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How to cite in APA when there are no authors
This article covers how to cite in APA Style (7th ed.) when there are no known authors for a reference or when the author is unknown or cannot be reasonably determined. Before treating a reference as though it has no author, consider whether a group or organization (such as a government agency, association, nonprofit organization, business, hospital, task force, or study group) could be the author by checking the cover or title page.
Citing in-text when there are no authors
APA 7th ed. uses the author-date citation system for citing references in-text. In parenthetical citations, this structure includes the author’s last name and the publication year (with a comma separating them) in parentheses. In narrative citations, the author’s last name is incorporated into the sentence. This formatting applies if your source has one author or if you are citing a source with multiple authors in APA .
Parenthetical citation for source with author:
(Author Last Name, Year Published)
Narrative citation for source with author:
Author Last Name (Year Published)
If a reference has an unknown author, the title of the work substitutes as the author name in the in-text citation.
- The title should have each significant word capitalized (basically sentence case).
- This means it is part of a larger work (like when citing a journal article from a journal in APA ).
- If the source title is italicized in the reference list entry, italicize the title in the in-text citation (example: books when cited in APA ).
No author, source title italicized:
(Source Title , year published)
( Park Avenue Summer , 2019)
No author, source title in quotes:
(“Source Title,” year published)
(“22 New Apple Varieties,” 1997)
Author designated as “Anonymous”
Only use the capitalized word “Anonymous” in place of the author’s name when it’s overtly designated, not as a general substitute for a reference with an unknown author.
“Anonymous” as author name:
(Anonymous, year published)
Citing in the reference list when there are no authors
To add a reference with no author to the reference list, first move the title of the reference to the author position in your citation . For further information on creating reference list citations, see this guide on APA citations.
Reference list examples:
Park avenue summer. (2019). Penguin Random House.
22 new apple varieties. (1997). Food Magazine . https://foodmag.com/article/1997/22-new-apple-varietites
If the reference is overtly signed “Anonymous,” then you can add the entry to the reference list as if “Anonymous” were the author’s last name.
Anonymous. (2020). Navigating the high seas. Sea Life. https://sealife.gov
Alphabetizing the reference list for sources with no known author
Reference list entries without an author are alphabetized by the first significant word of the title.
- Ignore the words “A,” “An,” and “The” when putting your reference list in order.
- Begin the entry with the word “Anonymous” only if the work is signed “Anonymous.”
- If the reference has no author and is not signed “Anonymous,” then you can alphabetize it in the reference list based on the work’s title.
- If the title begins with a number, alphabetize the reference as though the number were spelled out. For example, you would alphabetize the number 22 as though it were written as the word “twenty-two.”
Alphabetical order of reference list example:
22 new apple varieties. (1997). Food Magazine . https://foodmag.com/article/1997/11/new-apple-varietites
Published October 28, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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To cite a source with no author or no date in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the title of the work, publisher if it is a book reference or volume and page details if it is a journal reference, and/or URL (uniform resource locator). The templates and examples for in-text citation and reference list entry of a book with no author and a book with no date are given below.
Book with no author
In-text citation template and example:
Books with no author in general, but not always, are given as parenthetical citations. If the book does not have an author, cite it by its title. If the title is too long, shorten the title in the in-text citation. Italicize the title in the in-text citation. Follow title case in the in-text citation even though the book title is in sentence case in the reference list entry. A parenthetical citation might look like this:
( Title of the Book , Publication Year)
( The Cultural Politics of Emotion , 2014)
Reference list entry template and example:
Title of the book . (Publication Year). Publisher.
The cultural politics of emotion . (2014). Edinburgh University Press
The title of the book is in italics and sentence case. While arranging the reference entry alphabetically in the reference list, arrange the entry by treating the title as author name. Remember that articles (A, An, and The), if present at the beginning of the title, should not be considered for alphabetization. When you have a numeral used in the title, consider it to be in the spelled-out form and arrange it accordingly in the reference list.
Book with no date
If you cite a book without a date, use “n.d.” in place of the year.
Author Surname (Publication Year)
Cohen, J. (n.d.). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
To cite a book with no author in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the title of the book, publisher, and/or URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of a book along with examples are given below:
In-text citation template and examples:
Books with no author in general, but not always, are given as parenthetical citations. If the book does not have an author, cite it by its title. If the title is too long, shorten the title in the in-text citation. Italicize the title in the in-text citation. Follow title case in the in-text citation even though the book title is set in sentence case in the reference list entry. A parenthetical citation might look like this:
( Addressing Uncertainty in Oil and Natural Gas Industry , 2009)
Title of the book . (Publication Year). Publisher. URL
Addressing uncertainty in oil and natural gas industry greenhouse gas inventories: Technical considerations and calculation methods . (2009). American Petroleum Institute. http://www.api.org/~/media/Files/EHS/climate-change/Addressing_Uncertainty.pdf
You need to set the title of the book in italics and sentence case. While arranging the reference entry alphabetically in the reference list, arrange the entry by treating the title as author name. Remember that articles (A, An, and The), if present at the beginning of the title, should not be considered for alphabetization. When you have a numeral used in the title, consider it to be in the spelled-out form and arrange it accordingly in the reference list.
