to store and achieve program instructions. Most computers regardless of…
Adikesavan, T.A. (2014). Management Information Systems Best Practices and Applications in Business. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Bradley, T. (2006). Essential Computer Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security. New York: Syngress
Khosrowpour M. (2006). Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management: 2006 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Washington, DC, USA, May 21-24, 2006 Volume 1. Washington: Idea Group Inc. (IGI)
Kim, D. & Solomon, M. (2010). Fundamentals of Information Systems Security. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Ethics of Virus Research Self-Replicating
Intent to perform a greater good would not affect the possibility of being exposed to a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to $250,000, plus possible penalties under state law. Montana compares this legislation with that of the regulation of firearms. It is not the mere possession of malicious code that is criminalized, but the use and the damage to computer systems and association economic losses that are the focal point of the law. Computer code, even MMC, is considered intellectual property and carries legal protections similar to books or sound recordings. It is also considered a form of speech and therefore is also offered protection under the Constitution's First Amendment. However, this protection is limited, just as 'free speech' is limited, especially in instances when this speech interferes with the protection of the public welfare -- as is the case with the release…
Ford, R., Bush, M., & Boulatov, a."Internet Instability and Disturbance: Goal or Menace?" Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on New Security Paradigms. 2005: p. 3-8.
Frohmann, B. "Subjectivity and Information Ethics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 59(2) Jan 2008: p. 267-277.
Johnson, M. & Rogers, K. "The Fraud Act 2006: The E-Crime Prosecutor's Champion or the Creator of a New Inchoate Offence?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology. 21(3) Nov 2007: p.. 295-304.
Ledin, G. "Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful." Communications of the ACM. 48(1) Jan 2005: p. 144.
New Computer's Technology the Emergence
These days, every new computer technology provides many benefits to different kinds of organizations. eing very much in demand in schools, new computer technologies prepare the students in facing the challenges of their future - a future that will certainly be made more advanced by new computer technologies. Another is the importance of new computer technologies in different kinds of industries as they make almost all tasks be completed more quickly and more accurately. Moreover, competition of organizations belonging to same industry seems to rely on who has the latest technology. Whoever has the latest computer technology has the edge of winning clients and being the first to succeed as well. New computer technologies play important role in the life of humans. They can be learning tools, productivity tools, communication tools, and entertainment tools. As new computer technologies are continuously being developed, it can be expected that change will be…
Geuder, M. (2000). New Computer Technology Aids Hearing-Impaired MSU Student.
Retrieved on November 17, 2006, from Online.
Web site: http://www.msstate.edu/web/media/detail.php?id=1214
Ruane, M.E. (1999). New Computer Technology Makes Hacking a Snap.
Computers for the Organization All Three Are
computers for the organization. All three are high-end ultra-slim laptops for the sales force. These are compared according to a number of key variables -- weight, size, performance, memory, communications, power, software, operating system and price. The three models are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. A recommendation is made at the end of the paper. This essay will compare three different computer models for the organization to meet its needs. It is assumed that the computer chosen will have a high need for portability and performance, so the focus is going to be on three high-end lightweight laptops. They are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. They will be evaluated on a number of different metrics and considerations. eight and Size Each of the three computers has a 13.3" widescreen display. The material that is used is…
Samsung Series 9: http://www.samsung.com/us/computer/laptops/NP900X3A-A03US-specs
Toshiba Portege R830: http://us.toshiba.com/computers/laptops/portege/R830/R830-S8332
Apple MacBook Air: http://www.apple.com/macbookair/
Computers Have Changed Lives Opening
privacy. There's also the issue of speed and response that each of these devices imply and the expectations of those that are members of social networks, keeping mind these social networks could be the departments they work in for their jobs. Even the iPod has this speed of response inherent within it from having the continual stream of new songs copied onto it for use during commuting, working out and working. The advent of social networking sites that are accentuating the speed of response include Twittr and others, which support messaging to PCs, hybrid MP3 players and smart phones. Inherent in the social network that is fostering the growth of these technologies that provide options for collaborating and connecting more than ever before is the implied expectation that once someone is contacted they will respond immediately. The urgency of the immediate often overtakes the importance of the longer-term more introspective…
Gul Agha. "COMPUTING in PERVASIVE CYBERSPACE. " Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 51.1 (2008): 68-70. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.. 28 Apr. 2008 / www.proquest.com.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr.2008 www.proquest.com.
Robin Snow. "Rethinking the Web. " Marketing Health Services 26.2 (2006): 35-37. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Cynthia G. Wagner. "Disconnectivity Demonstrated. " the Futurist 42.2 (2008): 68. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Computer Used by the Employee Has Either
computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a keylogging software.A keylogger is noted by APWG (2006) as a special crimeware code that is designed with the sole intention of collecting information from the end-user terminal. The stolen information includes every strike of the keyboard which it captures.The most sensitive of the captured information are the user's credentials. Keylogger may also be used to refer to the hardware used for this purpose. The employee's password could also have been shoulder-surfed by his immediate neighbor at the workplace. This could be his coworker who manages to peek and see over his shoulder as he types in sensitive authentication information (password) Strategy to address the issue as well as the necessary steps for resolving the issue The strategy for addressing this threat…
Anti-Phising Working Group (2006). Phishing Activity Trends Report
Bem, D and Huebner, E (2007).Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment. International Journal of Digital Evidence .Fall 2007, Volume 6 (2)
Computers Internet General
Business Internet Dot.com Comparison of a Leader and an Upstart Red Hat.com vs. Microsoft.com Two prominent dot.com companies within the same industry of recent note may be found in the competing personages of Red Hat Software and the successful brand name of Microsoft. Although Red Hat Software is not nearly as well-known as the Titanic brand name of Microsoft, it offers an interesting and different software business perspective to Microsoft's better-known strategy business. Of course, it should be noted that, as Red Hat is the world's premier open source and Linux provider that it is not exactly tiny in its stretch as a company. However, it does not have nearly the status of industry leader as Microsoft, or, more importantly, that company's well-known status as a brand name and purveyor of technology and software. Microsoft's business strategy is in line with many typical technological vendor models. It attempts to generate…
Computer Networking In today's society, more people and businesses rely on computers and networks to store vital information and technology. Networking is the process of moving information via computers rather than via any other medium, such as paper media or mere human communication. In addition to sharing information via networks, computers can share hardware, e.g., laser printers, and software in the networking process. This can save businesses and individuals large sums of money. The computers or devices on a network are often referred to as "nodes." To visualize a network, the easiest image is that of two computers hooked together by a cable, transmitting information between the two machines. There are actually a variety of kinds of networks, e.g., local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (ANs). LAN is a relatively localized network: LAN is a high-speed data network that covers a relatively small geographic area. It typically connects…
Computer Networking." ComputerNetworking.com. July 4, 2002. http://compnetworking.about.com/library/glossary/bldef-ipaddress.htm .
CERT Coordination Center, "Home Network Security." Cert.org. July 4, 2002
Protecting Data Against Viruses Company
The owner remarked about how important it is to guard one's system against viruses and intrusion. He went further to remark that there are programs that offer their services free of charge (partial programs or trial versions) to protect one's computer, but he recommends buying a program that offers full protection. This statement concluded the interview "Unfortunately my customers have often learned the importance of protecting their information the hard way; it is not something to be taken lightly." This statement makes a lot of sense. Too often a person will sit back thinking that it is impossible for something to happen to them, when in fact one should always be prepared for the unexpected. The owner of Company Xtreme reported that approximately 50% of his customers are individuals whom have had viruses on there computer. Among this 50%, they also have spyware, which often may allow strangers access to…
Norton Anti-Virus Made by Symantec
ith the sophistication of computer users generally increasing, the corporate market forms an important part of the customer base as these users are a more captive audience. One sale to an it department can be worth hundreds of licenses. However, Norton is weak in the corporate market and competes mainly in the consumer market at present. Demand for Norton products is declining. hile Symantec overall has continued to grow in size, acquisitions and other business segments have spurred this growth (2009 Symantec Form 10-K). From 2007 to 2008, Norton revenue grew 7.2%, but the market share declined as the overall security software market increased 19.4% by revenue (Gartner, 2009). The market is trending towards increased fragmentation. The share of minor players in the industry has increased from 48% of the market in 2007 to 50.9% of the market in 2008. McAfee has increased its market share slightly, while each of…
Gartner Inc. (2009). Symantec market share falls; McAfee's shows growth. The Windows Club. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.thewindowsclub.com/symantec-market-share-falls-mcafees-shows-growth
2009 Symantec Form 10-K. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MzQ3OTU4fENoaWxkSUQ9MzM2NTY1fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1
Trefis. (2010). Comcast deal can slow Symantec's market share declines. Trefis.com. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.trefis.com/articles/11016/comcast-and-quest-deals-could-plug-symantec%E2%80%99s-market-share-declines-temporarily/2010-03-04
Weiner, K. (2009). Symantec and McAfee is arms race in PC security market. Neowin.net. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.neowin.net/news/symantec-and-mcafee-in-arms-race-for-security
Various Computer Related Laws
Contending With Cybercrime Issues Attacks and Malware There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private. One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
Summarize the Disadvantages to Law Enforcement With Respect to the Advancements of Computers
Computer/Software and the Use of Computer Technology in Investigations The key advantage of computer forensics is that it can look for and assess loads of data in a swift and efficient manner. Computers are able to search for keywords from hard drives, in various languages. This proves valuable, as cybercriminals are easily able to cross national boundaries over the World Wide Web (Forensic Science, 2009). Computer forensics may be utilized in cases of corporate frauds, thefts, disputes over intellectual property, asset recovery and contract breaches (Forensic Science, 2009). Important information, which cybercriminals have deleted or which is lost may be recovered and employed as significant court evidence. Professionals in the legal domain can furnish evidences in courts, which were earlier impossible. The field of computer forensics (i.e., electronic evidence) is fairly new; typically, criminal issues are handled through the use of physical evidence. Fortunately, the tool has proven advantageous in…
10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics. (2011, February 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.criminaljusticeschools.org/blog/10-famous-cases-cracked-by-forensics
Forensic Science. (2009). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.anushreepatil.myewebsite.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-computer-forensics.html
University professor helps FBI crack $70 million cybercrime ring. (2012, March 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://rockcenter.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/03/21/10792287-university-professor-helps-fbi-crack-70-million-cybercrime-ring
How Computers Have Affected the Discipline
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well. How computers have affected the discipline Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.
European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf
Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/
Data Collection and Analysis Memo
Symantec The anti-virus software company Symantec (NASDAQ symbol: SYMC) makes Norton antivirus software, one of the industry's leading anti-virus programs. This paper investigates how Symantec fares against Network Associates, Inc. (the makers of MacAfee anti-virus software) in terms of the relationship between revenue and computer virus outbreaks, as well as overall averages. Specifically, stock quotes for Symantec and Network Associates will be compared post-virus outbreak for each of these four major outbreaks: 1) Blaster, Category 4, August 12, 2003, 2) SoBig, Category 4, August 22, 2003, 3) Bugbear, Category 4, October 2, 2002, 4) Klez, Category 4, April 25, 2002, and 5) Sircam, Category 4, July 24, 2001. Ultimately, there is a small decrease in stock price for both Symantec and Network Associates the day after a major virus outbreak occurs. One of Symantec's main competitors in terms of industry anti-virus software is McAfee, a business unit of Network Associates,…
Forbes.com. Symantec Stock Seen With More Than 25% Upside, 02.26.04, 12:27 PM ET. 01 March 2004. http://www.forbes.com/markets/2004/02/26/0226automarketscan06.html?partner=yahoo&referrer=
Yahoo Finance. Company Profile: Symantec. 01 March 2004. http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=SYMC
Yahoo Finance. Competetors: SYMC. 01 march 2004. SYMANTEC CORP (NasdaqNM:SYMC) Quote data by Reuters
Business Messages Send To Andrea Tech Rep
Business Messages Send to: Andrea, Tech. Rep., CIS Copy To: Janet, Supervisor, Jack, Manager, CIS Information Services Potential Threat to Company IT Systems Over the past few weeks, it has become increasingly evident to me that our company may be the target of a denial of service attack or other computer virus for which we may be ill-prepared today. In this regard, I have reviewed the company standing operating procedures concerning computer viruses in an attempt to determine what measures should be taken by whom and when. Unfortunately, the company's SOP does not even address denial of service threats and only mentions computer viruses in a tangential way. To help address this apparent gap in the company's ability to respond to threats to the integrity of its IT systems, I believe we should form a task force immediately to develop appropriate responses in the event of a computer virus infection…
Warfare: An Overview In today's age, traditional warfare, though a major player as we see in the Iraq war, has in some arenas taken a back seat to information warfare. y definition, information warfare is the offensive and even defensive utilization of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy an adversary's information, information-based processes, information systems and computer-based networks while protecting one's own. Parties use information warfare to gain military, public relations or economic advantage. (www.psycom.net) Users of information technology are most often nation-states and corporations. For instance, by gaining access to a rival company's databases, a business can get a valuable advantage on price-points and supply chains. Countries can decide how much to spend on military equipment by discovering how much in military stocks adversary nations have. One major focus recently on information warfare has been hackers. For instance, the most recent generation of mobile phones…
Bibliography www.iwar.org.uk: The information warfare site.
www.psycom.net/iwar.2.html: Glossary of information warfare terms.
www.fas.org/irp/wwwinfo.html: Web source of information warfare sites.
Using the Internet Safely
Internet Safely Risks for Children Avoiding Viruses Avoiding SPAM Credit Card Usage Safety Online Using the Internet Safely The Internet is a wonderful place and can create many positive experiences for people of all ages. A vast amount of information is available with a simple click of a mouse. Great deals, convenience and choices are found all over the Internet. However, when exploring what the Internet has to offer, users must be smart to make the most of the online experience. The Internet is a very real place and there is good reason to be exercise caution when using it. The same dangers that exist on the street exist on the Internet. Risks for Children Children are often more advanced than their parents on the Internet (Coalition for Children, 2000). Young people are more comfortable with computer technologies, schools are going online rapidly and the Internet is growing in many…
McAfee.com Virus Information Library
2. National Infrastructure Protection Center: www.nipc.gov
Security Measures Course Name Course Number &
Security measures You just received a brand new computer for your home environment. It comes with the latest Operating System. You also have an Internet Service Provider where you can easily use the existing network to connect to the Internet and to perform some online banking. Describe the steps you plan to go through to ensure this system remains as secure as possible. Be sure to discuss the details of firewall settings you plan to implement within your operating system, browser privacy settings, and recommended software (e.g., Anti-virus and others) you will install. Also, describe your password strength policy you plan to adopt, and what you envision to do to ensure your online banking site is encrypted and using the proper certificates. Discussion of operating system patches and application updates should also be included. As you discuss these steps, be sure to justify your decisions bringing in possible issues if…
Increasing Your Facebook Privacy and Security By Dave Taylor onSeptember 16, 2011
Safe Computing provided by the Office of Information Technology University of California, Irvine Last Updated: January 28, 2011
Importance of Security
Network Security and Why Use It Security And Why Use It The security of any network should be taken seriously. A network allows someone to share resources and information with others on the network. Networks allow for distribution of computer viruses, Trojans, human intruders, and employees can damage more than just one computer. To better understand the importance of network security, one needs to think of what might happen if all the data for a company that is stored in their servers vanishes. This scenario would cause losses that the company might never recover. Networks are divided into three main categories Internetwork (internet), Wide Area Networks (WAN) and Local Area Networks (LAN). These three categories of network require security to ensure that no malicious humans gain access, and no viruses attack the network. To better understand network security, one needs to know what a network is. A network is defined…
Hu, H., Myers, S., Colizza, V., Vespignani, A., & Parisi, G. (2009). WiFi Networks and Malware Epidemiology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(5), 1318-1323.
Krishna, V.A., & Victoire, T.A.A. (2011). A Descriptive Study on Firewall. [Article]. European Journal of Scientific Research, 63(3), 339-346.
