The Working Life Essay
Full-time and life essay.
1. Identify some of the challenges that Chris Gardner faced when trying to sell his bone density scanners.
Essay On Work Is A Blessing
Working set people free from their stressed, frustrated, debts, loneliness, and lead them to a happy life. Even rich people need a job because doing nothing made them bored and could not have peace in their life. According to Honore said “I have come to believe that people without jobs are not free” (page.137). It is totally true that “people without jobs are not free” because people without a job became homeless, street gang members, and slave. Also, people without jobs became to do suicide because they felt their life was empty and felt depressed.
Paper On Pieper, Work, And Wonder. The World Of Work And
The world of work and the world of wonder are two worlds that play a prominent role in the lives of humans. In that sense they are commensurable to one another, yet at the same there there is a clear distinction between how the two worlds worlds operate that make them incommensurable. The purpose of this paper is to to argue that the world of work is incommensurable with the world of wonder in certain senses, but commensurable in others. This will be done by providing evidence from Leisure, the Basis of Culture by Josef Pieper, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, and works of Plato.
The Epidemic of Affluenza is Sweeping Through America Essay
It seems as if they have everything they might possibly want. Through the years, they have become obsessed with trying to fulfill themselves and find happiness. They believe buying one more item would give them eternal happiness yet fails miserably. The pursuit of happiness through wealth is a common symptom in the affluent which has become an insane obsession.
A Life Beyond Do What You Love Essay
The Sunday Night Blues: a case about 59% of Americans come down with every Sunday night before starting the work week ahead. These people absolutely dread going to work every week, the majority of them wishing they could be able to quit their jobs and chase after their passions. A highly credible philosophical professor named Dr. Gordon Marino, made an entire article arguing why it would be inadequate and unethical for someone to quit a job that is necessary in order to provide for something bigger than oneself, that working or indulging in comfortable positions makes people miss out on the traditional connection of talent and duty. In Dr.Marino 's article, " A Life Beyond Do What You Love", he creates an effective argument about the traditional standard of self-fulfillment which is the capability of being able to avoid indulging in personal interests in order to serve something bigger than oneself. He builds his main argument by using anecdotes and hypophora 's to introduce the central investigation of his article, then addresses strong counter-arguments to his stance, and finally, uses highly credible historians to appeal ethically to the audience. He adopts a philosophical tone in order to appeal to similar experiences or thoughts his adult audience may have.
Personal Goals And Accomplishments Of The Great Gatsby By F. Scott B. Benjamin Franklin
"Money has never made man happy, nor will it, there is nothing in its nature to produce happiness. The more of it one has, the more one wants." (Benjamin Franklin). We are never satisfied when we are focused on objects as opposed to fulfillment in life. People are constantly striving for fulfillment, we always want the next big thing, the latest and greatest, life has become a competition for who “seems” the most fulfilled. True fulfillment comes from within. It’s not always material things or luxurious lifestyles that money can buy, it’s more deep than that its pure happiness and satisfaction for attaining your own personal goals and achievements.
Alain De Botton's The Pleasures And Sorrows Of Work
He conveys the idea regarding man’s value of work, it’s shaping of our identity and how it is a timeless issue spread across several historical societies. He alludes to the historical figure Aristotle and his philosophy regarding the ‘structured incompatibility between satisfaction and a salaried position.’ While enhancing the writing’s credibility, the reference demonstrates the great historical relevance of the controversial literal value in work, based on salary in today’s world. The lexical chain of the work-related alliterative words ‘structural’, ‘satisfaction’ and ‘salary’ implies a sense of false hope, as the extract talks about the philosophy of work over time, from having a lack of enjoyment to ‘everyone can discover happiness through work and love’ in the final paragraph. Alain further alludes to the biblical story of Adam and Eve as he reveals work as an ‘appropriate and immovable means of expiating the sins of Adam.’ Through this he acknowledges the first man as a figure related to the hardship of physical labour; a punishment as a result of their sins. The extended biblical allusion in the final paragraph, with the mention of ‘discreetly coiled’, establishes the image of a snake; a symbol of evil and deception as in the story of Adam and Eve, reaffirming the idea of false
Persuasive Speech: Can Money Buy Happiness?
Money is the root cause of all evils and satisfaction is the only key to happiness. Accumulate enough wealth to enable you to lead a respectable life. We should work for social and no because believe are footprints in the sand of time.