APA Citation Examples
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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Web Page with No Author
- General Style Guidelines
- One Author or Editor
- Two Authors or Editors
- Three to Five Authors or Editors
- Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- Article in a Reference Book
- Edition other than the First
- Government Publication
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Journal Article with 3-7 Authors
- Journal Article 7 or more Authors
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Basic Web Page
- Web page from a University site
- Web Page with No Author
- Entry in a Reference Work
- Government Document
- Film and Television
- Youtube Video
- Audio Podcast
- Electronic Image
- Secondary Sources
- Citation Support
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Formatting Your Paper
Document from a Web site with no Author
- When citing sources that you find on the Internet you only need to include a retrieval date if the information you viewed is likely to change over time. If you reference an article from a news source (e.g., CNN, NBC, Washington Post) or a site that may experience continuous updates, you would then need to include a retrieval date.
- New in 7th edition: You must include the site name in your citation, unless the site name is the same as the corporate author. For example, a citation of a CDC report would not include the site name.
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FAQ: How do I cite a source with no author in APA style (in-text)?
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Answered By: Jennifer Harris Last Updated: Aug 19, 2022 Views: 96109
Per the APA, to determine authorship, ask "who is responsible for this content?" (Lee, 2010). Sometimes it isn't a person or persons who wrote or edited the material but rather an entity (government, associations, agencies, companies, etc). Therefore, the entity will be the author. For example, if you are referencing guidelines from the CDC regarding wearing masks, your author would be the Centers for Disease Control:
According to the Centers for Disease Control (2021), those who are not fully vaccinated (and over 2 years of age) should wear a mask in indoor, public spaces.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, October 25). Your Guide to Masks . https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/about-face-coverings.html This link opens in a new window
Lee, C. (2010, January 7). The generic reference: Who? APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/01/the-generic-reference-who.html This link opens in a new window
Citing Sources with No Author
When there is no author identified, use the first few words from the title of the source used, unless the author of the work is specifically identified as “Anonymous.” For more information, please review the “ Missing Reference Information This link opens in a new window ” page of the APA Style Blog.
The report condemned the practice (" Will returning to its founder's vision ," 2011).
The government was at fault for the results ( Anonymous , 2016).
Will returning to its founder's vision bring prosperity to the Detroit automotive giant, asks Ray Hutto. (2011, January 9). Sunday Times , 9.
Anonymous. (2016, August 14). Part IV: ISIS rising 2014-2015. New York Times Magazine , 43-50.
Examples of Citing Articles, Book Chapters, Web Pages, and Special Issue of Journal with No Author
The oil spill affected the entire Gulf Coast ("11 Facts," n.d.) .
Due to concerns about the omicron variant, Queen Elizabeth II will stay at Windsor Castle for the holidays (“Queen Elizabeth II,” 2021) .
11 facts about the BP oil spill . (n.d.). DoSomething. https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-bp-oil-spill This link opens in a new window
Queen Elizabeth II to skip Christmas trip amid omicron surge. (2021, December 20). AP News . https://apnews.com/article/coronavirus-pandemic-queen-elizabeth-ii-health-england-europe-72bdb703f2441fad41152cae96f4103c This link opens in a new window
- Use double quotes around the title or the first few words in the title.
- The comma goes inside the double-quotes.
- You can use the first few words of the title if the entire title is too long.
- The important words in the article title are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.
Examples of Citing Periodicals, Books, Reports, or Brochure Titles with No Author
The research findings (Do Drug Courts Work?, 2008) were...
Do Drug Courts Work?, (2008) stated...
Do drug courts work? Findings from drug court research . (2008, May 11). National Institute of Justice. https://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/Pages/work.aspx This link opens in a new window
- Italicize the title
- If the entire title is too long, use the first few words in the title.
- The important words in the title of the report are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word is capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.
- APA Guide (Shapiro Library)
- APA Research Paper Basics Video Tutorials This link opens in a new window (Atomic Learning - log in using your SNHU email username and password)
- APA Style Help This link opens in a new window (APA)
This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in your class assignments and projects.
To access Academic Support, visit your Brightspace course and select “Tutoring and Mentoring” from the Academic Support pulldown menu.
To access help with citations and more, visit the Academic Support via modules in Brightspace:
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APA In Text Citations
An in-text citation helps the reader of your work locate where you got the information from. Formatting an APA in-text citation might seem tricky but they are actually very easy.
Please use the information below and from Purdue OWL to assist you in making an accurate in-text citation to ensure you are not plagiarizing borrowed information.
In-text citations require the author's name, publication date, and page number the specific quote appears on (if available).
The basic components:
(Author Last Name(s), Date, p. number).
Using a signal phrase to introduce the quote:
Author Last Name(s) (Date) argue that "..." (p. number).
If referring to an idea from a work but not using a direct quotation or referring to an entire work, do NOT include the page number.
In-Text Citation Examples
One author, with signal phrase and without.
Denny (2017) contends that "inevitably, the data we have about current weather conditions are such that prediction errors are unavoidable, especially given the chaotic nature of key weather phenomena" (p. 126) .
When considering the data requirements for accurate weather forecasting, one must consider that "inevitably, the data we have about current weather conditions are such that prediction errors are unavoidable, especially given the chaotic nature of key weather phenomena" (Denny, 2017, p. 126).