Papaj, J., Dobos, L. u., & izmar, A. (2012). Opportunistic Networks and Security. [Article]. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 5(1), 163-166.
Rao, B., & Parikh, M.A. (2003). Wireless Broadband Networks: The U.S. Experience. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(1), 37-53.
networking and TCP/IP and internetworking. Also discussed are risk management, network threats, firewalls, and also more special purpose network devices. The paper will provide a better insight on the general aspects of security and also get a better understanding of how to be able to reduce and manage risk personally at the workplace and at home. In today's world, the Computer has become a common feature in any organization anywhere in the world. This may be due to the fact that a computer can be accessed by anybody who knows how to handle it and also because it can store a lot of information both confidential and general. A computer is connected through a physical network that allows a person or many persons to share any information necessary. (Conceptual Overview of Network Security) Though network security in Information Technology is an issue that has been discussed endlessly, implementation has definitely…
Bolding, Darren. "Network Security, Filters and Firewalls." Retrieved from ACM Cross Roads Student Magazine, 17 January, 2001 http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds2-1/security.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Curtin, Matt. "Introduction to Network Security March" 1997. Retrieved at http://www.interhack.net/pubs/network-securityAccessed on 03/09/2004
Home Internet security: Protection against network security attacks" Retrieved at http://www.buildwebsite4u.com/articles/home-internet-security.shtml. Accessed on 03/09/2004
Magalhaes, Ricky M. "Network Security recommendations that will enhance your windows" network" Oct 22, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Net_Security_Recommendations.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Network Design Proposal
Network Design Proposal Network equirements ABC School Stats/User Counts Having a current strength of approximately 845 students, ABC School provides education from Pre-Kindergarten to the 12th Grade. According to the requirements of The New York School District, 250 Curriculum computers along with 75 Administration computers are to be installed. The requirements for the wiring per room of layer 1 are that it should adjust a total of 25 computers, 24 of which will be used for the curriculum, whereas one will be used for administrative purposes. WAN Design The model for the WAN is 2 layers of hierarchy having a total of 3 hubs, one connecting the District Office or the Data Center, one the Service Center, and the remaining one connecting the Black Hawk School. A Frame elay WAN will be responsible for providing the required internet services. IP Addressing For all the hosts, interconnection devices, and servers an…
ArrowMail. (2011). "Advice on Choosing the best Range of IP Addresses to use on your LAN." Taken from: http://www.arrowmail.co.uk/articles/iprange.aspx
Begin Linux. (2010). Network Design for Small Business. Taken from: http://beginlinux.com/blog/2010/06/network-design-for-a-small-business
Botsford, C. (2011). Learn To Subnet.com v. 3.2." LearnTCPIP.com. Taken from: http://www.learntcpip.com/LTSN/default.htm
Crockett, R. (2003). Network design project Sunnyslope elementary school. WESD Network Design Project Proposal.
Security on the Web
Internet: Security on the Web Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks? The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential. That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
Leadership Strategies and Motivation Strategies to Enhance Performance and Productivity
Leadership Strategies Over the last several years, the issue of computer viruses has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the technology and techniques of hackers are more sophisticated. According to Statistic Brain, this problem is wide spread with a total of 8.9 million active viruses. This affects 40% of users at some point in time. For businesses, these challenges can result in decreased productivity and increased costs. To fully understand what is happening requires focusing on the causes of the problem and possible solutions. Together, these elements will provide specific insights about how firms can avoid these kinds of issues. ("Computer Virus Statistics," 2012) (Nahhas, 2009) (Stamp, 2011) Problem This report is going to be focusing on the primary reasons why businesses are susceptible to computer viruses. In a study conducted by McAfee (a software solutions provider), they found that the total costs all corporations are dealing…
Computer Virus Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/computer-virus-statistics/
Albers, S. (2009). Dealing with Rough Times. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 48 (3), 433 -- 445.
Braksick, L. (2012). Tough Transitions. Small Business Pittsburgh, 7.
Dewhurst. (2010). Motivating People. McKinsey Quarterly, 1.
Management of Enterprise Wide Networking
entepise wide netwoking has been the topic of discussion. Advances in technology and netwoking systems have caused oganizations to develop new management techniques fo entepise wide netwoks. The pupose of this pape is to discuss the Management of entepise-wide netwoking. We will focus on fou aspects of entepise wide netwoking including; legacy systems, Intenet Secuity, offshoe development and suppot and Mobile computing. We will investigate how each of these aspects is handled within an entepise. Legacy Systems Legacy systems wee once popula in the business wold but have become less popula in ecent yeas. (Sinn 2003) legacy system is loosely defined as "a softwae platfom developed in a pocedual language such as Cobol o RPG, hosted on a mainfame o an IBM iSeies. In most cases the maintenance costs of the system tend to incease ove time while the available technical expetise aound it deceases (Ludin 2004)." Many entepises ae…
references and Deter Computer Crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577+.
IT Plan as the World Continues to
IT Plan As the world continues to evolve with technology and technological advances, certain problems arise that requires precise and involved management of these advances. The purpose of this essay is to examine the importance of information security systems and how they demonstrate their importance in the commercial world. To do this, this essay will be presented from the viewpoint of an Information Security Officer (ISO) who has been tasked to identify the inherent risks associated with a business operation and to establish physical and logical access control methods that will help minimize those risks. A scenario has been created to help explain this process where a pharmacy and its accompanying information systems scheme are presented to give an example of how this may be done. In order to accomplish this task, this report will first identify the physical vulnerabilities that are given in the directed scenario before identifying the…
Jackson, W. (2013). New strategy for IT security: Focus on the systems not the threat. GCN, 2 May 2013. Retrieved from http://gcn.com/articles/2013/05/02/it-security-strategy-focus - on-systems-not-threats.aspx
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (2013). Special Publication 800-12: An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook. Updated 25 Jan 2013. Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-12/800-12 - html/index.html
Prince, K. (2009). Top 9 IT Security Threats. Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance Journal, 24 March, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.s-ox.com/dsp_getFeaturesDetails.cfm?CID=2461
Vernon, M. (2012). Top Five Threats. Computer Weekly, 21 Sep, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Top-five-threats
Web Security the Internet Places
Less satisfied knowledge dealing processes like keeping copies of old as well as unused spreadsheets which have several Social Security numbers instead of transmitting such data to long period and safe storage- persistently involve data at vulnerable stage. (Schuster 140-141) Security concerns are associated with primarily to the system security, information security and also to Encryption. Taking into consideration the system security, it is applicable that what is pertinent to make sure that a system is quite secured, and decrease the scope that perpetrators could break into a website server and change pages. System security is a real responsibility particularly if one regulates one's owned Website server. (Creating Good Websites: Security) There are two primary concerns in system security. One is in the application of passwords that ought to be selected and applied securely. But however protected a system could be, it is ordinarily exposed to the world if the…
Cavusoglu, Huseyin; Mishra, Birendra; Raghunathan, Srinivasan. The Effect of Website security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Website security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 9, no.1, Fall 2004. pp: 70-104.
Creating Good Websites: Security. http://www.leafdigital.com/class/topics/security / de Vivo, Marco; de Vivo, Gabrieal; Isern, Germinal. Website security attacks at the basic level. SACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 32, no. 2, April 1998. pp: 4-15.
Farmer, Melanie Austria; Hu, Jim. Microsoft not alone in suffering security breaches.
October 27, 2000, http://news.com.com/Microsoft+not+alone+in+suffering+security+breaches/2100-1001_3-247734.html
Security Planning for Information Technology IT
IT Security Plan The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed the world in many facets and the ability to communicate and perform work have been greatly assisted by the digital age. Along with these new found powers, there exists also new found threats. The ability to protect these investments and resources of an informational matter, has produced new sciences and approaches to accomplishing such a task. The purpose of this essay is to discuss and analyze how to establish an information security program to protect organizational information. This essay will address the specific guidelines and elements that compose such a program and explore ways in which these methods can be exploited for the fullest possible benefit. Specific guidelines will be discussed however this is a general overview of a program and…
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
Boscolo, C. (2008). How to implement network access control. Computerweekly, November 2008 . Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/How-to-implement-network-access-control
Durbin, S. (2013). Security Think Tank: ISF's top security threats for 2014. Computerweekly, Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-ISFs-top-security-threats-for-2014
Grimes, R. (2012). IT's 9 biggest security threats. Infoworld, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/ d/security/its-9-biggest-security-threats-200828
History of Social Media and Its Impact on Business
Privacy and security is a major concern for any person in the technological era that we are living in today. Everything today is revolving around technology in some aspect. Our academic career, professional life and even personal lives are affected by technology. Because of social media, people are likely to put very personal details and images on the World Wide Web. When people are not reluctant about uploading their personal information online, they also wouldn't have any problem uploading their financial and company relations. Social media websites like LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter is affecting the way people interact with each other on the global scale. They are also affecting the way company's brand, advertise and even distribute their products (Edosomwan et.al, 2011) It has been stated that majority of the companies and corporations are receptive to online collaboration tools and social media. Nonetheless, when it comes to information technology, there…
Colombe, J., & Stephens, G. (2004). Statistical profiling and visualization for detection of malicious insider attacks on computer networks, 138 -- 142.
Cloudsecurityalliance.org. (2011). Top threats to cloud computing: cloud security alliance. [online] Retrieved from: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats [Accessed: 10 Aug 2014].
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal Of Applied Management And Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79 -- 91.
Ho, P., Tapolcai, J., & Mouftah, H. (2004). On achieving optimal survivable routing for shared protection in survivable next-generation internet. Reliability, IEEE Transactions On, 53(2), 216 -- 225.
Integrating Wireless and Ipads
solution for a client of Wireless Technology Company. They are a company that assists organizations and businesses when it comes to issues that involve networking, bandwidth, productivity and connectivity. The client in need of a solution right now is The Athlete's Shack. They are a chain of sporting goods stores with about ten stores in the area. While the company has a technology framework in place, they are lacking a wireless element and they wish to add one. Beyond that, they wish to make use of iPads that can thus link to the wireless infrastructure in the stores. The Athlete's Shack is unsure on how to initiate and start the process and that is why they are turning to the Wireless Technology Company. Executive Summary The Athlete's Shack is in need of a solution that allows for wireless connectivity along with the use of iPads as a mean to make…
Amazon. (2015). NETGEAR Nighthawk X6 AC3200 Tri-Band Wi-Fi Router (R8000). Amazon.com.
Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.amazon.com/NETGEAR-Nighthawk-AC3200-Tri-Band -
Apple. (2015). Apple. Apple. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://apple.com
Wireless Personal Area Networks An
Great sums of money are being invested to further enhance product differentiation. The presence of highly enforced industry standards provides assurance that the future will continue to be consumer-friendly. It is the end user community that truly drives advancement. They provide the vast sums of revenue that the manufacturers seek. In the final analysis, though, innovations such as PANs must be viewed as interim technology that represents a stepping-stone on the way to ubiquitous computing where computers simply disappear and become integrated into all aspects of daily life. orks Cited Gerwig, Kate. (2007, December 3). "IP router/switch sales may reach all- time high in 2007." SearchTelecom 03 Dec 2007. [Online]. Available: http://search telecom.techtarget.com/news/article/0,289142,sid103gci1284707,00.html. McMillan, Robert. (2008, January 4). "A i-Fi virus Outbreak? Researchers say it's possible." Network orld IDG News Service. [Online]. Available: http://www. networkworld.com/news/2008/010408-a-wi-fi-virus-outbreak- researchers. html?zb&rc=sec. Mitchell, Bradley. (2007). "The MAC Address; An Introduction to MAC Address" About.com: ireless…
Comcast Hackers the Internet Has
" This seems to be a case of some mischievous young men getting in way over their heads and not realizing how serious the consequences of their actions would be. Early on in the investigation, they were apparently laughing about the incident and enjoying their stint in the media spotlight (Poulsen, 2008). Now that they have been sentenced to serious jail time and are forced to pay major restitution, the seriousness of their crime has undoubtedly begun to sink in. While there was no new legislation specifically attached to the Comcast incident, crimes such as this demonstrate that computer security is an enormously difficult problem for which no simple solution exists. Obviously there are differences between detecting an intrusion attack and preventing one from occurring in the first place. Preventative measures are obviously more helpful and less complicated, however with new intrusion techniques cropping up all the time, it is…
Comcast Hackers sentenced to prison (2010, September 24) U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/criminal/cybercrime/lewisSent.pdf
Poulsen, K. (2008, May 29) Comcast hijacker say they warned the company first, Wired, Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/05/comcast-hijacke/
Poulsen, K. (2009, November 20) Three charged as Comcast hackers, CNN Tech/Wired. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-11-20/tech/comcast.hacking.charge_1_hackers-domain-e-mail?_s=PM:TECH
User Perceptions and Online News
A survey questionnaire design is employed to gather data to be used in the lazy user model test, with details on the sample population in which the questionnaire is to be administered. An innovative method to increase response rate is offered, followed by a data analysis plan. Finally, a conclusion and recommendation will complete this research project. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Information Technology and the Internet The Information Age has changed our world in many different areas, from mankind's first steps into the space frontier, to the development of consumer items of convenience. Computers where once virtually inaccessible to the average person, and at that time were used only for information processing and logical calculations on a grand scale for large corporations and military endeavors. Indeed, only in the military did the information age really begin to develop, with the need for advanced military operations driving the information technology race.…
Bellaaj, M. (2010). The competitive value of the internet: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Technology Marketing, 238.
Bagozzi, R.P. (2007). The Legacy of the Technology Acceptance Model and a Proposal
for a Paradigm Shift. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8, 244-
Chau, M., Wong, C.H., Zhou, Y., Qin, J., & Chen, H. (2009). Evaluating the use of search engine development tools in it education. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 288-299.
IT Infrastructure Seven Domains Can Be Found
IT Infrastructure Seven domains can be found in a typical IT infrastructure. They are as follows: User Domain, Workstation Domain, LAN Domain, LAN-to-WAN Domain, Remote Access Domain, WAN Domain, and System/Application Domain. Each of these domains is viewed as portals for attackers if countermeasures are missing or fail. It is very imperative for businesses to protect each of these seven domains. It only takes one unprotected domain for an attacker to gain access to private data. The User Domain is comprised of individuals that are often not aware of the tricks of attackers. For example, networks usually have strong passwords that one must know in order to gain access to the Internet. Nevertheless, social engineers can persuade individuals to give out personal information such as passwords and other types of private information. By giving out such information can cause computer viruses and infections executed by social engineers. Another way in…
Interview on Technology
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal implications of cyberterrorism, network and computer hacking, computer viruses, hate speech and pornography. The analysis strives to provide a balanced analysis of each area, illustrating how the inherent freedoms the Internet also provide powerful catalysts for criminals, hackers and hate groups to thrive. The paradoxical nature of Internet freedom is most clearly demonstrated in the examples of how hackers had been able to permeate a wide variety of systems and gain access to valuable data, intent on destroying it (Barnes, 2015). This article discusses the technologies underlying these areas in light detail, choosing instead to concentrate on the societal dilemmas of having an entirely open publishing medium that anyone at any time can use either ethically or unethically. The bottom line…
Barnes, Susan. Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (from class)
Coyle, C.L., & Vaughn, H. (2008). Social networking: Communication revolution or evolution? Bell Labs Technical Journal, 13(2), 13-17.
Yang, M.L., Yang, C.C., & Chiou, W.B. (2010). Differences in engaging in sexual disclosure between real life and cyberspace among adolescents: social penetration model revisited. Current Psychology, 29(2), 144-154.