Fatal: A Short Story Of A Yzy Man
There once was a man named Yzyal in 325 B.C. he was a very lazy man. Who did not believe in doing work. He thought everyone should live a life stress free and relaxed and despised those who always were trying so hard. He didn’t understand why, over money? ,What people thought of them?, Fame? He couldn’t comprehend any reason why you would wanna work he was always putting things off because he was too lazy to do them. People judge him because of this they despise him because what he was doing was considered sloth. This is something very looked down upon because everyone should have to contribute some how to ancient greece. People were always calling him out for how lazy he was and they would always make his life harder but he didn’t
The Beautiful And The Damned Research Paper
The saying ‘money can’t buy you happiness’ is very accurate. A key example of this can be seen in many studies done on people’s lives after they win the lottery. Approximately seventy percent of people who win end up unhappy, some even eventually commit suicide. Those with new found wealth often discover some people are only around for their money. According to studies, it’s common for the wealthy to feel that they are superior to people of a lower class, they can also feel a sense of entitlement. These traits can put a strain on their relationships with other people. In the pages that follow this paper will explain that possessing material items such as money, may bring temporary satisfaction, but cannot provide someone with true happiness.
American Households Don T Save Money
Although many people believe this, we still glance at the well-off and envy their lifestyle because they seem much more contended than the poor. However, we should realize that it is only this way because riches allow contentment easier to find. In other words, the wealthy are seemingly more happy than the needy because they have everything they could ask for and their wealth allows them to find satisfaction easier than the poor can. But we must remember that we ultimately find peace in ourselves and our spiritual and emotional wealth than we ever can in our earthly
SURVIVING IN TODAY’S JOB MARKET Essay
The job market today is difficult for both employees and employers. It hurts emotionally and financially to lose a job, and it is equally painful to have to terminate someone. Both sides struggle. If you work for an organization that may be facing layoffs, being prepared helps. Below are some tips
Economics of Daily Life Essay
Economics is a study of how society manages its scarce resources. The literal translation for economy is “one who manages a household.” “In an increasingly complex world connected by social and economic interaction and interdependence, news of stock market fluctuations, consumer confidence scores, and various economic indicators fill the media” (Broome & Preston-Grimes, 2011). This means that economics is everywhere, even in a home. Every household makes decisions that follow the economic principles. There are tradeoffs, and incentives. Supply and demand regularly show up in a household setting, as do decisions regarding limits on price and time. I
Work Of Work Life Balance Essay
In today’s work arena, work life balance can be defined as the balance between one’s career, and personal development. The key definitions illustrate how efficiently, people can carry on their endeavors, without compromising their work. Work can be taxing at times and, people may engage in their job responsibilities, in such a way that they have little or no time to do non-work activities (Allen, 2015). The notion of work-life balance is gauged through an individual’s investment of time into work-related tasks. In my experience and knowledge, work life balance is measured by how capable one is, in engaging in personal, recreational activities in a manner that do not take away from one’s work productivity, while performing optimally at this job.
Discuss Work & Negative Views about It. What Are the Qualities of Satisfying Work?
To discuss work, one must first of all try to define work. Once one starts to think about this definition however, one finds that there are as many definitions of work as there are people. Experts such as sociologists have been trying to reach a definite answer, yet they can never agree between them. Although it is accepted that work is that time which is not leisure, one is then confounded with trying to find a definition for leisure. Stanley Parker reached a compromise by dividing our time in five sections, merging from pure work to pure leisure. However this difficulty in defining work should point out that these many different definitions lead to different attitudes, with the result that one can never generalise.
- Seven deadly sins
- Ancient Greece
- Meaning of life
The World of Work is Rapidly Changing IELTS Essay
The world of work is rapidly changing and employees cannot depend on having the same job or the same working conditions for life. Discuss the possible causes and suggest ways to prepare people to work in the future.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You should write at least 250 words.
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This essay was asked on Recent IELTS Exam 20 January 2022 India Question Answers
The World of Work is Rapidly Changing IELTS Essay – Model Essay 1
These days, people’s workplaces are constantly changing and evolving to meet the demands of modern society. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities of jobs are also undergoing changes to adapt to new ways of working and living. This essay will discuss the possible reasons for these changes and suggest some ways that people can better prepare themselves for their future careers.
Firstly, due to the developments in hi-tech machines and artificial intelligence, millions of people all around the world are losing their jobs and being replaced by automated processes. For example, millions of factory workers have lost their jobs because they have been replaced by machines that are able to do their job quicker and more eﬀectively. Furthermore, as a result of the ever-increasing desire to cut expenses and increase profits, many jobs are being outsourced to countries where the wages are lower. For instance, when a person calls a tech support helpline in an English-speaking country, they will most likely be connected to someone in another country, like India or the Philippines, where the wages are lower.