Two authors, with signal phrase and without
Teague and Gallicchio (2017) argue that "the coming together and the pooling of resources--of research, of technology, and financially--is key to the next phase in the development of meteorology" (p. 225) .
Looking forward, "the coming together and the pooling of resources--of research, of technology, and financially--is key to the next phase in the development of meteorology" (Teague & Gallicchio, 2017, p. 225).
Three or more authors, with signal phrase and without
Research from Sandel et al. (2011) supports the conclusion that "small-ranged, weakly dispersing species in previously stable regions experiencing high future climate-change velocities will be at greatest extinction risk from anthropogenic climate change" (p. 663).
Research supports that "small-ranged, weakly dispersing species in previously stable regions experiencing high future climate-change velocities will be at greatest extinction risk from anthropogenic climate change" (Sandel et al., 2011, p. 663).
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How to Cite in APA with No Author
Last Updated: January 26, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been viewed 49,782 times. Learn more...
When you're doing research in preparation to write a paper, you may find valuable sources that don't list an individual author. However, you still need to cite these sources so your readers know that you didn't come up with the information you paraphrased from the source on your own. Generally, if you're using American Psychological Association (APA) citation style, you'll start your Reference List entry with the title of the work rather than the name of the author, then use a shortened version of the title for your parenthetical in-text citation.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Reference List Entry
- For example, if you're looking at a report published on the American Heart Association website that doesn't list an individual author, you would typically use the American Heart Association as the author.
- If you have a print source that doesn't list a specific person as the author, look at the copyright information. If a corporation, nonprofit organization, or educational institution claims the copyright in the work, use that name as the author.
- Example: The dark lord rises.
- Example: The dark lord rises. (2019, April 22).
- Example: The dark lord rises. (2019, April 22). Retrieved from http://www.thedailyprophet.org/dark-lord
APA Reference List Format – Online Source with No Author
Title of work in sentence case. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from URL
- Example: The rise of the dark lord . (2019). Paris, France: Beauxbatons Press.
APA Reference List Format – Print Source with No Author
Title of work in sentence case . (Year). City, State/Country: Publisher.
- Example: ("The Dark Lord,"
- Example: ("The Dark Lord," 2019).
Tip: If you quote directly from the source, type a comma after the date and then add the page number or page range where the quote can be found. Use "p." to indicate a single page or "pp." to indicate multiple pages.
- For example, you might write: In 2019, an article titled "The Rise of the Dark Lord" shed new light on the politics behind Voldemort's power grab.
- If you only included the title of the source in your paper, you would put a parenthetical immediately after the title with the year of publication. For example, you might write: Although there is no attributed author, "The Rise of the Dark Lord" (2019) is considered the most thorough documentation of Voldemort's attempted rise to power.
- If you quoted from the source directly, the parenthetical with the page number goes at the end of the quote. For example, you might write: According to "The Rise of the Dark Lord" (2019), Voldemort sought not only political control but also control over "the very hearts and minds of every witch and wizard young and old" (p. 92).
- Rarely, "Anonymous" will be cited as the author of a source you want to cite. In that case, use the word "Anonymous" as the author's name in both your Reference List entry and your in-text citation.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Sources without authors may be considered less trustworthy than those that do. If you can find the same information in a source that does have an author, your work will have more credibility. Be especially critical of online sources that do not have an author listed, unless you find them own a page you know to be reliable. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_author_authors.html
- ↑ https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/apa/booksandebooks
- ↑ https://aus.libguides.com/apa/apa-no-author-date
- ↑ https://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/web-page-no-author
- ↑ https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05/missing-pieces.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_author_authors.html
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GEOG 325: Conservation and Resource Management: APA Citation
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APA style is most commonly used in Psychology, Education & the Social Sciences .
A copy of the APA style manual is available in the Ready Reference area at the Research Help Desk on the first floor of the Academic Commons:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Call Number: Ref. BF76.7 .P83 2010 c.2
APA Research Paper Templates
- Purdue OWL Sample Paper
- APA Style Manual Sample Paper
APA In-Text Citation Examples
- Purdue OWL in Text Citations
- Cornell University in Text Citations
APA Citation Examples
Book by a single author.
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the book . Place of Publication: Publisher name. Example: Staff, F.E. (1969). The Valentine & Its Origins . New York: Frederick A. Praeger.
Article from a journal
With a DOI (Online or Hardcopy) (See below for an explanation of DOI) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. DOI number. Example: Ke, F., & Hoadley, C. (2009). Evaluating online learning communities. Educational Technology Research & Development , 57 (4), 487-510. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9120-2 Without a DOI (Hardcopy) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. Example: Carter, K. (1995). Teaching stories and local understandings. Journal of Educational Research , 88(6), 326-330. Without a DOI (Database or Website) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved from website Example: Goral, T. (2009). The Sustainable Learning Community. University Business , 12 (7), 18. Retrieved from http://www.universitybusiness.com/
Article from a magazine
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title , volume number(issue), pages. Example: Zimmer, C. (2009, July/August). The Brain. Discover , 30(7), 24-25.
Article from a newspaper
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title , pages. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas Example: Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of the website/article. Retrieved date of web retrieval, from URL. Example: Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. Retrieved August 2, 2007, from http://www.csun.edu/~hceng028/m-hist.txt.