Leadership at Local Power Company
Option 2 Cloud storage and other online solutions offer the reassurance of a remote backup strategy that complements your local backup strategy. This is a burgeoning market and backup options and pricing vary. Depending on the storage and user needs, these service cost nearly $120 to $700 per year. Using web-based storage services to back up what you don't feel comfortable storing locally will also help to keep costs lowered. Providers include Carbonite, Amazon S3, DropBox and Mozy. In addition to basic backup services, many offer various bells and whistles, including the option to access data from mobile devices, backup multiple PCs from one account, and share large files with teams. Another increasingly popular option is to build your own personal cloud with the help of a wireless network and sturdy storage devices currently available in the market. Option 3 If a server is being used in this business to…
Information Technology -- Managing Information
Vandalism Vandalism is a major concern because of the nature of the products manufactured by the organization and the high rate of theft generally associated with motor vehicles and motorcycles. It is recommended that the organization conduct a thorough perimeter and site security audit for the purposes of ensuring the maximum mitigation of any risks of vandalism and theft. To the extent that internal vandalism is a concern, it is recommended that the organization invest in security cameras to monitor critical areas. Additionally, employee physical access to specific areas on the grounds of the company should be restricted appropriately based on responsibilities. Likewise, it is recommended that different degrees of it system access be assigned to employees on the basis of need instead of allowing universal system access to all authorized it system users. Computer Viruses Modern it systems are inherently vulnerable to many types of malicious attempts at unauthorized…
Emergency Planning Disasters That Can Critically Compromise
Emergency Planning Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998). In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001370062
Disaster Recovery Security: The Importance of Addressing Data Security Issues in DR Plans. (2011, January). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/feature/Disaster-recovery-security-The-importance-of-addressing-data-security-issues-in-DR-plans
O'Sullivan, K. (2010, September 23). Knowledge Continuity: Strategies, Approach & Tools. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://star-knowledge.com/websites/star-knowledge/skblog/?p=70
Information Security Evaluation for OSI Systems a Case Study
OSIIT An analysis of IT policy transformation The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare. In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…
Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/news-at-sei/securitymatters20054.cfm
Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090916/text/90916w0015.htm#09091614000131
Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/information-security-policy-development-guide-large-small-companies_1331
Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.
Finance and Accounting Application That Provides Finance
Finance and Accounting Application that provides finance and accounting operations require all the possible computer security measures to be adopted. In this case, two patterns call for an incident response plan: The company's computer networks and systems are at a higher risk to threats like intrusions, computer viruses and exposures Computers are widespread through the company; the company depends heavily on computers and cannot afford service denial Therefore, the following security incidents will be an essential: A computer virus might be copied to a LAN server; within seconds, thousands of other computers will be infected. This will require the efforts of different people and several days to achieve recovery. Back-ups can be infected with viruses resulting in re-infection of other systems; recovery will require more expenses and time System intruders could copy passwords and distribute them across large networks Outbreaks of system or virus penetrations will cause embarrassment and possible…
Taylor, L.P. (2013). FISMA compliance handbook. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
McCarthy, N.K. (2012). The computer incident response planning handbook: Executable plans for protecting information at risk. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Vacca, J.R., & Rudolph, K. (2010). System forensics, investigation, and response. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cyber Terrorism & Information All
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them. Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…
Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf . Accessed on 14 May, 2005
O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005
Dell Current Situation Goals Objectives
In addition to the America's, your company also did well in the European market. The company was able to fortify its No. 2 annual share position. In calendar 2003, your company held a 10.5% market share compared to 9.6% market share in 2002 ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In deed the company's globel presence is increasing at a remarkable rate. In 2004 your company's Gross margin as a percentage of net revenue increase to 18.2%, compared to 17.9% in 2003 and 17.7% in 2002("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, your company's cost savings initiative drove the year-over-year improvement for fiscal 2004 and 2003 ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). The company also made a concerted effort to improve margins by implementing four main cost reduction initiatives ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). These cost reduction initiatives affect warranty costs, manufacturing costs, design costs, and operating expenses ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, the cost savings…
Balance Sheet (Dell Inc. Annual). 20 March 2005 at http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bs?s=DELL&annual
Cash Flows. 20 March 2005 (Dell Inc. Annual) at http://finance.yahoo.com/q/cf?s=DELL&annual
Dell Annual Report 2004" 20 March 2005. http://biz.yahoo.com/e/040412/dell10-k.html
Dell Fiscal 2004 in Review." 20 March 2005
Managing Information Technology - Set
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
Homeland Security and Information Technology Security and
Homeland Security and Information Technology Security and Technology iometrics Cyberterrorism Geospatial Information System The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations. Security and Technology In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
Risk Minimization and Loss Prevention
Small usiness' Need for a CPA One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003) Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Disaster Recovery Economic Impact of
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue. Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls. (Disaster ecovery - a White Paper) This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
Assets Threats Assets and Threats-What
This is also known as a vulnerability assessment (Shimonski, 2005). Enlisting senior management support so that security is taking seriously within the organization and so that employee and manager alike understand the value of assets and the seriousness threats that may exist (Shimonski, 2005; Schwartz, 2003). Establish a security budget so that from year to year an organization has the finances necessary to deal with security threats as they occur but also take measures to prevent security issues (Shimonski, 2005; Garcia, 2000). Create a task force that can respond successfully and expediently to security emergencies (Shimonski, 2005). Along these lines a security breech plan of action should be developed and all employee informed of the proper steps to take if a security breech occurs. Establish a recovery plan that will help protect assets. This should include establishing back up so a company has somewhere to go and can restore systems…
Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Storms from the field. Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin.
Garcia, M.L. (2000 - Jun). "Truth & Consequences." Security Management, 44(6): 44.
Grassie, R.P. (2000 - Nov). "Are companies properly addressing threats?" Security
Management, 44(11): 146.
Accounting and Intrusion Detection in a Report
Accounting and Intrusion Detection In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows: Type of Loss Estimated Dollar Value Number of espondents Theft of intellectual capital m Financial Fraud m Sabotage m The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…
Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:
Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.
Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.
The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.
Biological Weapons How Real Is
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available. The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Terrorism Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Define
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities. War on Terror War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
Customer Value Countrywide Delivering Customer
The real estate concept is very different in Great Britain. It consists of a system of bidding and auction. Still this obstacle did not stop Countrywide's management from seeing a wave of change. Many other companies had already seen Great Britain as an entry point into the rest of Europe. These success stories are Safeway, al-Mart and Pizza Hut to name a few. The means to acquiring a ready-made company within Great Britain was the next step. At this point, it was understood that independently opening a Countrywide branch there would be too risky. The strategy was to acquire or create a joint venture with a company that already existed where Countrywide could slowly take over meanwhile slowly introducing that workforce to American mortgage knowledge and skills (Globalhomeloans.com, 2005). The irony in this situation is that Countrywide may have been cocky. After all, the situation is very favorable and almost…
About Countrywide History. 19 Jan. 2005. http://about.countrywide.com/history/History.aspx?is Printable=Yes>.
AllDirect.com. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Profile. http://www.alldirect.com.html..
Globalhomeloans. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Web site. http://www.globalhomeloans.co.uk/mainsite/..
Lardy, Susan. 15 Jan. 2005. E-Marketing and Strategy within Countrywide Homa Loans,
Finance - Automated Trading Systems
The algorithm can be your market eyes. it's effectively a trading assistant - a very diligent trading assistant... The downside is that it is also a very obedient trading assistant, so if you tell it to do something it might not have the intuition or the ability to veto you... obviously there are checks and balances to prevent anything bad from happening, but you do hear stories about people putting an order in with the wrong instruction, it moved the stock 10 per cent and then you get a call from the regulator" (Dey, 2006) in 2007, the Economist attributed a financially significant "wobble" suffered by the New York Stock Exchange on February 27, 2007 to the ad hoc combination of increasing capacity by adding more scalable hardware to a system that still relies substantially on floor-based trading, yielding a "hybrid" system with significant vulnerabilities. According to that journal, the…
Curran, R. (2008). Watch Out for Sharks in Dark Pools: Anonymity on Alternative Electronic Stock Exchanges Can Provide Cover to 'Gamers' Hunting for Big Prey
Dey, I. (2006) Black Box Traders Are on the March.
Duhigg, C. (2006) Artificial Intelligence Applied Heavily to Picking Stocks
The Economist (2007) Dodgy tickers: Accurate information can make -- or break -- exchanges.
Cyber Terrorism The Greatest Risk in the US
Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S. Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology (IT) systems than on other means for information. From business to government, computer networks are relied upon to store, process, retrieve, and transfer critical information. Increased dependence on computer networks has, however, posed a major threat. Cyber terrorism is now arguably the biggest threat facing the U.S. (Harress, 2014; Thomas, 2016). Attacks against computer networks via computer viruses, worms, malware, and hacking have become increasingly common. The attacks are directed to information systems and infrastructures that support critical processes such as defense, transportation, banking, and energy production. This threatens the country's social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, there are often assertions that the risk of cyber terrorism is not as pervasive or substantial as often portrayed. Though there could be some…
Caplan, N. (2013). Cyber War: The Challenge to National Security. Global Security Studies, 4(1), 93-115.
Chen, T., Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: understanding, assessment, and response. New York: Springer.
Geers, K. (2012). Strategic Cyber Defense: Which Way Forward? Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-10.
Harress, C. (2014, February 2). Obama says cyberterrorism is country's biggest threat, U.S. government assembles "cyber warriors." International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/obama-says-cyberterrorism-countrys-biggest-threat-us - government-assembles-cyber-warriors-1556337
National Infrastructure Vulnerability Nation Infrastructure This Report
National Infrastructure Vulnerability Nation Infrastructure This report covers how the United States does and should address threats to its critical national infrastructure. Vulnerability to attacks like the SCADA/Stuxnet worm will be addressed as well as mitigations as they relate to the seven domains. The assessment of levels of responsibility to protect both the public and private sectors will be covered as well as the elements of an effective IT security policy framework. No less than three scholarly resources will be used for this report, as per the parameters of the assignment. SCADA/Stuxnet The Stuxnet word made major shockwaves when it came to be known fully in roughly 2010. Presumed by many to be the product of cooperation with the Israeli and United States governments to attack Iran and perhaps inhibit their ability to manufacture and process nuclear devices and materials, the worm specifically attacks Siemens (SCADA) devices that relate to…
Goodin, D. (2010, September 22). SCADA worm a 'nation state search-and-destroy weapon'. The Register. The Register: Sci/Tech News for the World. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/09/22/stuxnet_
Taylor, L. (2001, February 16). Seven elements of highly effective security policies |
ZDNet. ZDNet | Technology News, Analysis, Comments and Product Reviews for IT Professionals. Retrieved May 18, 2013,from http://www.zdnet.com/news / seven-elements-of-highly-effective-security-policies/297286
Communication in the Telecommuting Workforce
Telecommuting is the act of periodically working out of the main office, one or more days a week either at home, or at a telework center. (Avery and Zabel 2000, 82) The concept of telecommuting was created by Jack Niles as a result of the oil crisis of the 1970's. Niles felt that telecommuting would be a good way of eliminating the daily commute and preserving energy. Nile eventually found that telecommuting could be beneficial to workers and employees. The research found that the benefits of telecommuting include increased productivity, improved familial relationships and decreases in absenteeism. Increased productivity is derivative of the fact that workers have fewer distractions and are able to complete tasks on their own time. We also found that telecommuters had increased job satisfaction and increased motivation. A major hindrance to the implementation of a successful telecommuting strategy is the lack of effective communication technology. In…
Avery C. And Zabel D. (2000) The Flexible Workplace: A Sourcebook of Information and Research. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.
Burn, T. (2000, January 31). Telecommuting Fits Right at Home. The Washington Times, p. 10.
Survey for Cloud Computing and Insider Threats
Cloud Computing and Insider Threats) A survey will be conducted of 40 businesses that have successfully dealt with insider threats. These 40 businesses will be compared with another online survey that arbitrarily and randomly samples other businesses. My objectives will be to assess how 40 large companies successfully deal with insider threats and how these practices contrast with practices from other companies. My methodology will be the following: I will randomly select 40 companies from the top Fortune 500 companies and, approaching their manager, will ask the manager whether I can conduct a survey on computer security on their company and whether I can distribute this survey to officials form their IT division. The survey will have certain key items, some of which will be graded on a Likert scale from 0 to 5. One of the questions may, for instance, be "ow secure do you think your company's computer…
How Online Surveys Work
Power, Richard. (1999) CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey." Computer Security Issues & Trends..20
Semantics A Tool for Shaping
They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They are talking about what the news media is reporting, whether or not it is slanted toward a political ideology, and assessing the information. Everyone, it seems, has faster access to broader sources of news and ideas, and they are using that information to form ideas and conclusions about political leaders and how those leaders respond to local, national, and world situations, people, and events. How the Public Interprets Political Semantics and Use the Internet to Impact Policy and Government One of the most significant examples of how the internet has facilitated the public's access to information, and how people world-wide have analyzed political semantics and used the information to shape policy and government is the second term of America's former President…
Fisher, F., Miller, G., and Sidney, M. (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis:
Theory, Politics, and Method,
Feldman, O. And Landtsheer, C. (Eds) (1998). Politically Speaking: A Worldwide
Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Praeger Publishers,
Cyber-Terrorism Which Has Stemmed From
As quickly as tools are created to prevent unauthorized access of information, ways are being created to work around these protections. Just as technology has become increasingly smarter, the danger of disruption to vital parts of the nation's security, infrastructure, and banking systems has rapidly increased. It is no longer a matter the threat of the annoyance of a simple computer virus to temporary disable a computer network. The potential for widespread electronic attacks from cyber-terrorists could result in the leakage of national security information and the disabling of banking systems. Enemies of the United States no longer need to reply on physical acts of terrorism when they are able to potentially cause more lasting damage through cyber-terrorism. This paper seeks to explain cyber-terrorism, ways in which it is employed, and the way in which the United States is responding to its dangers. EFINING CYBER-TERRORISM In Al Qaeda and the…
In Al Qaeda and the Internet: The Danger of "Cyberplanning" by Timothy L. Thomas (2003), the author states that, "We can say with some certainty, al Qaeda loves the Internet" (Thomas 112). This point-of-view has been reiterated by many experts in the field of terrorism and counter terrorism and there is a growing realization of the way that computers and the Internet are being used as another tool in the terrorist's arsenal. The term cyber-terrorism has developed as a result of the role of modern technology in the furtherance of national and international terrorism.