However, there are a number of ways that people can prepare for changes in their workplaces in the future. Firstly, students preparing to leave high school need to be advised about the sustainability of the career path they are choosing. To illustrate, autonomous vehicles are predicted to replace most delivery and taxi driver jobs in the very near future, so this is not a job that someone should expect to have for a very long time. Furthermore, while some jobs are being replaced by technology, many jobs are simply incorporating technology into their process, and therefore people will need to be able to keep up to date with these changes. To help achieve this, specific courses could be designed to help educate people on the use of modern technology in their workplaces.
In conclusion, although there are many changes in the workplace these days, educating people to carefully choose their career and to keep up to date with modern technology, is the key to avoiding any major problems.
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The World of Work is Changing Rapidly Essay – Model Essay 2
It is irrefutable that the work scenario is altering at a fast pace. Working conditions are also different and the process of job-hopping is very common. This essay shall delve into the possible causes for these changes and suggest ways to prepare for work in the time to come.
To begin with, the development of science and technology has changed the structure of work. For example, people no longer need to do some heavy work by themselves. Instead, they can use machines. Secondly, competition has become intense and people have to constantly update themselves with the latest materials and methods. Sometimes they cannot compete with the new techno-savvy workforce and so have to change jobs out of compulsion.
Furthermore, we belong to an era of consumerism. Being surrounded by so many choices, people today want to buy new things and for that, they do multiple jobs. In addition, the 24/7 society of today provides us the opportunity to work day and night. For instance, in earlier times, there were very few jobs which were round-the-clock jobs. But, today, globalization has brought in a multitude of options of working day and night. The line between day and night has become dim and people have become workaholics.
There could be many suggestions to prepare for work in the future. People should have a set goal in their mind and get training accordingly. Moreover, it is important to draw a line somewhere. The stress and strain of the fast modern workplace is leading many to nervous breakdowns. In the developed countries, a new term called downshifting has already come where after a certain stage, people are saying ‘no’ to promotions and showing contentment with less. We should also realize that if we stick to one job, then also life can be more stable and we can enjoy our leisure also. ieltsxpress
To put in a nutshell, I pen down saying that, although work conditions are different today and we have a need to update our knowledge regularly, we can plan our life in a meticulous way and have a balance between work and leisure.
Also Check: There is a General Increase in Anti-Social Behaviour Essay
IELTS Writing Task 2 on Jobs – Model Essay 3
In today’s modern world, people tend to change jobs more often than before and don’t want to work permanently in one environment. I would like to explore the sources of this issue and suggest several solutions for future work.
Firstly, due to the global recession, many employers have to downsize and restructure their businesses. This leads to a number of redundant employees being forced to leave their jobs and find other ones. Another reason is that, as living costs are getting higher and higher, people want to earn as much money as they can to meet their needs. Hence, they seek better opportunities and well-paid jobs everywhere, every day. Some also look for new challenges. Last but not least, thanks to new technology, people nowadays are able to access information more easily, including information about job recruiting.
One of my suggestions for this problem is that if we can create a comfortable working environment and build strong relationships between colleagues; and between managers and workers. These will make employees find it harder to leave. To archive this, courses such as leadership training and communication skill training should be carried out to help supervisors lead their team efficiently without causing any stress, and help employees fit inconveniently. ielts xpress
By the way of conclusion, I would like to state that change job is one the remarkable signs of technological times and soft skill training courses possibly help people adapt to the working environment instead of finding a way to escape it.
The Workplace is Changing Rapidly – Model Essay 4
Work culture lately has been dynamically transformed, mainly due to improvements in technology like transport and communication. Job security has become a dicey issue as employees now need to keep themselves updated with the advancements around them. This essay shall further explain the reasons and offer probable solutions. ieltsxpress.com
In the last two decades, we have seen a remarkable spread of technology in all wakes of life. With easy access to the Internet and computers, work has become faster and easier. Innovation of office tools is encouraged everywhere so as to not let anything hinder the growth of trade and commerce. With each task becoming effortless, manual intervention at many places has been reduced. Ergo, rising insecurity is seen among employees. Additionally, employees are expected to multi-task in their jobs making it more difficult for older workers to sustain.
The remedial measures for such a situation are very few as of now. First of all, state-of-the-art employee training centers to help the employees stay well-versed with the high-tech upgradations. To solve this problem from an earlier level, universities should start imparting practical training in their curriculum, with the know-how of current on-the-job scenarios to prepare potential workers better. All this needs to be done as the employees losing their jobs also lose financial security for their families, and it is very difficult to start again from ground zero.