DOI: Digital Object Identifier
The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.
You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy
The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page
When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address
When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's homepage. You may have to search for this website online.
Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)
Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one
Online APA Resources
Some useful online resources include:
APA Exposed (Harvard University Graduate School of Education)
American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Purdue OWL)
Research and Documenting Sources: APA Style: The Social Sciences The Diana Hacker site on the basics of APA style
What's New in the Sixth Edition - APA - APA Website Tutorial
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Cite using APA
- About APA 7
- Reference list
3-20 authors, more than 20 authors, group authors, no named author, multiple works by the same author from the same year, dates in in-text citations, citations including multiple works, page numbers and quotes.
- Articles in journals
- Articles in newspapers
- Book chapters
- Datasets and statistics
- Dictionaries, thesauruses and encyclopedias
- E-mails and letters
- Films and TV-shows
- Personal communication
- Radio and podcasts
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- Theses and essays
For in-text citations using APA 7 you use parentheses. The citation should include information about author and year of publication. Each in-text citation must correspond to a full entry in the reference list and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text.
There are two formats for in-text citations in APA 7, parenthetical and narrative.
- In parenthetical citations , you include the author's surname and publication year in the parentheses. If the parentesis is included at the end of a sentence the parenthesis is placed before the full stop.
- In narrative citations , the author's name is included in the text as part of the sentence and you only include the publication year in the parentheses directly following the name.
The ampersand (&) is used both in the parenthesis and in the reference list but not in your own text.
Note that the author refers to the person(s) or group(s) responsible for a work. An author may be an individual, multiple people, a group (institution, government agency, organization, etc.), or a combination of people and groups. If there is no information of a named author you instead include the title of the work and if there is no known year of publication you write n.d. for "no date".
Examples of in-text citations:
... the most important thing to remember (Lundgren et al., 2007).
... usually true (Lea & Street, 1998).
...final part (Bell, n.d.).
... wash your hands (Public Health Agency of Sweden, 2022).
According to Lundgren et al. (2007) it is mostly concerning ...
Lea and Street (1998) claim that ...
According to both Bell (n.d.) and Furuland (2010) you should...
The Public Health Agency (2022) recommend ...
If the work has 1-2 authors both are listed in the citation. You always write the names in the same order as they appear in the publication.
(Nutefall & Chadwell, 2012)
According to Bell (2006) there is...
According to Nutefall and Chadwell (2012) there is...
If the work has 3-20 authors only the first author is listed in the citation followed by "et al."
(Lundgren et al., 2007)
According to Lundgren et al. (2007) it is mostly ...
If the work has more than 20 authors only the first author is listed in the citation followed by" et. al." In the reference list only up to 20 authors are listed. If there are 21 authors or more you list the first 19 followed by three full stops and then the last author. Remember to always list the authors in the same order as they appear in the publication.
(Wiskunde et al., 2019)
According to Wiskunde et al. (2019) there is...
Reference list entry
Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics , 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537
Group authors are often government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and task forces. If the names of individuals are presented on the title page or cover of a work you treat the work as having individual authors. If only the name of the group is presented treat the group as the author. On a page from an organizational or government agency website, the organization or government agency is considered the author, unless otherwise specified.
The Swedish National Agency for Education, 2020).
In their report the Swedish National Agency for Education (2020) claim that...
Group author abbreviations
If a group author has a well-known abbreviation you can, if you want, use the abbreviation. As with any abbreviation you provide the full name the first time on first mention, followed by the abbreviation.
If you first mention the group name in a narrative citation you include the abbreviation before the year in the parenthesis, separated with a comma. If you first mention the group name in a parenthetical citation you include the abbreviation in square brackets, followed by a comma and the year.
In the reference list, however, you do not use the abbreviation but spell out the full name of the group. If a date of last update is available you include that in the reference but do not include a date of last review since it does not mean the content has been changed.
Supercomputers, computational models, statistics and research are used to produce forecasts (The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute [SMHI], 2021).
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI, 2021) is an expert authority with a mission to forecast climate change.
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (2021, April 30). Who we are. https://www.smhi.se/en/about-smhi/who-we-are/who-we-are-1.83748
If there is no information of a named individual or group author you instead include title and year of publication in your citation.
( Dolphins under threat , 1998).
In the film Dolphins under threat (1998) there is…
Dolphins under threat (1998). [DVD]. International Masters Publishers BV.
Works published the same year by the same author you list alphabetically based on title. Also give these entries a separating letter after the year of publication. The first letter is a, the following b, etc. The separating letters are also included in the reference list entry.
This is an example sentence (Butler, 2015a).
This is also an example sentence (Butler, 2015b).
In her work Butler (2015a) claims that...
However, Butler (2015b) also states that...
Reference list entries
Butler, J. (2015a). Notes toward a performative theory of assembly . Harvard University Press.
Butler, J. (2015b). Senses of the subject . Fordham University Press.
In in-text citations you only include year of publication, even if the reference list entry has a more specific date (e.g. year, month and day).
For works with no date you use the abbreviation "n.d." for no date in the in-text citation.
For works that have been accepted for publication but not been published yet you use "in press."
This is an example sentence (Harris, n.d.).
In his work Harris (n.d.) claims that...