It is ironic that on the one hand the advent of the Internet and the age of digital communication have been welcomed as one of the greatest innovations of our age and on the other hand as one of the greatest threats to our security. This dichotomy
Education - Computers
This report will hopefully pull together the research available with regard to this issue, and also identify what users are most at risk for virus attacks. The research currently…
Hacking, the apolitical counterpart of hacktivism, is also not necessarily a form of terrorism. However, cyberterrorists often use hacking as a tool of terrorism. Terrorists may be tempted to…
computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how…
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Information technology and related systems provide multiple benefits to business, government, and individual users. Databases, Internet transactions, and emails contain sensitive customers, employee and…
Intent to perform a greater good would not affect the possibility of being exposed to a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to…
These days, every new computer technology provides many benefits to different kinds of organizations. eing very much in demand in schools, new computer technologies prepare the students in facing…
computers for the organization. All three are high-end ultra-slim laptops for the sales force. These are compared according to a number of key variables -- weight, size, performance, memory,…
privacy. There's also the issue of speed and response that each of these devices imply and the expectations of those that are members of social networks, keeping mind these…
computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a…
Business Internet Dot.com Comparison of a Leader and an Upstart Red Hat.com vs. Microsoft.com Two prominent dot.com companies within the same industry of recent note may be found in…
Computer Networking In today's society, more people and businesses rely on computers and networks to store vital information and technology. Networking is the process of moving information via computers…
The owner remarked about how important it is to guard one's system against viruses and intrusion. He went further to remark that there are programs that offer their services…
ith the sophistication of computer users generally increasing, the corporate market forms an important part of the customer base as these users are a more captive audience. One sale…
Contending With Cybercrime Issues Attacks and Malware There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties…
Computer/Software and the Use of Computer Technology in Investigations The key advantage of computer forensics is that it can look for and assess loads of data in a swift…
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology…
Symantec The anti-virus software company Symantec (NASDAQ symbol: SYMC) makes Norton antivirus software, one of the industry's leading anti-virus programs. This paper investigates how Symantec fares against Network Associates,…
Business Messages Send to: Andrea, Tech. Rep., CIS Copy To: Janet, Supervisor, Jack, Manager, CIS Information Services Potential Threat to Company IT Systems Over the past few weeks, it…
Warfare: An Overview In today's age, traditional warfare, though a major player as we see in the Iraq war, has in some arenas taken a back seat to information…
Internet Safely Risks for Children Avoiding Viruses Avoiding SPAM Credit Card Usage Safety Online Using the Internet Safely The Internet is a wonderful place and can create many positive…
Security measures You just received a brand new computer for your home environment. It comes with the latest Operating System. You also have an Internet Service Provider where you…
Network Security and Why Use It Security And Why Use It The security of any network should be taken seriously. A network allows someone to share resources and information…
networking and TCP/IP and internetworking. Also discussed are risk management, network threats, firewalls, and also more special purpose network devices. The paper will provide a better insight on the…
Network Design Proposal Network equirements ABC School Stats/User Counts Having a current strength of approximately 845 students, ABC School provides education from Pre-Kindergarten to the 12th Grade. According to…
Internet: Security on the Web Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks? The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and…
Leadership Strategies Over the last several years, the issue of computer viruses has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the technology and techniques of hackers are…
entepise wide netwoking has been the topic of discussion. Advances in technology and netwoking systems have caused oganizations to develop new management techniques fo entepise wide netwoks. The pupose…
IT Plan As the world continues to evolve with technology and technological advances, certain problems arise that requires precise and involved management of these advances. The purpose of this…
Less satisfied knowledge dealing processes like keeping copies of old as well as unused spreadsheets which have several Social Security numbers instead of transmitting such data to long period…
IT Security Plan The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed…
Privacy and security is a major concern for any person in the technological era that we are living in today. Everything today is revolving around technology in some aspect.…
solution for a client of Wireless Technology Company. They are a company that assists organizations and businesses when it comes to issues that involve networking, bandwidth, productivity and connectivity.…
Great sums of money are being invested to further enhance product differentiation. The presence of highly enforced industry standards provides assurance that the future will continue to be consumer-friendly.…
" This seems to be a case of some mischievous young men getting in way over their heads and not realizing how serious the consequences of their actions would…
A survey questionnaire design is employed to gather data to be used in the lazy user model test, with details on the sample population in which the questionnaire is…
IT Infrastructure Seven domains can be found in a typical IT infrastructure. They are as follows: User Domain, Workstation Domain, LAN Domain, LAN-to-WAN Domain, Remote Access Domain, WAN Domain,…
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal…
Option 2 Cloud storage and other online solutions offer the reassurance of a remote backup strategy that complements your local backup strategy. This is a burgeoning market and backup…
Business - Management
Vandalism Vandalism is a major concern because of the nature of the products manufactured by the organization and the high rate of theft generally associated with motor vehicles and…
Emergency Planning Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even…
OSIIT An analysis of IT policy transformation The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems,…
Finance and Accounting Application that provides finance and accounting operations require all the possible computer security measures to be adopted. In this case, two patterns call for an incident…
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new…
In addition to the America's, your company also did well in the European market. The company was able to fortify its No. 2 annual share position. In calendar 2003,…
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced…
Homeland Security and Information Technology Security and Technology iometrics Cyberterrorism Geospatial Information System The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative…
Small usiness' Need for a CPA One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA…
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery.…
This is also known as a vulnerability assessment (Shimonski, 2005). Enlisting senior management support so that security is taking seriously within the organization and so that employee and manager…
Accounting and Intrusion Detection In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of…
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws…
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking…
The real estate concept is very different in Great Britain. It consists of a system of bidding and auction. Still this obstacle did not stop Countrywide's management from seeing…
The algorithm can be your market eyes. it's effectively a trading assistant - a very diligent trading assistant... The downside is that it is also a very obedient trading…
Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S. Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology…
National Infrastructure Vulnerability Nation Infrastructure This report covers how the United States does and should address threats to its critical national infrastructure. Vulnerability to attacks like the SCADA/Stuxnet worm…
Telecommuting is the act of periodically working out of the main office, one or more days a week either at home, or at a telework center. (Avery and Zabel…
Cloud Computing and Insider Threats) A survey will be conducted of 40 businesses that have successfully dealt with insider threats. These 40 businesses will be compared with another online…
They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They…
As quickly as tools are created to prevent unauthorized access of information, ways are being created to work around these protections. Just as technology has become increasingly smarter, the…
Short on time?
Essay Service Examples Technology Computer
Essay on Computer Viruses and How to Protect Against Them
- Topics: Computer Computer Security
- Words: 1891
- This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.
System security is an imperative part of data innovation and can be ordered into four noteworthy areas including authentication, integrity control, secrecy, nonrepudiation. It is an idea of verifying and securing system and information transmission from clients who can utilize the data for hacking purposes. It focused around verifying systems including both public and private exchanges and correspondences among organizations, government foundations, and people. Network security has turned into a major segment in the company structure because the data kept up go through the enormous number of systems and gadgets, for example, PCs and switches and turns out to be entirely powerless against dangers and assaults.
IT security and prevention are an important subject to taking in review at the current situation. Many biggest organizations are working at the international stage and they have a huge amount of data of various factor and it is very complicated for an organization to secure their system and network. Today many organizations have their software and network to operate from various geographical area and application. So far, the organization must set up a defense mechanism for network, system, and application from an attacker, threats, viruses, spyware and hackers. To prevent these viruses, trojan, and malicious attack, many organizations require to have some antivirus or some security packages. There are thousands of viruses, spies are improving and store as coding or on the Internet. So, antivirus is the one kind of software and class of program that detects these malicious viruses and removes them from the system. This paper highlights about viruses, its types and detection tools, system scan and network security, the structure of antivirus, applications and antiviruses software.
The basic definition of a virus is a piece of coding, computer programming which are executed copy by reproducing itself and infects the system data and computer environment. Computer viruses are made by humans and it is run without your authentication in your computer.
A virus is one kind of program which can imitate with next to or no client mediation, and the repeated program(s) can reproduce further. Malware, for short, are programs deliberately intended to play out some unapproved – regularly unsafe or bothersome act. Malware is a nonexclusive term and is utilized to describe numerous sorts of malicious software, for example, viruses and worms. This is a common phenomenon of a computer’s virus which is divided into three subroutines. The first subroutine is infecting executable which is responsible for accessible executable records and tainting them by duplicating its code into them. The second subroutine is do-harm, weather called the payload of the virus, which is responsible for sending the harmful piece of the virus packages. The last subroutine is trigger-pulled checks if the ideal conditions are met in the state of sending its payload.
Four Section of Virus
- Mark : it can provide a defense mechanism against antivirus.
- Infection : this mechanism helps the virus to spread into many files in the hard drive or floppy disk.
- Trigger : it is preparing a condition for sending the payload.
- Payloads : it is conceivable harm to damage the computer.
Type of Viruses
- Directory virus : directory viruses are infected files or floppy disk by changes their actual location of the path and converted an executable code such as.EXE or.COM file. These directory viruses stay in the floppy or hard drive which are infected to other program or files. It is the memory residence. For example, sometime companion viruses are creating a PNG.COM file and it is run first.
- Master booted record : it is fundamentally same as with the booted sector virus. Master boot virus infects to the MBR which is master boot record. The main difference between the two viruses is a collation of the viral code. Master boot record specifically saves an authentic copy of MBR from a different location. For example, NBR is the best example of the master boot virus.
- Boot sector virus : all computes have a boot program and that is run when the computer is starting. Boot sector viruses are infected to boot program on the hard drive, files, pen drive, floppy disk, etc. Boot sector virus is joining with the drive and it is run when computer user trying to start the computer. For example, disk killer, stoned.
- Worms : it is a malicious program that can expand by self to different PCs by utilizing PC system. Worms often expend an enormous measure of resources by imitating itself and at last the assets are depleted and administrations are denied to the clients. A worm, as a rule, reproduces itself via mailing a duplicate of itself to an enormous number of clients or by utilizing remote login office through which its logon to the remote framework and execute directions to recreate itself.
- Trojan horse : it is a program that holds unsafe code and direction methods which at the point when executed performs unsafe and undesirable capacities like burglary or loss of information. It is a security rupturing program which follows up on the rule of permitting unapproved programming into the PC framework and permitting other approved clients to run it. A Trojan pony doesn’t imitate itself. To spread Trojan pony a client must welcome it onto their PC. To spread these projects, they can be put over the web as a music document, game, motion picture or as an email connection with the goal that the client can undoubtedly download it. It can without much of a stretch harm the security framework by altering, erasing or scrambling records.
Viruses Come From
Viruses come from global access network means the Internet, email attachment, local area network, pirated software, repair services, files servers, downloading files and some downloading software, floppy disk, file sharing, web sites, etc.
Virus Detection Techniques
There are so many antivirus organizations in the world in this situation. They are using various detection techniques to detect virus from the computer. Companies are design programming or software which are detect viruses from a specific location and remove from the computer without infected to another file.
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Every organization must have antivirus software because they are working alongside many websites and email. So, detection is the topmost prioritize task for the organization.
There is five main detection technique of computer virus as per follow:
- Signature scanning techniques : this technique is to find out the special significance of the virus in the form of hexadecimal code from the database of signature. So, the database of signature code has been up to date for virus detection from vendor or scanning techniques.
- Check to sum : a trustworthiness check program with inherent knowledge is the main arrangement that can deal with every one of the dangers to your information just as infections. Honesty checkers additionally give the main dependable approach to find what harm an infection has done. These techniques require programming update at explicit interim.
- Memory detection techniques : software is mainly depending on the identification of the virus’s location and code in the memory and it is generally successful in this technique.
- Heuristic or rule-based scanning techniques : this technique is behavioral characterizes of viruses. It is used to combine with the previous experiences and find malicious viruses. Heuristic techniques detect many new or unknown viruses within a static file on special command before virus will be activated.
- Interruption scanning techniques : according to the name, virus interrupt the system when it detects by antivirus software. Then it must be removed from the memory by antivirus software.
Antivirus means one kind of defense mechanism against the virus. Antivirus software can scan files and floppy disk to detect the malicious files and remove from the computer.
The Structure of the Antivirus
When antivirus will be installed into the computer system, to primary protection it is become a shield in the form of bubbles. Antivirus software is an isolated computer like a disconnect from the Internet and not to use any drive, floppy disk, etc. So, the virus can’t be spread into the computer or any devices. Antivirus contains some features that not only protect your machines but files. Also, it becomes one shield against all viruses which are come from email, the Internet, some websites, etc. Antivirus is mainly divided into three-part such as Internet security, total security, antivirus. Nowadays, some Internet security provider might contain spyware, firewall, scanning, malware and antivirus program.
How Antivirus Works
Antivirus software scans the data it has blocked for viruses, and if malicious activities are recognized, it sterilizes them. The data can be examined in two ways. One strategy includes looking at the data gotten with an infection database. If the data coordinates any of the virus sign, the antivirus infers that the record is infected by a virus. The other method for seeing whether the data being checked is risky, without knowing whether it contains a virus or not, is the technique known as ‘heuristic filtering’. This technique involves examining how the data demonstrations and contrasting it and a rundown of hazardous activity patterns. For example, if a record that can arrange a hard circle is recognized, the antivirus will caution the client. Although it might be another arranging framework that the client is introducing on the PC instead of infection; the activity is perilous. Once the antivirus has sounded the caution, it is up to the client whether the peril ought to be wiped out or not. Both strategies have their pros and cons. On the off chance that solitary the infection marks framework is utilized, it is imperative to refresh it in any event once a day. When you remember that 15 new infections are found each day, an antivirus that is left for two or three days without being refreshed is a genuine danger. The heuristic framework has the downside that it can caution you about things that you know are not infections. If you need to work with plenty things that might be viewed as perilous, you could soon feel worn out on the alarms. Software engineers specifically may want to impair this alternative.
Antivirus Application or Software
- Avast antivirus;
- Avira Antivirus;
- Kaspersky Antivirus;
- Microsoft security program;
- AVG antivirus.
Despite all this information about antivirus and virus, all antivirus software can’t prevent brand new viruses. So, the software program needs to be updated every time to remove brand new viruses. There is no way to prevent 100% of the virus from your computer by antivirus, software or program. In this paper, we discussed the overview of viruses and antiviruses. How virus will be detected by the antiviruses and where it is coming from, how antivirus works and its applications.
- B. V. Patil and M. J. Joshi, ‘Computer Virus and Methods of Virus Detection Using Performance Parameter’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 3, no 1, 2012. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1443715966?accountid=175624.
- M. Kumar et al, ‘Different Security Threats and its Prevention in Computer Network’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 7, no 6, 2016. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1912514655?accountid=175624.
- N. Patnaik, ‘The Best Antivirus, Antimalware Solution for Homeowners and Corporates’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 6, no 7, 2015. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1751100336?accountid=175624.
- P. Sounak and B. K. Mishra, ‘Selection of Next Generation Anti-Virus against Virus Attacks in Networks Using AHP’, International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 5, no 2, pp. 29-35, 2013. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1623631594?accountid=175624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2013.02.04.
- R. Khan and M. Hasan, ‘NETWORK THREATS, ATTACKS AND SECURITY MEASURES: A REVIEW’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 8, no 8, 2017. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1953785415?accountid=175624.
- S. S. Nicula, ‘Generating Antivirus Evasive Executables Using Code Mutation’, Informatica Economica, vol. 22, no 2, pp. 81-86, 2018. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/2067321338?accountid=175624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12948/issn14531305/22.2.2018.08.
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Computer Viruses Essay (436 words)
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A computer virus is an illegal and potentially damaging computer program designed to infect othersoftware by attaching itself to any software it contacts. In many cases, virus programs are designed todamage computer systems maliciously by destroying or corrupting data. If the infected software istransferred to or accessed by another computer system, the virus spreads to the other system. Viruses havebecome a serious problem in recent years, and currently, thousands of known virus programs exist (Reed85-102).
Three types of viruses are boot sector virus, file virus, and Trojan horse virus. A boot sector virusinfects the boot program used to start the system. When the infected boot program executes, the virus isloaded into the computers memory. Once a virus is in a memory, it can spread to any floppy disk insertedinto the computer. A file virus inserts virus code into program files. The virus then spreads to any programthat accesses the infected file.
A Trojan horse virus (named after a Greek myth) hides within or is designedto look like a legitimate program. Some viruses interrupt processing by freezing a computer system temporarily and then displayingsounds or messages. Other viruses contain time bombs or logic bombs. A time bomb is a program thatperforms an activity on a particular date. A logic bomb is a program that performs an activity when acertain action occurs, such as an employee being terminated.
A worm, which is similar to a virus, copiesitself repeatedly until no memory or disc space remains. To detect computer viruses , antivirus programs have been developed. Besides detecting viruses,antivirus programs also have utilities to remove or repair infected programs and files. Some damaged filescannot be repaired and must be replaced with uninfected backup files.
The table below outlines sometechniques used to protect computer systems. TableTechniques for Virus Protection and System BackupUsing Virus Protection SoftwareBacking up Your SystemInstall virus protection software on every computer system. Develop a regular plan for copying andstoring important data and program files. Before use, scan every floppy disk with a virus scan program to check for viruses. Implement abackup plan and adhere to its guidelines.
Check all programs downloaded from the Internet or bulletin boards for viruses. Keep backup copies offiles in fireproof safes or vaults off-site. If your system becomes virus infected and you have questions, contact the National Computer SecurityAssociation (NCSA) for low-cost assistance (Elmhurst, 6 Nov. 1998). Works CitedChambers, Anita R.
, and Zachary W. Peters. “Protecting Against Virus Attacks. “Computers May1998: 45-62. Elmhurst, Mark. “Virus Infection: Where to Obtain Assistance”Word 97, Project 3.
http://www. scsite. com/wd97/pr3. htm (6 Nov. 1998). Reed, Margaret E.
An Introduction to Using Computers. Chicago: West Davidson JonesPublishing Company, 1998.
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Essay on Computer Viruses (507 Words)
Here is your essay on Computer Viruses !
The age of information has essentially made communication faster with advent of computer and internet. Human interaction has revolutionized with information including data, pictures, emails, programs etc. being sent within milliseconds from one part of the world to another.
But every technology howsoever secure and protected does have some loopholes. So is the network of computers which can also communicate malicious programs superfluously without the knowledge and intent of the users of the computer system. Such an attack is called as virus attack and is an electronic infection affecting your system and destroying useful information.
A computer virus is basically a software program that transfers from one system to another connected on a common network. Computer operations like use of email system, stored information on the hard disk, accessibility to other resources on the desktop can get difficult or corrupted after a virus attack as the program renders some or the other functionality in your computer useless.
Most often it is email attachments with unusual extensions that are used to spread such viruses. Any funny images, greetings, audio files that come in as attachments from suspicious sources should never be opened as they may be viruses. Not all malware that affect your computer are viruses. Some like adware and spyware cannot reproduce and thus cannot be termed as computer viruses. Active threats affecting your computer are generally trojans or worms and not viruses. A virus is able to damage the information and cause harm to your computer only after it is able to execute the code and write information to the memory. Code injection wherein executable files have some malicious codes written inside is one common way in which virus is sent over to spread on multiple computers over internet. It is the very nature of the virus to multiply by replication.
Even FTP for downloading can lead to a virus attack which can come maliciously along with an otherwise harmless software program. A virus attaches itself to an executable program so that it gets executed without the user even knowing it.
Events that can result from virus attack can range from harmless to extremely destructive.
Irritable messages on the computer screen, pop-up windows that continue to come and not go even when trying to exit, data modified on your computer, corrupted or erased hard disk, damage to files etc. are some symptoms of virus attack.
Since the use of internet cannot be stopped and you can also not determine if the information downloaded contained any viruses, it is advisable to use credible anti-virus software with latest updates. It warns you about any threats that a file or any information downloaded from the internet or a copied over infected file contains.
Removing a virus and undoing the damage it causes to your computer can be more stressful than preventing attack by using strong anti-virus program that can detect malware as well as Trojans, worms and viruses and also eliminate them before replication. Effective anti-viruses are available which help to detect and remove viruses that may attack your computer.
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[PDF] Essay on COMPUTER VIRUS
Essay on computer virus.
It was Fred Cahen who incidentally coined the expression ‘Computer Virus’. The term ‘Virus’ and ‘Worm’ were being used in science fiction novels in the early 1970’s. Around the same period, researchers at Xerox Corp, created and demonstrated a self replicating code, called virus.
A virus is a program that can modify another program which is deemed infected. This cart-also become an evolved copy of the original virus program. Every program that gets infected may also act as a virus and thus the infection multiplies. The key property of a virus is its ability to infect other programs. Every general purpose system currently in use is open to viral attack. In some secure systems, virus tends to spread further when created by some user of the system. A virus has the potential to spread throughout any system which allows sharing. The virus can be generated and introduced by a hacker. The perpetrator gets the satisfaction of demonstrating human superiority over a cybernetic system.
With the advent of internet a haven has been created for virus mongers. An important ongoing research involves determining how quickly a virus could spread to a large percentage of computers in the world. Studies through simplified mathematical models of virus spreading in typical computer networks have been going on. Obviously virus like programs have to be written, injected into systems and the effect has to be studied. In a simulated environment, the extent, speed and effect of infection is studied. Several experiments have been systematically carried out. The anti-virus program writers must be doing similar experiments before eventually bringing out their anti-virus packages.
Virus study indicates a set of ‘undecidable detection problems’. A list could be as follows
- Detection of a virus by its appearance.
- Detection of a virus by its behaviour.
- Detection of evolution of a known virus.
- Detection of a triggering mechanism by its appearance.
- Detection of a triggering mechanism by its behaviour.
- Detection of evolution of a known triggering mechanism.
- Detection of a virus detector by its behaviour.
- Detection of evolution of a known virus detector.
- Safety of a protection scheme.
With networking becoming the order of the day, a virus may get initiated only through a particular node or through a few nodes and may give an appearance of having originated from some other node. A virus may also get kindled at some stages of a program in an executable file and not necessarily whenever the program is called for.
Experts say that viruses need not to be used only for evil purposes. A very interesting theory in compression through virus has been developed. It can be explained that a simple virus can be written to find uninfected executable files, compress them and insert itself into them. Upon execution the infected program decompresses itself and executes normally. Studies indicate that such a virus could save over 50% of the space taken up by the executable files in an average system. The performance of infected programs decreases slightly as they are decompressed, and then the ‘compression virus’ implements a particular ‘time space trade off’.
Another example could be that a virus program can be written in such a way as to find ‘uninfected’ executable. It will plant itself at their beginning. After a given date and time the virus would cause the executable to ‘refuse service’ by going into an indefinite loop. And in modern networking with the level of sharing that is prevalent, the entire system would become unusable after that moment. Anti-virus operators might find a great deal of hard work that is required to treat/undo the damage caused by such a virus.
Types of Viruses
Non-TSR File Virus
This is the simplest form of virus to write and the least effective, and so one is unlikely to be troubled by them. When an infected program is first run, the virus code carries out its task checking that an executable file is not infected, and then attaches a copy to it. It then runs the original program to which it is attached. In contrast, TSR viruses load themselves into memory when they are executed and are able to infect any executable program they can reach from that point.
Boot Sector Virus
This is the other major type of virus. Most of the boot sector viruses consist of a simple, small programme that is used to start DOS, or whatever operating system is installed. Boot sector viruses replace this with virus code and typically move the boot sector to another part of the disc. When the PC booted, the virus code is executed first. Then, the virus runs the real boot sector. A very slow boot from an infected floppy with an excess of floppy disc activity is a common symptom of an infected machine.
These combine both techniques. They can infect both boot sectors and files. The file version of ‘Tequila’, e.g., infects the Master Boot Record. Once the PC has been booted from an infected MBR, the virus goes memory resident and infects all accessed EXE flies.
Companion viruses create a .COM companion to an .exe file. Because the DOS executes .Com files before .EXEs, the virus is run before the .EXE file of the same name. The virus then runs the original .EXE.
These aim to foil anti-virus packages that search for a specific strain by looking for a known sequence of bytes. No two copies of a true polymorphic virus are alike. When polymorphic viruses run they first decrypt themselves and then behave like any other virus. Programmes such as the ‘Nuke Encryption Device’ (NED) and the ‘Trident Polymorphic Engine’ have been written that turn a standard virus into a polymorphic virus. Fortunately, once measures have been taken by an anti-virus company to defeat each ‘engine’, all viruses processed by it are detectable.
Stealth covers a variety of techniques that viruses use to disguise their presence from anything as simple as hiding the increase in files size of executable to full-blown detection of the tools used to detect the virus and the taking of appropriate action to fool them.
Trojans are not viruses at all. They are programmes that hide a malevolent code within a seemingly innocuous programme but they do not replicate! For this reason the chances of being caught out accidentally by Trojans are, low.
Macro viruses have been predicted for a while. It had recently appeared when it was sent out accidentally by Microsoft on a CD-ROM to OEMs. They called it a ‘Prank Macro’. It is the first virus that will run on both PCs and Macs. It replicates using an auto-executing Word Basic macro embedded in a document. When the document is loaded, it copies the macro to Word’s settings file NORMAL.DOT. and replaces the File Save command with a routine that also saves a copy of the macro in each document.
The most significant computer viruses of the last 10 years are
In 2004, Code Red targetted Web servers and it would automatically spread by exploiting vulnerability in Microsoft IIS servers. It took less than a week for more than 400000 servers to be infected by Code Red.
Fortinet’s Lovet said 2004’s Sasser virus spread without anyone’s help and exploited vulnerability in Microsoft Windows. A bug in the worm’s code also caused it to shut down infected systems every couple of minutes. The damage caused by Sasser was estimated at more than $ 18 billion.
And Microsoft wanted answers, offering a $ 2500000 bounty for Sasser’s author, who turned out to be an 18-year-old German student who said he created the virus as a way to help his mother find a job in computer security. Lovet said Sasser was the first virus to really a tract attention from the traditional Press.
MyTob was a mass-mailed worm that included its own SMTP engine to spread itself to other PCs after hijacking addresses from an infected system.
Appearing in 2005, MyTob combined features of a bot and a mass-mailer. Along with heralding the era of cybercrime MyTob also introduced the botnet.
The Storm botnet launched in 2007 and took what seemed like ages to get under control. Storm left a legacy as one of the most destructive bots in history, infecting millions of computers around the world its wake. At its height, Storm infected between 1 million and 50 million systems and accounted for 8% of all malware.
Koobface, launched in 2008, marked the first botnet to recruit its Zombie computers across various social networks, including Facebook, MySpace, hi5, Bebo and more. Currently, it is estimated that at any time more than 500000 Koobface zombies are online simultaneously.
In 2009, Conficker targetted the Microsoft Windows OS and used Windows flaws and dictionary attacks on admin passwords to co-opt machines and link them to a computer that can be commanded remotely by the authors.
Some hospitals and military bases were also impacted and it’s estimated that roughly 7 million systems were infected globally. Oddly enough, no
Ukrainian IPs or machines were infected by Conficker, suggesting that the authors were not targeting their own country.
Too many, is considered the first shot fired in a cyber war that will soon emerge. With Stuxnet targeting nuclear plants, it is said the virus landscape is changing dramatically. Stuxnet first emerged on the public radar in September 2010, when researchers found traces of code on Siemens industrial software systems that operate Iran’s Bushehr nuclear reactor.
- SQL Slammer (2003)
Appeared first in 27th January, 2003 and soon got a high rank in the list of most dangerous worms of the year. Slammer spread to over 90% of all vulnerable hosts in 10 minutes and infected around 359000 computers total and according to London-based market intelligence the worm caused between $ 950 million and $ 1.2 billion in lost productivity in its first five days worldwide.
- Bandook (2005)
ALIAS: Bandook Rat
Bandook Rat is a backdoor trojan horse that infects Windows NT family systems (Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista). It uses process hijacking/Kernel Patching to bypass the firewall, and allow the server component to hijack processes and gain rights for accessing the internet. It is somehow very similar to Beast Trojan (2002).
- Sadmind Worm (2001)
ALIAS: Sadmind/IIS, Unix/Sadmind, Solaris/Sadmind Worm
The Sadmind worm was a self-propagating piece of malware; it was first discovered on 8th May, 2001 in China. It affected some big operating systems like Sun Micro systems Solaris (OS) and Microsoft’s Internet Information Services (IIS) which is the world’s second most popular web server in terms of overall websites behind the industry leader Apache HTTP Server.
- Beast Trojan (2002)
Beast is a Windows-based backdoor trojan horse more commonly known in the underground cracker community as a RAT (Remote Administration Tool). It was created in Delphi and released first by its author Tataye in 2002. Beast was one of the first trojans to feature a ‘reverse connection’ to its victims and once established, it gave the attacker complete control over the infected computer.
Prevention from a Virus Attack
The most fundamental precaution against virus attacks is to limit access to a machine to avoid tampering with the system. In case of floppy discs, the simplest form of protection is to place write-protect tabs on all discs so that any attempt by a virus to write to the disc would result in an error message. The write-protect tab should be removed only when data has to be expressly written to the floppy.
It should be remembered that even the simple act of inserting a floppy disc and getting a directory listing can be enough to infect a machine. Though, write-protect facilities are generally not available for hard discs, hardware products have started appearing in the market offering users the ability to write-protect hard discs. But, being expensive, these are not likely to be used widely.
Software products to write-protect hard discs are also available. But, these render themselves vulnerable to virus attack also. In network environments, the use of disk-less or hard-disc-only systems is becoming popular. Control of software is then restricted to the file server and network administrators only.
Tips for Prevention of Virus Infection
Even if one buys and uses several anti-virus applications, the best defence is to avoid infection in the first place. There is no absolute guarantee against infection. But, the risk can be minimised by following the guidelines listed below
- Boot the system with a write-protected and already scanned floppy disc, which has the boot and system files and set of files of a qualified virus scanned program.
- Even, if there is a hard disc and the PC normally boots from that disc, start by first booting the system with the uninfected and write-protected disc boot floppy in the ‘A’ drive.
- All floppies should be scanned individually and periodically by using a qualified and uninfected virus scanning (or detection) program.
- Discourage the use of floppies of other users unless these are individually scanned and checked for any virus.
- Do not use previously formatted floppies brought by others even if these are apparently empty. Reformat all empty floppies with your uninfected system before further use.
- Avoid lending floppies.
- The most popular carriers of dangerous viruses are floppies containing different popular computer games, horoscopes, astrological predictions These should be avoided.
- Use of pirated software should be completely avoided as most of them are virus carriers.
- Take back-ups regularly. A full back-up once a week, with incremental back-ups daily, if necessary, is advisable. Uninfected back-ups allow overwriting infected files. Even infected back-ups permit recovery from logic bombs. Disinfect restored files right away.
- Write-protect and back-up the installation discs before installing any new software. If it is not done and the system already has virus infection, the original program discs could be permanently infected during installation.
- Scan network drives used regularly. The files attached to E-mail messages may be infected.
- Use the memory-resident, virus spotting portion of the anti-virus application at all times. If an infection is suspected, turn off the system immediately. Reboot from a clean floppy (one without an AUTOEXEC.BAT or a CONFIG.SYS file). Then disinfect the system using a disc-based copy of the anti-virus program.
User should also have some basic knowledge about viruses, their prevention and cure. Use of good anti-virus software for scanning files regularly should invariably be used by each and every user.
But, a single software cannot be depended upon to eliminate infection from ill strains of viruses. The battle against virus infection will be long and perhaps, lasting one.
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Introduction of Computer Virus
HOW COMPUTER VIRUSES WORK
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Computer Viruses and Malware Essay
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IS4680 Lab 4 Q&A
The Server-Side Includes attack allows the exploitation of a web application by injecting scripts in HTML pages or executing arbitrary codes remotely. It can be exploited through manipulation of SSI in use in the application or force its use through user input fields. The attacker can access sensitive information, such as password files, and execute shell commands. The SSI directives are injected in input fields and they are sent to the web server. The web server parses and executes the directives before supplying the page. Then, the attack result will be viewable the next time that the page is loaded for the user's browser.
Assignment 08 Essay
Dougherty, C., Householder, A., & Houle, K. (2002). Computer attack trends challenge Internet security. Computer, 35(4), 0005-7.
Fbi Computer Analysis And Response Team ( Cart )
Financial fraud: This involves using credit cards belonging to third parties to undertake online financial transactions.
Virus is a program that infect the computer system which is made by hackers to spy or steal users personal data, which is my cause a significant damage to the computer system.
BUS 520 Case 1 1
The computer virus employees of Symantec Corp. are never able to enjoy a finished product. They are constantly collecting viruses and suspicious codes to analyze the way they work and to find a solution to prevent these viruses form damaging the public’s computers. They are determined to provide their consumers with updated versions of anti-viruses for their computers. At the Symantec lab, they have a box, which has all dangerous types of viruses that needs or be disposed of. Vincent Weafer has been a part of Symantec since 1999. In 1999, there were only a few employees at Symantec and that there were only a few viruses spread out through months compared to how it is now. Nowadays there are about 20,000 viruses monthly spread
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SQL Injection – an input validation attack specific to database applications where SQL code is inserted into application queries to manipulate the database.