If you wish to cite two or more publications in the same parenthesis you separate the citations with a semicolon. List the works alphabetically within the parenthesis. If you include several publications by the same author in the parenthesis you do not have to repeat the name.
If you use a direct quote you should always include on what page the quote can be found.
Follow these guidelines when you provide a page number:
- Use the abbreviation "p." for a single page (e.g. p. 51).
- Use the abbreviation "pp." for multiple pages in a range (e.g. pp. 51–54).
- Use a comma between the page numbers if the pages are discontinuous (e.g., pp. 48, 52).
"The objectification is always bound to remain partial, and therefore false,..." (Bourdieu, 1980, p. 226).
"One of the most important tasks of higher education is to..." (Rimsten, 2009, p. 45).
If there are no page numbers in the cited work you should use another way to specify where in the text the quote is found. Sometimes it helps to download the work in the pdf format. In this format there are usually page numbers. If not you can for example give chapter or paragraph.
Page number might be included in the in-text citation even if it is not a direct quote. It might for example be relevant if you discuss a particular part of the work.
(Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2008, p. 490)
(Nilsson, 2018, pp. 58-60; Eriksson, 2012, p. 72)
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In-Text Citations: Author/Authors
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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).
Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
Citing an Author or Authors
A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists).
Note : In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works from the same author, list the years of publication in sequence, with the earliest first. Provide in-press citations last. Only list authors' surnames once for each list of dates.
Following this pattern, multiple works from multiple authors can be contained within a single parenthetical. Separate authors' sources with a semicolon. Note, however, that the authors' names should be provided in the order they appear in the reference list regardless of when their sources were published.
Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.
(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
Citing Indirect Sources
If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.
If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
Sources Without Page Numbers
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like webpages, people can use the "find" function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.
Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination.
The APA Publication Manual describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the manual does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of APA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard APA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. For example, a sensible way to cite a virtual reality program would be to mimic the APA's guidelines for ordinary computer software .
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the APA Manual . In cases like this, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
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- How to cite a website in APA Style
How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples
Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 17, 2022.
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper , magazine , or dictionary ), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Formats differ for online videos (e.g. TED Talks ), images , and dissertations .
Use the buttons below to explore the format.
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Table of contents, citing an entire website, how to cite online articles, websites with no author, websites with no date, how to cite from social media, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.
When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site:
One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos.
For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page . However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry.
Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears.
Online articles from newspapers, magazines, and blogs
Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL.
The same format is used for blog posts. Just include the blog name where you would usually put the name of the magazine or newspaper.
Articles from online-only news sites
For articles from news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), italicize the name of the article and not the name of the site.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
When a web page does not list an individual author, it can usually be attributed to an organization or government . If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below.
If you can’t identify any author at all, replace the author name with the title of the page or article.
In the in-text citation , put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list. Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary.
When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations.
If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it.
As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound, links) in square brackets.
On some social media sites (such as Twitter ), users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets:
In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:
When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:
- Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
- Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Abbreviated heading: ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.
No publication date
If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).
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Caulfield, J. (2022, June 17). How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/website/
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Author–Date Citation System
Use the author–date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry.
In-text citations may be parenthetical or narrative .
- In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between names for a work with two authors or before the last author when all names must be included to avoid ambiguity.
- In narrative citations, always spell out the word “and.”
This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.
Number of authors to include in in-text citations
The format of the author element of the in-text citation changes depending on the number of authors and is abbreviated in some cases.
- For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.
- For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation (even the first citation).
The following table shows the basic in-text citation styles:
a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text.
Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles
- when two works in a paper would both abbreviate to the same “et al.” form (spell out as many surnames as needed to disambiguate)
- when multiple works in a paper have an identical author (or authors) and publication year (append letters to the years)
- when the first authors of multiple references in a paper share the same surname but have different initials (use initials in the in-text citations)
Dates in a citation
- The year in the in-text citation should match the year in the reference list entry.
- Use only the year in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date (e.g., year, month, and day).
- For works with no date, use “n.d.” in the in-text citation.
- For works that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been published, use “in press.”
Repeating a citation
When repeating a citation, show the entire citation; do not, for example, include only a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not used in APA Style). Instead, use the following guidelines:
- Include the author(s) and year for every parenthetical in-text citation.
- Do not repeat the year for narrative in-text citations the second and subsequent times they appear in a single paragraph. Follow this guideline with each new paragraph (i.e., include the year in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph).
- However, if you cite multiple works by the same author or authors, regardless of the publication years, include the date in every in-text citation to prevent ambiguity. For example, if you cite Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with every citation, even when one of the references is cited multiple times in a single paragraph.
Further guidelines for in-text citations
- Each in-text citation must correspond to only one reference list entry.
- Do not include suffixes such as “Jr.” in the in-text citation.
- For works with an unknown author (see Section 9.12), include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
- Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) includes more than 100 reference examples, each of which includes examples of the parenthetical and narrative citations.
- For more guidance and examples, see the Publication Manual .
- Citation Generator
- Style Guides
- Chicago/Turabian Format
Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
Do you want to include a website in your APA 7 style paper, but it has no author? How you cite a website in APA with no author is to use the article’s title instead. Although it is acceptable to include information from sources with no author listed in your APA website citation, make sure it at least comes from a reliable website, such as a government entity, university, or reputable organization.