Nt1330 Unit 3 Assignment 1
Your browser will use a security symbol or lock to indicate that the browser verifies that the website is a secure site. As seen in the examples below, the look of each browser's symbol can be slightly different, and it is usually located in the address bar.
Nt1330 Unit 3 Assignment 1 Questions And Answers
Computer virus is a program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the user. Viruses perform some type of harmful activity such as accessing private information or corrupting
VUT2 Task 1 Memo CheckList
page) a person’s web browser to a webpage that is (phony and) malicious in nature,
The Open Problem Of The Computer Virus Problem
In the words of Frederick B. Cohen, computer virus as a" program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of it ' ' . Computer virus spreads from one computer to another by copying itself to an existing executable code. With the infection property, a virus can spread in a computer system or network using the authorizations of everybody, thereby affecting the user 's program. Every program that gets affected may also act as a virus.
Why People Should Be Banned
∆ Hacking - ( When using a illegal modification on Minecraft, that will get you banned for 2days until the video was proven bannable or not)
How Have Computer Viruses Changed Over Time
Computer viruses have been around just about as long as the personal computer has existed. With the advent of the Internet, the ability of viruses to rapidly spread has increased substantially. Despite this increase in capability to infect large numbers of computers across international borders, the definition of a computer virus has not substantially changed over
Incident Response Research Paper
With the development of computer technology especial Internet skills, computer has become an important part of human life. On the same time, there are more and more attacks appearing. Hackers attempt to explore the vulnerability of the host to gain unauthorized access privilege and make unauthorized use. However, no all attack can be considered as an incident. Attacks can be classified as incidents only if they meet the following characteristics (Torres, Alissa. Aug, 2014):
Dos Attack Research Paper
Viruses and worms are malicious programs that self-replicate on computers or through computer systems without the user being cognizant. Worms are a series programs that repeat themselves from system to system minus the use of a host fie. Worms use methods to infiltrate remote computers and launch replicas of themselves like email messages or coping files to an accessible disk. A computer virus is a
Malware And Its Effects On Society
To understand the business of malware, one must understand how malware has evolved in the past twenty-five years. Malware, which includes all kinds of malicious software, was originally created to show the weaknesses of computers. The first type of malware, created in 1986, was a virus called “Brain.A. Brain.A was developed in Pakistan, by two brothers - Basit and Amjad. They wanted to prove that PC is not secure platform, so they created virus that was replicating using floppy disks” (Milošević). Even today malware is still used to check the security of machines.
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1. Explain how a denial-of-service attack works. How and why are these attacks effective in their goals? Who would be the primary targets for these types of attacks?
A denial of service attack (DoS attack) is a type of attack on a machine or a network of machines that is intended to make certain resources unavailable for use for the the users who are generally meant to be the intended users. There are a variety of different ways that a denial of service attack can be carried out, but the purpose is the same: to disrupt the proper functioning of a machine or a network. If a denial-of-service attack is carried out on a particular machine or network, the people carrying out the attack will cause the proper functioning of the machine or network to slow or even stop (Aycock, 2006).
A denial-of-service attack may consume resources that the machine or network needs to function. The attacker may even disrupt the configuration of the machine, or disrupt the physical network components of the machine. These attacks may prompt the machine to install and activate malware, which can take control of the machine and obtain information about the machine or network, or may even force the machine or network to perform other activities, like sending spam mail or personal information to a third party (Aycock, 2006). The primary targets for these types of attacks are people or machines who are open to vulnerabilities in their system. Often, these attacks happen to personal computers; however, there are instances where networks and more professional and industrial groups of machines have fallen victim of a denial of service attack (Aycock, 2006). Many of these attacks take place over peer-to-peer networks, and individuals who are not savvy to computer viruses, malware, and fraud can fall victim to these types of attacks.
2. Describe and define a virus hoax. How does a virus hoax spread? Why are virus hoaxes potentially more dangerous than an actual virus? Explain.
A virus hoax is a type of hoax that often spreads via email or social media networks. It warns the user of a new virus that is present on the Internet, warning the user that this virus may do any number of things to his or her computer. This virus, if it does exist-- and it rarely if ever does-- cannot ever actually perform the amazing things that the emails will say that they will be able to do.
These virus hoaxes are spread across the Internet by the power of fear-- unlike other types of computer worms and computer viruses, the hoaxes in question may not ever change the nature or the performance of a computer. However, these virus hoaxes present a different type of issue for computer users; they prey on the lack of knowledge and lack of education that many people have about computers.
As these computer virus hoaxes grow in popularity, they will be spread further through the Internet with every user that forwards the messages to other users. Many computer companies, both software and hardware, have made specific policies regarding hoax messages: end users should not forward these messages to anyone except IT professionals. In the workplace, there should be IT professionals dedicated to the workplace, but at home, individuals should be wary and not forward these types of emails or messages to anyone else, as this perpetuates the computer virus hoax.
Virus hoaxes are potentially more dangerous than viruses because they spread false information regarding viruses to all corners of the web in the guise of providing information to users. These hoaxes can encourage behavior like downloading unknown files or executing unknown programs in the hopes of making one’s computer safe from viruses that are allegedly being spread.
3. How are phishing attacks used as Internet fraud schemes? How does this form of attack affect individuals? Provide and explain an example of phishing and evaluate its effects on the public.
The idea of “phishing” is most commonly used in the context of electronic fraud today, but it has not always been so. Today, phishing is considered to be the act of gathering private information via electronic channels; it usually involves gathering information like credit card information, user names, passwords, and other personal information for the purposes of stealing individuals’ identities at a later date (Stavroulakis and Stamp, 2010). There have been many different phishing scams perpetrated on people around the world, and many different types of “bait” have been used. One such “phishing” expedition has been perpetrated by people claiming to be part of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) with the intent of obtaining personal information from the victims.
Individuals who become victims of this type of attack are not only having their computers or their networks attacked. They are attacked on a personal level, with their personal information falling into the hands of people who often either sell the information, or use it to take over the identity of the victim. These victims often fall victim to financial hardship as a result of the phishing that they experienced.
4. Compare and contrast viruses and malicious code. How do they differ? How is each built and executed? In your opinion, which one is more destructive? Why?
According to Stavroulakis and Stamp (2010), quoting the antivirus giant Norton, “Malware is a category of malicious code that includes viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. Destructive malware will utilize popular communication tools to spread, including worms sent through email and instant messages, Trojan horses dropped from web sites, and virus-infected files downloaded from peer-to-peer connections. Malware will also seek to exploit existing vulnerabilities on systems making their entry quiet and easy” (Stavroulakis and Stamp, 2010). This means that viruses are a type of malicious code, but not all malicious code is a computer virus.
Malicious code, or malware, may be any number of different types of code. The code may be active, or it may be passive; it may be downloaded onto a computer or network, or it may be present there in some other way. Computer viruses, as a form of malware, are always spread by placing themselves inside a machine and then replicating within the computer, machine, or other network (Aycock, 2006). According to Aycock (2006), those who create viruses ensure that the virus survives by combining their knowledge of code with social engineering and general lack of knowledge about viruses, computer security, and how viruses are spread.
Viruses are quite destructive, but malware as a whole may be more destructive, as it includes things like backdoors and Trojans, which are capable of using a system’s own security system against the user. Viruses can be eradicated, but malware often provides information to third parties about the user and his or her personal data.
5. Outline the Economic Espionage Act and explain how it applies to corporate espionage. Explain the two separate offenses that this Act covers. Explain how these offenses relate to corporate spying. Provide examples of corporate victims who have fallen prey to these two offense types.
The Economic Espionage Act covers two basic types of espionage. First, the Act prohibits theft or misappropriation of trade secrets (Dorsey.com, 2014). Essentially, this means that an individual, when leaving a company, cannot take that company’s protected secrets to the public or to that company’s competitor (Dorsey.com, 2014). If an employee left Coca-Cola, for instance, they could not bring the recipe for Coca-Cola to Pepsi. It also makes it illegal to sell company secrets (or government secrets) to a foreign power (Dorsey.com, 2014).
There have been very few people prosecuted under the Economic Espionage Act. However, one that was prosecuted-- Greg Chung-- was selling state secrets from Boeing to the Chinese government for more than thirty years before he was caught (Dorsey.com, 2014). However, many more have been prosecuted under the part of the Economic Espionage Act that prohibits the theft and sale of corporate secrets. Companies can use this Act to protect themselves and prosecute those individuals who try to infiltrate their computer systems and networks to steal company secrets (Dorsey.com, 2014).
Aycock, J. D. (2006). Computer viruses and malware. New York: Springer. Dorsey.com. (2014). The economic espionage act: the double-edged sword. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.dorsey.com/newsevents/uniEntity.aspx?xpST=PubDetail&pub=186 [Accessed: 2 Feb 2014]. Stavroulakis, P. & Stamp, M. (2010). Handbook of information and communication security. Heidelberg: Springer.
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Malware & Computer Virus Facts & FAQs
Whether you’re on a Windows, Apple or Linux computer, a desktop, laptop, smartphone or tablet, you’re vulnerable to ever-evolving cyberthreats from computer viruses and other types of malware. The first step to protecting yourself and your data is understanding what you're up against. Here's an overview of the major types of malware, today’s most common computer viruses and their potential impact.
The term " malware " — an amalgamation of malicious and software — is now used to describe any malicious computer program on a computer or mobile device. These programs are installed without the consent of users and can cause a number of unpleasant effects, including crippling computer performance, mining your system for personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive data, erasing or encrypting data or even hijacking device operations or computer-controlled hardware. Hackers continuously develop increasingly sophisticated ways to infiltrate user systems. Like a game of whack-a-mole, as soon as one threat is neutralized, a replacement evolves, and the next iteration emerges. Let's look at some of the most common types of malware currently in use.
1. Computer Viruses
What is a computer virus? Computer viruses are a type of malware that earned their name because of how they spread by "infecting" other files on a disk or computer. Viruses then spread to other disk drives and machines when the infected files are received in downloads from websites, email attachments, shared drives or when carried in files on physical media, such as USB drives or—in the early days—floppy disks.
According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the first computer virus, a boot sector virus called "Brain," was developed in 1986. Tired of customers pirating software from their shop, two brothers claim to have designed the virus to infect the boot sector of software thieves' floppy disks. The virus spread through infected copies of the pirated software, jumping from the infected floppy disk to the computer hard drive when the program was booted, or loaded onto the new machine.
Unlike viruses, worms don't require human help in order to infect, self-replicate or propagate. As soon as they breach a system, they infect their entry point and spread through the device and across any network to which the device connects. By exploiting network vulnerabilities—such as missed operating system (OS) updates or application patches, weak email security or poor internet safety practices—worms can execute, self-replicate and propagate at an almost exponential rate as each new infection repeats the process. Originally, most worms simply "ate" system resources and reduced performance. Now, most worms contain malicious "payloads" designed to steal or delete files upon execution.
One of the most common online nuisances is adware . Adware programs automatically deliver advertisements to host computers. Familiar examples of adware include pop-up ads on webpages and advertising messages that are part of the interface of "free" software. While some adware is relatively harmless, other variants use tracking tools to glean information about your location or browser history. Most of the time, adware collects information in order to serve better targeted ads. But sometimes Adware is used for more nefarious purposes including redirecting search results, displaying op-ups that can’t be closed or link to malware, disabling antivirus software or even going all the way off the rails into the territory of spyware—see #4.
Technically, adware is installed with people's knowledge and consent. But when was the last time you read all the way through a several thousand word "Terms of Service" statement? By clicking the "I Agree" button, you grant consent. Because you have acknowledged and consented to the terms of service, these programs can't be termed malware. Today’s antivirus software typically identifies these programs as "potentially unwanted programs" (PUPs).
Spyware does just what it says. It spies on what you're doing at your computer. It collects data such as keystrokes, browsing habits, location data and even login information. While adware might include "repurposing" collected data for sale in the terms of service statement, spyware is more duplicitous. Spyware is considered malware because users are unaware of it. The only intent of spyware is malicious. Spyware collects and sells your data to third parties, typically cyber criminals, with no regard for how the data will be used. Spyware may also modify specific security settings on your computer or interfere with network connections.
In another example of how the line between adware and spyware can blur, the rise of mobile computing has seen an explosion of spyware that tracks user behavior across devices and physical locations without their consent. For example, a free weather app on your smartphone may have gotten your consent to collect and use your location data, ostensibly to provide more accurate forecasts. You agreed to the app’s terms of service which include language enabling to re-use the location as they see fit, so it’s legit. But what happens when that includes selling your location to data to anyone who can afford it, regardless of whether that an online store trying to populate banner ads in your browser or a cyber criminal who cross-references mobile phone user data with other data sources?
Ransomware infects your computer, encrypts your PII and other sensitive data such as personal or work documents and then demands a ransom for their release. If you refuse to pay, the data is deleted. Some ransomware variants lock out all access to your computer. Sometimes, they might claim to be the work of legitimate law enforcement agencies and suggest that you've been caught doing something illegal.
Bots are programs designed to automatically carry out specific operations. Although they serve many legitimate purposes, they are also a popular type of malware. Once on a computer, bots can cause the machine to execute specific commands without the user's approval or knowledge. Hackers may also try to infect multiple computers with the same bot to create a " botnet "—short for robot network. These zombie botnets give hackers the ability to remotely manage compromised computers, enabling them to steal sensitive data, to spy on user activities, to distribute spam automatically or to launch devastating Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks on computer networks and websites.
Rootkits allow remote access or control of a computer by a third party. These programs are useful for IT professionals trying to troubleshoot network issues remotely, but they can easily become nefarious. Once installed on your computer, rootkits allow attackers to take complete control of your machine to steal data or install additional malware. Rootkits are designed to go unnoticed and actively hide their presence and that of other malware that they install.
As with most computer viruses and malware, although it’s no guarantee of safety, protecting your devices from rootkits starts with keeping current on all OS and application updates and patches to eliminate potential infection routes. Effective detection of rootkits requires real-time monitoring—not just periodic disk drive scans—for unusual behavior system behavior.
8. Trojan Horses
Commonly called " Trojans ," these programs hide in plain sight by masquerading as legitimate files or software. Once downloaded and installed, Trojans make changes to a computer and carry out malicious activities, without the knowledge or consent of the victim.
Bugs—flaws in software code—are not a type of malware, they are errors in software code that popular vectors for attackers with malicious intent. Bugs can, on and of themselves, have detrimental effects on your computer, such as freezing, crashing or reducing performance. Security bugs create holes in a computer or network’s defenses that are especially attractive to would-be attackers. While better security control on the developer end helps reduce the number of bugs, bugs are another reason why keeping current on software patches and system updates is crucial.
Common Computer Virus Myths
- Any computer error message indicates virus infection. Error messages can also be caused by faulty hardware or software bugs.
- Viruses and worms require user interaction to activate. False. This is actually the primary difference between viruses and worms . Although viruses do require the activation of their host file in order to execute, this may be part of an automated process. In contrast, once a worm has breached a system, it can execute, self-replicate and propagate freely and with no trigger, human or automated.
- Email attachments from known senders are safe. Viruses and malware often spread by blast emailing the contacts on an infected computer. Even if you know the sender, don't open any attachments that you aren't sure about.
- Antivirus programs will stop all threats. While antivirus vendors do their best to stay on top of malware developments, it's important to run a comprehensive internet security product that includes technologies specifically designed to proactively block threats. Even then, of course, there's no such thing as 100 percent security. So, it's important to adopt safe internet practices to reduce your exposure to attack.
Common Misconceptions About Malware
Malware threats often rely on common misconceptions to create soft targets. By understanding some of the most widely misunderstood points, simple shifts in behavior can remove you from the soft target list.
One of the most common misconceptions about malware is the assumption that infection is obvious. Users often assume they'll know if their computer has been compromised. Typically, however, the intent of malware is to perform their task(s) for as long as possible. So, malware doesn't leave a trail to follow, and your system displays no signs of infection. Even malware like ransomware only makes its presence known after it has encrypted the files, thus completing its first task, to be ransomed back to the user.
Another common misconception is that all reputable websites are safe. Compromising legitimate websites with infected code is one of the easiest ways to convince potential victims to download files or provide sensitive information. This is exactly what happened to the European Central Bank (ECB) in August of 2019.
Many users believe their personal data—photos, documents and files—have no value for malware creators. But cyber criminals mine publicly available data, like that on social networks, to create custom targeted attacks on individuals or to gather intelligence for spear phishing emails popular for accessing the networks and assets of large, otherwise secure organizations.
Methods of Malware and Virus Infection and Spread
So how does your computer become infected by computer viruses or malware? There are many common approaches, but the following are some of the most popular methods owing to their efficacy and simplicity:
- Downloading infected files as email attachments, from websites or through filesharing activities
- Clicking on links to malicious websites in emails, messaging apps or social network posts
- Visiting compromised websites, aka drive-by downloads, viruses can be hidden in HTML, thus downloading when the webpage loads in your browser
- Connecting your device to infected external hard drives or network drives
- Operating system and application vulnerabilities provide security loopholes, backdoors and other exploits
- Social engineering attacks, such as phishing scams, trick victims into providing sensitive information or access to personal and work systems through customized attacks that often masquerade as legitimate organizations reporting fake emergencies to push victims to act quickly and without question
- Connected peripherals, smart devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices can act as vectors, or access points, or they can be hijacked and controlled remotely by the hacker
Confidential data, such as passwords, are a key target of cyber criminals. In addition to using malware to capture passwords, cyber criminals also collect login details from hacked websites and devices, even physical means like peering over your shoulder in a crowded cafe. That's why it's so important to use a unique and complex password for each online account. This means 15 character or more and including letters, numbers and special characters.
The easiest way to do this is through a password manager tool that generates random passwords, stores them securely and obtains validation/permission prior to entering the stored credentials while masking the characters. Because so many people re-use passwords , password tools ensure that one compromised account does not cascade through your entire digital ecosystem. Also, remember that many security verification questions are ineffective. For example, if the question is "What's your favorite food?" and you're in the United States, "Pizza" is a common answer.
Signs of Malware and Computer Virus Infections
While most malware leaves no telltale signs and leaves your computer operating normally, sometimes there can be indications that you might be infected. Reduced performance tops the list. This includes slow-running processes , windows that take longer to load than usual and seemingly random programs running in the background. You may also notice that internet homepages have been changed in your browser, or that pop-up ads are occurring more frequently than usual. In some cases, malware can also impact more basic computer functions: Windows may not open at all, and you may be unable to connect to the internet or access higher-level system control functions.
If you suspect that your computer might be infected, scan your system immediately. If nothing is found, but you're still in doubt, get a second opinion by running an alternative antivirus scanner. Check out these free tools: Free Cloud Anti-Virus Software and Free Ransomware Protection & Decryption Tools
Ideally, you want to prevent an attack, not discover it. While you should scan your device as soon as you suspect something amiss, your best defense is a comprehensive internet security solution that includes real-time scanning and monitoring of disk drives, files and activities as well as real-time updates on web threats provided by a team of experienced cyber security professionals. This includes monitoring instant messaging services, scanning email attachments, providing a firewall and so much more than scheduled scans and periodic updates. Effective antivirus and cyber security software should be able to work and coordinate between all your devices—how else can they protect you from viruses and malware that do the same?
Other helpful reads and links related to Computer Viruses and Malware
- Free Cloud Anti-Virus Software
- Free Ransomware Protection & Decryption Tools
- How to choose the anti-virus software that’s best for you
- Malware classifications
- The Rise of Mobile Malware
- What's the Difference Computer Virus and a Worm?
- Top 7 Mobile Security Threats
- Top 7 Cyber Security Threats to Watch Out For
- Types of Spyware
- A Brief History of Computer Viruses & What the Future Holds
- Top 10 Most Notorious Hackers
Malware & Computer Virus Facts & FAQs
Computer viruses & other types of malware are a constant & evolving threat to all computer & mobile device users. Learn about today's malware to stay safe.
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A computer virus is a type of malware that attaches to another program and can replicate and spread to other computers. Think you have a computer virus? Download Malwarebytes free to scan your computer.
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What is computer virus?
A computer virus is a type of malware that attaches to another program (like a document), which can replicate and spread after a person first runs it on their system. For instance, you could receive an email with a malicious attachment, open the file unknowingly, and then the computer virus runs on your computer. Viruses are harmful and can destroy data, slow down system resources, and log keystrokes.
Cybercriminals aren’t creating new viruses all the time, instead they focus their efforts on more sophisticated and lucrative threats. When people talk about “getting a virus” on their computer, they usually mean some form of malware—it could be a virus, computer worm, Trojan, ransomware or some other harmful thing. Viruses and malware continue to evolve, and often cybercriminals use the type that gives them the best return at that particular time.
“When people talk about “getting a virus” on their computer, they usually mean some form of malware—it could be a virus, computer worm, Trojan, ransomware or some other harmful thing.”
Virus vs. malware - what is the difference?
The terms “virus” and “malware” are often used interchangeably, but they’re not the same thing. While a computer virus is a type of malware, not all malware are computer viruses.
The easiest way to differentiate computer viruses from other forms of malware is to think about viruses in biological terms . Take the flu virus, for example. The flu requires some kind of interaction between two people—like a hand shake, a kiss, or touching something an infected person touched. Once the flu virus gets inside a person’s system it attaches to healthy human cells, using those cells to create more viral cells.
A computer virus works in much the same way:
- A computer virus requires a host program.
- A computer virus requires user action to transmit from one system to another.
- A computer virus attaches bits of its own malicious code to other files or replaces files outright with copies of itself.
It’s that second virus trait that tends to confuse people. Viruses can’t spread without some sort of action from a user, like opening up an infected Word document. Worms, on the other hand, are able to spread across systems and networks on their own, making them much more prevalent and dangerous.
Famously, the 2017 WannaCry ransomware worm spread around the world, took down thousands of Windows systems, and raked in an appreciable amount of untraceable Bitcoin ransom payments for the alleged North Korean attackers.
Computer viruses don’t typically capture headlines like that—at least not anymore. They are still a harmful type of malware, but they are not the only type of threat out there today, on your computer or mobile device.
Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS
Many computer viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows. Macs, on the other hand, have enjoyed a reputation as virus-proof super machines, but in Apple's own admission, Macs do get malware . There are more Windows users in the world than Mac user s and cybercriminals simply choose to write viruses for the operating system (OS) with the largest amount of potential victims.
Today, the "computer" in our pockets may be the one we use most often: our smartphones. Android and iOS are susceptible to various forms of malware, too. Fortunately, most cybersecurity companies like Malwarebytes offer protection for Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS today.
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Computer virus examples
Sometimes to understand what something is, we have to examine what it isn’t. Keeping that in mind, let’s play: Is It a Virus ?
In the Is It a Virus game we’re going to take a look at examples of things people on the Internet commonly believe to be a virus and explain why it is or isn’t. What fun!
Is a Trojan a virus? Trojans can be viruses. A Trojan is a computer program pretending to be something it’s not for the purposes of sneaking onto your computer and delivering some sort of malware. To put it another way, if a virus disguises itself then it’s a Trojan. A Trojan could be a seemingly benign file downloaded off the web or a Word doc attached to an email. Think that movie you downloaded from your favorite P2P sharing site is safe? What about that “important” tax document from your accountant? Think twice, because they could contain a virus.
Is a worm a virus? Worms are not viruses, though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Even worse, the terms are sometimes used together in a strange and contradictory word salad; i.e. a “worm virus malware.” It’s either a worm or a virus, but it can’t be both, because worms and viruses refer to two similar but different threats. As mentioned earlier, a virus needs a host system to replicate and some sort of action from a user to spread from one system to the next. A worm, conversely, doesn’t need a host system and is capable of spreading across a network and any systems connected to the network without user action. Once on a system, worms are known to drop malware (often ransomware) or open a backdoor .
Is ransomware a virus? Ransomware can be a virus. Does the virus prevent victims from accessing their system or personal files and demands ransom payment in order to regain access à la ransomware? If so, then it’s a ransomware virus. In fact, the very first ransomware was a virus (more on that later). Nowadays, most ransomware comes as a result of computer worm, capable of spreading from one system to the next and across networks without user action (e.g. WannaCry).
Is a rootkit a virus? Rootkits are not viruses. A rootkit is a software package designed to give attackers “root” access or admin access to a given system. Crucially, rootkits cannot self-replicate and don’t spread across systems.
Is a software bug a virus? Software bugs are not viruses. Even though we sometimes refer to a biological virus as a “bug” (e.g. “I caught a stomach bug”), software bugs and viruses are not the same thing. A software bug refers to a flaw or mistake in the computer code that a given software program is made up of. Software bugs can cause programs to behave in ways the software manufacturer never intended. The Y2K bug famously caused programs to display the wrong date, because the programs could only manage dates through the year 1999. After 1999 the year rolled over like the odometer on an old car to 1900. While the Y2K bug was relatively harmless, some software bugs can pose a serious threat to consumers. Cybercriminals can take advantage of bugs in order to gain unauthorized access to a system for the purposes of dropping malware, stealing private information, or opening up a backdoor. This is known as an exploit .
How do I prevent computer viruses?
Preventing computer viruses from infecting your computer starts with situational awareness. “Situational awareness is something law enforcement and militaries have practiced for decades. It refers to a police officer or a soldier’s ability to perceive threats and make the best decision possible in a potentially stressful situation,” said Malwarebytes Head of Security, John Donovan.
“As it applies to cybersecurity, situational awareness is your first line of defense against cyberthreats. By staying on the lookout for phishing attacks and avoiding suspicious links and attachments, consumers can largely avoid most malware threats.”
Regarding email attachments and embedded links, even if the sender is someone you know: viruses have been known to hijack Outlook contact lists on infected computers and send virus laden attachments to friends, family and coworkers, the Melissa virus being a perfect example.
If an email reads oddly, it’s probably a phishing scam or malspam . When in doubt about the authenticity of an email, don’t be afraid to reach out to the sender. A simple call or text message can save you a lot of trouble.
Next, invest in good cybersecurity software. We’ve made a distinction between computer viruses and malware, which now begs the question, “Do I need antivirus software or anti-malware software?” We’ve covered this topic before in great detail so checkout our article on antivirus vs. anti-malware . For now, though, here’s a quick gloss on the subject.
Antivirus (AV) refers to early forms of cybersecurity software focused on stopping computer viruses. Just viruses. Anti-malware refers to all-encompassing threat protection designed to stop old-fashioned viruses as well as today’s malware threats. Given a choice between traditional AV with limited threat detection technology and modern anti-malware with all the bells and whistles, invest in anti-malware and rest easy at night.
As mentioned previously in this piece, traditional AV solutions rely on signature-based detection. AV scans your computer and compares each and every file against a database of known viruses that functions a lot like a criminal database. If there’s a signature match, the malicious file is thrown into virus jail before it can cause any damage.
The problem with signature-based detection is that it can’t stop what’s known as a zero-day virus; that is, a virus that cybersecurity researchers have never seen before and for which there is no criminal profile. Until the zero-day virus is added to the database, traditional AV can’t detect it.
Malwarebytes’ Multi-Vector Protection, conversely, combines several forms of threat detection technology into one malware crushing machine. Amongst these many layers of protection, Malwarebytes uses what’s called heuristic analysis to look for telltale malicious behavior from any given program. If it looks like a virus and behaves like a virus, then it’s probably a virus.
Use a VPN to protect your privacy online, especially when you're on the public Wi-Fi network. A VPN app hides your IP address and tunnels your traffic through a secure connection. Read more about VPN here - What is VPN .
How do I remove computer viruses?
Going back to our virus analogy one final time—removing a virus from your body requires a healthy immune system. Same for your computer. A good anti-malware program is like having a healthy immune system. As your immune system moves through your body looking for and killing off invading viral cells, anti-malware scans for files and malicious code that don’t belong on your system and gets rid of them.
The free version of Malwarebytes is a good place to start if you know or suspect your computer has a virus. Available for Windows and Mac, the free version of Malwarebytes will scan for malware infections and clean them up after the fact. Get a free premium trial of Malwarebytes for Windows or Malwarebytes for Mac to stop infections before they start. You can also try our Android and iOS apps free to protect your smartphones and tablets.
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History of computer viruses
Today’s malware authors owe a lot to the cybercriminals of yesteryear. All the tactics and techniques employed by cybercriminals creating modern malware were first seen in early viruses. Things like Trojans, ransomware, and polymorphic code. These all came from early computer viruses. To understand the threat landscape of today, we need to peer back through time and look at the viruses of yesteryear.
1949, John von Neumann and “self-reproducing machines” It was in those salad days of computing that mathematician, engineer, and polymath John von Neumann delivered a lecture on the Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata in which he first argued that computer programs could “self-reproduce.” In an era where computers were the size of houses, and programs were stored on mile-long punch tapes, Neumann’s ideas must’ve sounded like something from a sci-fi pulp novel.
1982, The proto computer-virus In 1982 a fifteen-year-old boy pranking his friends proved Neumann’s theory a reality. Rich Skrenta’s Elk Cloner is widely regarded as the first proto-computer virus (the term “computer virus” didn’t exist just yet). Elk Cloner targeted Apple II computers, causing infected machines to display a poem from Skrenta:
Elk Cloner: The program with a personality It will get on all your disks It will infiltrate your chips Yes, it’s Cloner!
It will stick to you like glue It will modify RAM too Send in the Cloner!
Other notable firsts—Elk Cloner was the first virus to spread via detachable storage media (it wrote itself to any floppy disk inserted into the computer). For many years to come, that’s how viruses travelled across systems—via infected floppy disk passed from user to user.
1984, Computer virus, defined In 1984 computer scientist Fred Cohen handed in his graduate thesis paper, Computer Viruses – Theory and Experiments in which he coined the term “computer virus,” which is great because “complicated self-reproducing automata” is a real mouthful. In the same paper, Cohen also gave us our first definition of “computer virus” as “a program that can ‘infect’ other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.”
1984, Core War Up to this point, most talk about computer viruses happened only in the rarified air of college campuses and research labs. But a 1984 Scientific American article let the virus out of the lab. In the piece, author and computer scientist A.K. Dewdney shared the details of an exciting new computer game of his creation called Core War. In the game, computer programs vie for control of a virtual computer. The game was essentially a battle arena where computer programmers could pit their viral creations against each other. For two dollars Dewdney would send detailed instructions for setting up your own Core War battles within the confines of a virtual computer. What would happen if a battle program was taken out of the virtual computer and placed on a real computer system? In a follow-up article for Scientific American, Dewdney shared a letter from two Italian readers who were inspired by their experience with Core War to create a real virus on the Apple II. It’s not a stretch to think other readers were similarly inspired.
1986, the first PC virus The Brain virus was the first to target Microsoft’s text-based Windows precursor, MS-DOS. The brainchild of Pakistani brothers and software engineers, Basit and Amjad Farooq, Brain acted like an early form of copyright protection, stopping people from pirating their heart monitoring software. If the target system contained a pirated version of the brother’s software, the “victim” would receive the on-screen message, “WELCOME TO THE DUNGEON . . . CONTACT US FOR VACCINATION” along with the brothers’ names, phone number, and business address in Pakistan. Other than guilt tripping victims in to paying for their pirated software, Brain had no harmful effects.
Speaking with F-Secure , Basit called Brain a “very friendly virus.” Amjad added that today’s viruses, the descendants of Brain, are “a purely criminal act.”
1986, Viruses go into stealth mode Also in 1986, the BHP virus was the first to target the Commodore 64 computer. Infected computers displayed a text message with the names of the multiple hackers who created the virus—the digital equivalent of scrawling “(your name) was here” on the side of a building. BHP also has the distinction of being the first stealth virus; that is, a virus that avoids detection by hiding the changes it makes to a target system and its files.