How To Reference a Website With No Author Name Listed – APA 7th Edition
Online citations in APA style have four different components: the author, date, title, publisher, and URL. Many times, especially in local newspapers, articles are printed as staff articles or without any author’s name listed. If you do not know the author’s name or the article’s date, you can still cite a webpage in your APA 7 style reference list by using the title of the article.
Title of the article. (year, Month day). News Organization. URL (no period after the URL)
APA News Website With No Author – Reference List Example
Concert raises thousands for earthquake victims. (2019, August 9). The News Review. http://www.news-ridgecrest.com/news/story.pl?id=0000010343
500,000 Oregon residents evacuate statewide due to wildfires . (2020, September 10). HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/oregon-residents-evacuations-wildfire
APA Journal Website With No Author – Reference List Example
Language learning with the unique language used today . (2019, August 20). Psychological Review , 1-15. http://www.psychologyreview.org/language_learning_as_language_us
APA Magazine Website With No Author – Reference List Example
Stars who battled eating disorders . (2020, August 20). Us Weekly . https://www.usmagazine.com/celebrity-body/pictures/stars-who-battled-eating-disorders
Citing a Website With No Author & No Date – APA
When making an APA website citation with no author and date, you use n.d., which means no date, in the place of the year.
Title of the publication. (n.d.). Website. URL
APA Website No Author, No Date – Reference List Example
FREE MLA & APA citation generator (n.d.). Bibliography.com. http://bibliography.com
How to Cite a Website With an Anonymous Author – APA
Another situation you might encounter in your APA research paper citations is an anonymous author of a website. Rather than listing the title as you would for no author, you use “anonymous” as your author.
Anonymous. (Date). Title. Publication. URL
APA Citation for a Website Anonymous Author – Reference List Example
Anonymous. (n.d.). Understanding the human brain. Psychology Today . https://www.psychologytoday.com/understanding_the_human_brain/
How to In-Text Cite a Website With No Author – APA
When creating an in-text citation in APA without an author, you use the title. For the in-text citation, use only the first few words if it’s a long title. Use the full title if it’s a shorter title.
In-Text Citation Example for APA No Author
( Concert Raises Thousands , 2019)
(“Language Learning,” 2019)
In-Text Citation Example for Anonymous
APA Citations for Online Articles With Organization Author
For some websites, the organization is the author of the article. In this case, you’ll include the organization’s name for the author in your APA citations.
Reference List Example for Organization Author
Experis. (2019, August 1). 20 Tips for great job interviews. https://www.experisjobs.us/exp_us/en/career-advice/20-tips-job-interviews.htm
If there is no date available, use n.d. in place of the year.
Experis. (n.d.). 20 Tips for great job interviews. https://www.experisjobs.us/exp_us/en/career-advice/20-tips-job-interviews.htm
In-Text Citation Examples for Organization Authors
(Experis, 2019) (Experis, n.d.)
Tips for Evaluating Online Articles
It doesn’t matter if you’re writing a short essay or a long research paper; you can use online articles with no authors as sources. Just be sure to include reliable primary and secondary sources to back up your research. Therefore, your research should focus on finding authoritative sources .
- One way to establish authority is to inspect the author’s name and professional background. For example, if an article describes how to treat a medical condition, you would undoubtedly want to know the author’s credentials before following any advice.
- Although you may find articles with no author listed on reputable sites, it is better to establish the authority of your article by using sources written by established authors. If you find a random article that seems “formula” created with no listed author or references, bypass that source and choose a better one for your APA format paper.
No Author, No Problem
When it comes to creating a website citation in your reference list or in-text without an author, it’s not as hard as you think. You need to make sure you follow APA rules for citations and include the title first. When it comes to citations, APA has every situation covered. And if you need more information about your APA reference page, check out the APA reference page guide .
Finding Public Domain Sources for Your Class Essay
FAQ Creating APA Citations for Websites With No Author
How do you reference a website with no author.
To reference a website without an author in APA, the title of the article moves up to the first position in the citation. An example of a no author citation looks like: Title of the article. (year, Month day). Website. URL (no period after the URL)
How do you cite a website in APA 7th edition no author?
When you have a website in APA 7 with no author, you use the title, date, publisher, and URL. There is no period after the URL in the citation. Additionally, a website title is in italics.
How do I cite websites in APA format?
To cite a website in APA format, you need the author, date, title of the article, name of website, and URL. You will not place a period after the URL and the website article title is in italics. A web citation example looks like: Betts, J. (n.d.) How to Cite a Website. Bibliography.com. https://www.bibliography.com/how-to-cite-a-website/
How do you cite an organization in APA with no author?
When an article is authored by an organization in APA, then you use the name of the author in place of the author. You write the organization's full name with no acronyms. An organization example citation in APA looks like: Organization. (Date). Title of the article. URL
How do you reference a website in APA with no author or date?
When an article reference in APA has no author and no date, you start with the title of the article then you follow it with (n.d.) which stands for no date. An example of a citation with no author and no date looks like: Title of the article. (n.d.). Organization. URL
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APA Poster Presentation, Meeting, and Symposia Citations
Format an apa powerpoint reference slide, citing a reference book in apa, apa magazine article citation examples.
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Apa quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Citing Business Reports
- Other Formats
- APA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.
Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.