1988, Computer virus of the year 1988, one could argue, was the year computer viruses went mainstream. In September of that year, a story on computer viruses appeared on the cover of TIME magazine. The cover image depicted viruses as cute, googly eyed cartoon insects crawling all over a desktop computer. Up to this point, computer viruses were relatively harmless. Yes, they were annoying, but not destructive. So how did computer viruses go from nuisance threat to system destroying plague?
“Viruses were all about peace and love—until they started crashing people’s computers.”
1988, A message of peace goes haywire Viruses were all about peace and love—until they started crashing people’s computers. The MacMag virus caused infected Macs to display an onscreen message on March 2, 1988:
RICHARD BRANDOW , publisher of MacMag, and its entire staff would like to take this opportunity to convey their UNIVERSAL MESSAGE OF PEACE to all Macintosh users around the world
Unfortunately, a bug in the virus caused infected Macs to crash well before Brandow’s day of “universal peace.” The virus was also designed to delete itself after displaying Brandow’s message but ended up deleting other user files along with it. One of the victims, a software executive working for Aldus Corp, inadvertently copied the virus to a pre-production version of Aldus’ Freehand illustration software. The infected Freehand was then copied and shipped to several thousand customers, making MacMag the first virus spread via legitimate commercial software product.
Drew Davidson, the person who actually coded the MacMag virus (Brandow wasn’t a coder), told TIME he created his virus to draw attention to his programming skills.
“I just thought we'd release it and it would be kind of neat,” Davidson said.
1988, front page of The New York Times A little over a month after the TIME magazine piece, a story about the “most serious computer ‘virus’ attack” in US history appeared on the front page of The New York Times . It was Robert Tappan Morris’ Internet worm, erroneously referred to as a “virus.” In all fairness, no one knew what a worm was. Morris’s creation was the archetype. The Morris worm knocked out more than 6,000 computers as it spread across the ARPANET , a government operated early version of the Internet restricted to schools and military installations. The Morris worm was the first known use of a dictionary attack. As the name suggests, a dictionary attack involves taking a list of words and using it to try and guess the username and password combination of a target system.
Robert Morris was the first person charged under the newly enacted Computer Fraud and Abuse Act , which made it illegal to mess with government and financial systems, and any computer that contributes to US commerce and communications. In his defense, Morris never intended his namesake worm to cause so much damage. According to Morris, the worm was designed to test security flaws and estimate the size of the early Internet. A bug caused the worm to infect targeted systems over and over again, with each subsequent infection consuming processing power until the system crashed.
1989, Computer viruses go viral In 1989 the AIDS Trojan was the first example of what would later come to be known as ransomware. Victims received a 5.25-inch floppy disk in the mail labelled “AIDS Information” containing a simple questionnaire designed to help recipients figure out if they were at risk for the AIDS virus (the biological one).
While an apt (albeit insensitive) metaphor, there’s no indication the virus’ creator, Dr. Joseph L. Popp, intended to draw parallels between his digital creation and the deadly AIDS virus. Many of the 20,000 disk recipients, Medium reported, were delegates for the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO previously rejected Popp for an AIDS research position.
Loading the questionnaire infected target systems with the AIDS Trojan. The AIDS Trojan would then lay dormant for the next 89 boot ups. When victims started their computer for the 90th time, they’d be presented with an on-screen message ostensibly from “PC Cyborg Corporation” demanding payment for “your software lease,” similar to the Brain virus from three years earlier. Unlike the Brain virus, however, the AIDS Trojan encrypted the victims’ files.
In an era before Bitcoin and other untraceable cryptocurrencies, victims had to send ransom funds to a PO box in Panama in order to receive the decryption software and regain access to their files. Funds, Popp claimed after his arrest, were destined for AIDS virus research.
1990s, Rise of the Internet By 1990 ARPANET was decommissioned in favor of its public, commercially accessible cousin the Internet. And thanks to Tim Berners-Lee’s pioneering work on web browsers and web pages, the Internet was now a user-friendly place anyone could explore without special technical knowledge. There were 2.6 million users on the Internet in 1990, according to Our World in Data. By the end of the decade, that number would surpass 400 million.
With the rise of the Internet came new ways for viruses to spread.
1990, Mighty morphin’ 1260 virus Cybersecurity researcher Mark Washburn wanted to demonstrate the weaknesses in traditional antivirus (AV) products. Traditional AV works by comparing the files on your computer with a giant list of known viruses. Every virus on the list is made of computer code and every snippet of code has a unique signature—like a fingerprint. If a snippet of code found on your computer matches that of a known virus in the database, the file is flagged. Washburn’s 1260 virus avoided detection by constantly changing its fingerprint every time it replicated itself across a system. While each copy of the 1260 virus looked and acted the same, the underlying code was different. This is called polymorphic code, making 1260 the first polymorphic virus.
1999, “You’ve got mail (and also a virus)” Think back to 1999. If someone you knew sent you an email that read “Here is the document you requested ... don’t show anyone else ;-),” you opened the attachment. This was how the Melissa virus spread and it played on the public’s naiveté about how viruses worked up to that point. Melissa was a macro virus. Viruses of this type hide within the macro language commonly used in Microsoft Office files. Opening up a viral Word doc, Excel spreadsheet, etc. triggers the virus. Melissa was the fastest spreading virus up to that point, infecting approximately 250,000 computers, Medium reported.
2012, A full Shamoon over Saudi Arabia By the turn of the 21st century, the roadmap for future malware threats had been set. Viruses paved the way for a whole new generation of destructive malware. Cryptojackers stealthily used our computers to mine cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Ransomware held our computers hostage. Banking Trojans, like Emotet , stole our financial information. Spyware and keyloggers shoulder surfed us from across the web, stealing our usernames and passwords.
Old-school viruses were, for the most part, a thing of the past. In 2012, however, viruses made one last grab at the world’s attention with the Shamoon virus. Shamoon targeted computers and network systems belonging to Aramco, the state-owned Saudi Arabian oil company, in response to Saudi government policy decisions in the Middle East. The attack stands as one of the most destructive malware attacks on a single organization in history, completely wiping out three-quarters of Aramco’s systems, The New York Times reported. In a perfect example of what comes around goes around, cybersecurity researchers have suggested the attack started with an infected USB storage drive—the modern equivalent of the floppy disks used to carry the very first virus, Elk Cloner.
Today, tech support scams Decades have passed since computer viruses reached their destructive zenith but there’s a related threat you should know about. Commonly referred to as a tech support scam or a virus hoax , this modern threat isn’t a virus at all.
Here’s how tech support scams work. The victim is served up a bogus pop-up ad after landing on a spoofed website or as a result of an adware infection. In a recent example , scammers used malvertising to link victims to malicious support sites after victims searched for things like cooking tips and recipes. We’ve also seen hacked WordPress sites redirecting to support scam sites. The bogus ad is designed to look like a system alert generated by the operating system, and it may say something like, “Security alert: Your computer might be infected by harmful viruses,” along with contact information for “Technical Support.” There’s no virus and no technical support—just scammers who will make it seem like you have a virus and demand payment to “fix” it.
According to the Federal Trade Commission there were 143,000 reports about tech support scams in 2018, with total losses reaching $55 million. What makes this scam particularly insidious is that cybercriminals frequently target the most vulnerable part of the world’s population. People 60-years-old and over were five times more likely to report being a victim of a tech support scam.
Is Chromium a virus?
As discussed above, a number of things that are called viruses are not actually viruses. Some of those, like ransomware or computer worms, are still malicious, but they are not computer viruses. Some things that are not malicious are sometimes suspected as viruses, and Chromium is a good example of this.
Chromium is not a virus. Chromium is a free open-source web browser project by Google. Much of the Chromium code serves as source code for Google Chrome, a legitimate and popular web browser. Just because you suddenly have Chromium on your computer doesn't necessarily mean that it’s malware. You may have unwittingly installed a legitimate copy of Chromium that was bundled with other software.
Because Chromium is open-source, anyone can download Chromium and modify it to suit their needs. Bad actors could download Chromium and alter it to serve malicious purposes. WebNavigator Chromium browser is an example of a threat actor adapting Chromium code and using it as a search hijacker. However to reiterate, Chromium itself is not a virus.
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A computer virus is a type of malware that attaches to another program (like a document), which can replicate and spread after a person first runs it on their system . or instance, you could receive an email with a malicious attachment, open the file unknowingly, and then the computer virus runs on your computer.
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lines. Computer viruses are every bit as harmful and destructive, and come in a vast variety of types and strains. Computer viruses, can tear up your hard drive and bring down your system. However, unlike social diseases, computer viruses are almost always curable, and the cures for new strains are usually a matter of days away, rather than months or years. A computer virus is a program designed to replicate and spread, generally with the victim being oblivious to its existence. Computer viruses
History Of Computer Viruses
Table of contents Page 1. Computer viruses 1 1.1. Introduction 1-2 1.2. History of computer viruses 2-3 2. Classification of computer viruses 2-7 3. Spreading of computer viruses 8 References 9 Table of figures 1.1 How viruses work 2 1.2 Infection of MacMag virus - 1988 3 2.1 Classification of computer viruses 4-7 2.2 Distribution of Viruses 7 1. Computer Viruses 1.1. Introduction A small computer programme which is loaded to a computer and runs against the wishes of the user using its destructive
Dangers of the Internet
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are deadly to your computer. Still others are humorous and entertaining. There are many dangers on the Internet. This paper will try to cover some of them. The biggest dangers of the Internet are virus. Viruses are small programs that "infect" computers. Most viruses are made to "steal" and or "destroy" data stored on the infected computer. Viruses, that destroy data, write their code into a file and when that file is accessed it rewrites itself in to more files until the virus corrupters or "infects"
Trojan Horse and Trojan Virus
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Trojan Horse and Trojan Virus. Today people know the “Trojan” or “Malware” as a computer virus. Trojan horses falsely show themselves as useful and valuable software to download from the Internet. People are fooled by the Trojan because it can describe itself as an application that can be useful on your computer, then people end up downloading them. But before that happens did you know that the Trojan itself is not dangerous at all it’s just a vessel for the other harmful applications to attach
threat? Computer Virus • Description: Virus is software which is used to contaminate a computer. The virus code is hidden within an existing program and when that program is executed, the virus code is turn on and infects other programs in the computer and other computers in the network. • Impact: The virus may be a trouble-free that pops up a message on screen out or it can destroy data in a minute or on a particular date. • Example: The well-known Michelangelo virus infected the computers on Michelangelo's
Anti-Virus Software: Prevention against Malicious Codes
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the current scenario of interminably growing technology, the computers and information technology have become an integral part of the lives. One of the biggest challenges faced by this growing Information Technology is the protection from malicious programs. These malicious programs may be developed by lone teenagers, organized criminal syndicates or even nation states, and distributed across a range of computing platforms. Anti-Virus software is the one of the most widely accepted measures for prevention
Computer Viruses And Its Effects On Computer Users
ask, ‘Why computer viruses are constructed and Its effects on computer users? Therefore, the answers are argumentatively acknowledged by the different authors and explanations of the consequences in causing computer viruses. Because it is a huge problem in today’s world. The paragraphs are mainly focused in four areas, the causes of computer viruses, the economic impacts on government intelligence nuclear, also stealing sensitive information. These are all critically affected by computer viruses
Learn About PC Virus
Learn About PC Virus A computer virus is a potentially damaging computer program designed to affect, or infect, your computer negatively by altering the way it works without your knowledge or permission. More specifically, a computer virus is a segment of program code that implants itself in a computer file and spreads systematically from one file to another. Viruses can spread to your computer if an infected floppy disk is in the disk drive when you boot the computer, if you run an infected
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A computer virus is a software program designed to interfere with the normal computer functioning by infecting the computer operating system (Szor, 2005). These viruses have the capability of spreading from one computer to another. They are also capable of multiplying.
Computer virus is a software program capable of copying itself from an infected object to another object (objects can be program files, text, computers …). The virus has many ways to spread and of course there are many ways to destroy it, but you just need to remember that it is part of programs and programs that are often used for bad purposes.
The worm is the most common types of computer viruses these also work by using a computer networks and security to be able to create copies of itself via tracking ip addresses and then copying the same worms and it will continue to scan all the ips till it infects the computer network for any other security Problems.
A computer virus is a malware program that, when executed copies itself into other data files, computer programs, or the boot sector of the hard drive with 95% of viruses doing no more than that. (1) (2). A virus might attach itself to a program such as a word document program.
397 results for "Computer Viruses" . ★Recommended Essay Computer Viruses A Quantitative Analysis Words: 2542 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27483260 Read Full Paper This report will hopefully pull together the research available with regard to this issue, and also identify what users are most at risk for virus attacks.
Virus The basic definition of a virus is a piece of coding, computer programming which are executed copy by reproducing itself and infects the system data and computer environment. Computer viruses are made by humans and it is run without your authentication in your computer.
A computer virus is an illegal and potentially damaging computer program designed to infect othersoftware by attaching itself to any software it contacts. In many cases, virus programs are designed todamage computer systems maliciously by destroying or corrupting data.
Any funny images, greetings, audio files that come in as attachments from suspicious sources should never be opened as they may be viruses. Not all malware that affect your computer are viruses. Some like adware and spyware cannot reproduce and thus cannot be termed as computer viruses.
What is a computer virus essay? Computer Virus is a program that copies itself, Computer virus can infect your computer and slowing down your computer. And virus also can spreads computer to computer. ... Usually, a virus is written to target a network file system or shared filet in order to spread from computer to computer using network.
A virus is a program that can modify another program which is deemed infected. This cart-also become an evolved copy of the original virus program. Every program that gets infected may also act as a virus and thus the infection multiplies. The key property of a virus is its ability to infect other programs.
Computer virus is the software which damages data, programs or the computer itself. It is a concealed program which can contaminate other programs by modifying them and causes data loss. It gets attached to other software and runs secretly every time the host program is executed. The virus replicates itself within a computer system.
Computer Science Computer Virus Computers Information Age Operating System Personal Computer Research Paper On Hacking Words • 1888 Pages • 8 The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of Research Paper On Hacking. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed.
Introduction of Computer Virus. Computer Virus is a program that copies itself, Computer virus can infect your computer and slowing down your computer. And virus also can spreads computer to computer. The person who sends out the computer virus may use networking of the internet. The computer virus also can be spread by via disk, CD, thauDVD or ...
INTRODUCTION Two of the common known attacks on computing systems are the deployment of computer viruses and malware. Computer viruses are minute program which is "embedded inside an application or within a data file which can copy itself into another program"(Adams et al, 2008 ) for the sole determination of meddling with normal computer operations. The consequences may range from ...
Malware will also seek to exploit existing vulnerabilities on systems making their entry quiet and easy" (Stavroulakis and Stamp, 2010). This means that viruses are a type of malicious code, but not all malicious code is a computer virus. Malicious code, or malware, may be any number of different types of code.
Computer viruses are a type of malware that earned their name because of how they spread by "infecting" other files on a disk or computer. Viruses then spread to other disk drives and machines when the infected files are received in downloads from websites, email attachments, shared drives or when carried in files on physical media, such as USB ...
A computer virus is a type of malware that attaches to another program (like a document), which can replicate and spread after a person first runs it on their system. For instance, you could receive an email with a malicious attachment, open the file unknowingly, and then the computer virus runs on your computer.
What is a computer virus? A computer virus is a piece of malicious code that is capable of copying itself and typically has a detrimental effect such as corrupting a system or destroying data. Computer viruses are written with the sole intention of stealing data or crippling a system.
Computer Virus Essay | Best Writing Service 100% Success rate 4.7/5 Writing experience: 3 years User ID: 104293 4.8/5 ID 27260 Education Computer Virus Essay Our Professional Writers Are Our Pride EssayService boasts its wide writer catalog. Our writers have various fields of study, starting with physics and ending with history.