For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Web page with author:
Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).
Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html
Web page with organizational author:
More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).
World Health Organization. (2018, March 22). Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Web page with no date:
Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by Multiple Authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three or more authors: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
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APA 6th Edition Citation Style
No author / no date.
- APA 6th Edition Guide
- Annual Report
- Article, Journal
- Article, Journal (with DOI)
- Article, Journal (without DOI)
- Book, Chapter in edited work
- Book, Electronic
- Dissertation / Thesis
- Dissertation / Thesis (Database)
- Events, Live
- Newspaper Article
- Newspaper Article (Database)
- Newspaper Article (Website)
- Podcast, Audio
- Reference Work
- Reference Work (Database)
- Website Document
- Video, Online
Newspaper article (from the newspaper’s website) with no author
Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:
- Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
- If there is no author, the article title comes first.
- For titles of newspapers, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
- Use the URL of the homepage of the newspaper to avoid non-working URLs.
- It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.
Barcelona to ban burqa in municipal buildings. (2010, June 14). Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com
- Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline- style” capitalization, and the year.
(“Barcelona to Ban Burqa,” 2010)
- Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
- There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.
“Barcelona to Ban Burqa” (2010) contends that the move is aimed at all dress that impedes identification.
Website with no author and no date
- If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.
United Arab Emirates architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uaeinteract.com/
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style" capitalization, and the year.
(“United Arab Emirates Architecture,” n.d.)
“United Arab Emirates Architecture” (n.d.) describes building materials used in early settlements.
Journal or magazine article (from library database or online) with no author
- For titles of journals or magazines, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
- Use the URL of the homepage of the journal or magazine to avoid non-working URLS
Famine relief: Just a simple matter of supplying food? (2002). Nutrition Noteworthy , 5(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/uclabiolchem_nutritionnoteworthy
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.
(“Famine Relief,” 2002)
“Famine Relief” (2002) examines the causes of poverty and famine in Africa.
Works With an Anonymous Author
When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous,” cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date:
In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous
Anonymous. (2010). Food safety shake-up needed in the USA. The Lancet , 375(9732), 2122. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com
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How to cite a pdf without a date in mla.
May 25, 2022
Asked by: Heather Mitchell
How do you cite a pdf with no date in mla.
If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title. Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation.
- No author: Start with the source title.
- No title: Provide a description of the source.
- No date: Provide an access date for online sources; omit for other sources.
How do you cite no date in MLA?
If no date is provided, skip that information . It’s recommended that you add the date you accessed the work at the end of the citation. Access date is given by putting the word “Accessed” followed by the Day Month (Shortened) Year the work was accessed/viewed.
How do you cite a PDF in MLA format?
Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine/Newspaper Name, Day Month Year, pp. Pages, URL, PDF file or PDF download .
How do you cite only a PDF?
In a MLA citation, to cite a downloaded PDF, change the medium description to “PDF download.” To cite a PDF file available to view online, change the location description to the URL leading to the PDF. In an APA citation, cite a PDF the same way you would cite a webpage, including the URL leading to the PDF.
How do you cite with no date?
Provide the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the title and source . Author. (n.d.).
How do you in text cite without a date?
If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”) . Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).
What if a source does not have a date?
If a source is missing both the author or publication date, the citation will include the title, “n.d.” for “no date,” and the source . Make sure that there is no identifiable author. Sometimes the author is a company or other group rather than an individual.
What should you do if you cite a work that does not list a publication date?
The MLA Style Center
If the web source you are citing does not list a publication date, omit the “Publication date” element from your entry . You may, however, wish to include an access date in the optional-element slot. Read more on including access dates for online works.
How do you cite a website with no author and no date?
Use title in place of author. Use “n.d.” (“no date”) in place of date . No author, date, or title.
How DOI cite a PDF from a website?
Citing a PDF Document
PDFs can be referenced and cited similarly to printed articles and books. This means that the reference entry will include the author, publication date, title, publisher name, and a source URL or DOI .
How do you cite a PDF with no author or date in APA?
Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:
- Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
- If there is no author, the article title comes first.
- If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.
- It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.
How do you cite a PDF with no author?
Citing in APA a Periodical in PDF
(Date). Title of article (PDF). Title of the online Periodical, volume number (issue number where it is available), pages, and the URL address or DOI where the information is retrieved.
How do you in-text cite MLA with no author?
If no author is listed, use a shortened title of the work . Put the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (such as books or entire websites), and include page numbers (if there are any).
How do you find the author of a PDF?
First, right-click anywhere in the PDF and select Document Properties . Then check the details on the Description tab . In this example, the full title was listed (1), along with the correct authoring body at the time the document was created (2), and the date it was created (3).
How do you remove the date from a PDF?
Right-click on your PDF file, select “Properties,” open the “Details” tab and then click the “Remove Properties and Personal Information” link .
How do you find the date of a PDF?
View document properties.
- Open the PDF in Acrobat.
- Choose File.
- Select Properties.
- Click the Description tab.
- Find the creation date and time near the title and author.
How do I remove metadata from a PDF?
How to Remove Metadata from a PDF Using Adobe Acrobat
- Run Adobe Acrobat as an Administrator. …
- When the program loads, go to “File” and select “Properties.”
- A window will appear. …
- This will display the PDF’s metadata. …
- Choose to remove it, and then click “OK.”
How do you hide that a PDF has been edited?
Click on ‘Edit’ in the upper toolbar. Click on the ‘Redact’ option. Choose the way to hide content: ‘Blackout’ or ‘Erase’. Drag over and select the fragment of text you want to hide.
How do I save a PDF without metadata?
To create a PDF without metadata, print your document to a PDF printer . If you have any PDF program installed on your computer, your printer list will include a PDF printer. The print to PDF method “flattens” the PDF document, removing any content not visible on the screen. No metadata is saved.
Can you tell if PDF has been edited?
If you go to the document properties of a PDF file (control or command d), if the proper metadata is available, it will list the creation date and time and modified date and time. This can help you determine if a pdf file has been modified since creation.
Can you track changes made to a PDF?
Did you know that you could actually track changes and monitor your PDF ? Coding is not required and these changes can be as simple as showing markups on the review tab similar in Word. The software you will need for this is Adobe Reader, free software that can read, open, and annotate your PDF file.
How do I change metadata in a PDF?
Choose File > Properties, click the Description tab, and then click Additional Metadata . Select Advanced from the list on the left. To edit the metadata, do any of the following, and then click OK. To add previously saved information, click Append, select an XMP or FFO file, and click Open.
Does PDF have metadata?
In simple words, PDF metadata is data about a PDF document . It provides additional information about a PDF document, including but not limited to, file name of the document, its title, date of creation, author, title, copyright information and what application was used to create the file.
How do I remove metadata?
Windows: How to Easily Remove Metadata from Files via File…
- Go to File Explorer.
- Select one or more files in Windows Explorer.
- Right-click > select Properties from the contextual menu.
- Go to the Details tab > click Remove Properties and Personal Information to open the Remove Properties dialog.
Citing in-text when there are no authors APA 7th ed. uses the author-date citation system for citing references in-text. In parenthetical citations, this structure includes the author's last name and the publication year (with a comma separating them) in parentheses. In narrative citations, the author's last name is incorporated into the sentence.
Webpage citations in APA Style consist of five components: author, publication date, title, website name, and URL. Unfortunately, some of these components are sometimes missing. For instance, there may be no author or publication date. This article explains how to handle different kinds and combinations of missing information.
APA in-text citations with multiple authors No author, date or page number Multiple sources in one parenthesis Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations Citing indirect sources ("as cited in") Frequently Asked Questions APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes Parenthetical vs. narrative citations
APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Web Page with No Author Journals Database Audiovisual Media Figures/Images Social Media Other Sources Citation Support Additional Citation Styles & Support Formatting Your Paper Document from a Web site with no Author Helpful Tips
In the in-text citation provide the surname of the author but do not include suffixes such as "Jr.". As Ahmed (2016) mentions... (Ahmed, 2016) Citing Non-Standard Author Categories A Work by Two Authors Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work.
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Citing Sources with No Author When there is no author identified, use the first few words from the title of the source used, unless the author of the work is specifically identified as "Anonymous." For more information, please review the " Missing Reference Information " page of the APA Style Blog. Example
When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry: Example: All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/ Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
How do you cite a reference to a book when there is no author or editor? (6th edition) This page has been archived and is no longer being updated regularly. Last updated: August 2020 Date created: May 2009 The content I just read: Is Helpful Is Not Helpful APA Style Contacts Cite this
APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format. In-Text Citations: The Basics. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors. Reference List: Basic Rules.
NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 2003).
In-text citations require the author's name, publication date, and page number the specific quote appears on (if available).. The basic components: (Author Last Name(s), Date, p. number). Using a signal phrase to introduce the quote:. Author Last Name(s) (Date) argue that "..."(p. number). If referring to an idea from a work but not using a direct quotation or referring to an entire work, do ...
Generally, if you're using American Psychological Association (APA) citation style, you'll start your Reference List entry with the title of the work rather than the name of the author, then use a shortened version of the title for your parenthetical in-text citation.  Method 1 Reference List Entry Download Article 1
APA In-Text Citation Examples Purdue OWL in Text Citations. Cornell University in Text Citations ... Without a DOI (Hardcopy) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. Example: Carter, K. (1995). Teaching stories and local understandings.
Each in-text citation must correspond to a full entry in the reference list and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. There are two formats for in-text citations in APA 7, parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, you include the author's surname and publication year in the parentheses.
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company's website—use the organization's name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations. When no author at all can be determined ...
Each in-text citation must correspond to only one reference list entry. Do not include suffixes such as "Jr." in the in-text citation. For works with an unknown author (see Section 9.12), include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
In-Text Citation Example for APA No Author (Concert Raises Thousands, 2019) ("Language Learning," 2019) In-Text Citation Example for Anonymous (Anonymous, 2020) Note: Italicize in-text citations in APA that are italicized in the reference list. Quotations go around entries that are not italicized, like magazine articles, per section 8.14 of ...
Using In-text Citation. Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).
When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, "headline" style capitalization, and the year. ("Famine Relief," 2002) Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative. There must be a total match between the reference list and ...
How do you find the author of a PDF? First, right-click anywhere in the PDF and select Document Properties. Then check the details on the Description tab. In this example, the full title was listed (1), along with the correct authoring body at the time the document was created (2), and the date it was created (3).