To conclude, I’d say we should accept the ever-changing technological advancements as they’re unlikely to stop. Better would be to equip ourselves and become flexible accordingly so as to welcome such developments.
How The World of Work is Changing – Model Essay 5
It is indeed true that the world has been increasing by loops and bound for a long time and very few employees can handle obstacles in their near future. Because it has some reason. However, to my notion, employees need some specification training for it.
There are various reasons behind why it has increased, first and foremost, in globalization time every company wants to grow fast. Secondly, important roles are being played by studying on the contemporary world. that is why every employee ought to be cognizant of every field. so that he/she can do everything for their job. Moreover, technology has changed every life completely. for instance mobile, internet and computer are very prominent in the work field. it helps the employee to make their job easy. Finally, in today’s time, we can see a person living in India and working for a company located in us.
on contrary, every problem has a solution there is some way which can help employees for their job. to start with they must be taught English because English is a basic requirement for learning any new thing. Moreover, they must be friendly with their peer group members. in addition, management skills, internet, and computer knowledge must be important. these all things give help them in their upcoming time.
To sum up, I firmly believe that there are ample chances in today’s work environment. However, by following some training. we can prepare employees for the near future growth and make spectacular culture.
Ideas for World of Work
Also Check: It is Impossible to help all people in the world IELTS Essay
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A world of work
A WORLD OF WORK Outsourcing means that companies hand work they used to perform in-house to outside firms. ADVANTAGES: v bring down costs è lift profits and boost growth v specialisation Due to the advance in technology products have become more complex which made it difficult for one company to do all the work itself. In order to manage the complexity of these products the astute idea of outsourcing represents an ideal solution (e.g. car industry) DISADVANTAGES: v drain of jobs, v higher organisational costs è overview, Some years ago this phenomenon used to be hailed as a wonder of the new economy. Nowadays the opinion is less exuberant. Same forces of globalisation are blamed for relentless export of jobs from rich to poorer countries (depressing proof for the declining competitiveness in engineering skills) GLOBALISATION A network between businesses all over the world is established in order to make use of the strengths of different technologies and cultures. NEGATIVE ASPECTS: v fierce competition, v anxiety among people, v possibilities of expansion for smaller companies are restricted (monopolies) The movement of work abroad agitates worriers in the West and is a cause of concern among the public. Global business work is farmed out to other companie...
In this essay, the author
- Opines that outsourcing is an ideal solution to manage the complexity of complex products due to advances in technology.
- Explains that this phenomenon used to be hailed as a wonder of the new economy.
- Explains that globalisation is blamed for the relentless export of jobs from rich to poorer countries (depressing proof of the declining competitiveness in engineering skills).
- Explains that a network of businesses is established to make use of the strengths of different technologies and cultures.
- Explains that the movement of work abroad agitates worriers in the west and is a cause of concern among the public.
- Explains that work is farmed out to other companies which cam perform this work and fulfil required tasks best. they then search for competent companies and assess their performance.
- Explains that companies follow the traditional way of doing business. all work is done by one company.
- Opines that outsourcing is an irrepressible movement which will dominate the world market in future. companies must create a balance between traditional way of business and promising idea of outsourcing.
- Opines that by reorganising production intelligently, multinationals can hope to lower their costs by over 50 %. white-collar work is outsourced due to the internet and cheap and abundant telecommunications bandwidth.
- Opines that russia, china, and india will emerge as essential hubs for services such as software engineering and market research.
- Explains that outsourcing emerged on the financial arena during the 1980s and has since been spreading. globalization provided a new component leading to the strengthening of resources, skill and labor specializations across the world.
- Explains that the concept of outsourcing has been a subject of debate between politicians and citizens of the united states.
- Explains that businesses have been able to extract a multitude of benefits through outsourcing which has in turn created employment opportunities along with it.
- Explains how alternative organizations began to source their services to countries like asia and china where staggering population makes the provision of low-cost labor more convenient. the native labor developed the best hostility for outsourcing.
- Opines that the controversy that was antecedently being won by the advocates of outsourcing has now taken a totally different twist.
- Opines that america should create intelligent use of scarce natural resources by producing extremely subtle product like airplanes and innovative software system systems instead of concentrating on the production of less advanced shoes and textiles.
- Argues that the benefits registered of outsourcing can become virtually non-existent and negligible once its disadvantages are contemplated.
- Opines that outsourcing will replace jobs lost during a dynamic and innovating economy like that possessed by usa. however, government is framing policies to slash grants being provided to such institutes.
- Argues that the major shortcomings from the projected economic models don't seem to be stuffed with a concrete and effectively managed finances recovery in terms of exploration of novel employment opportunities, stabilization of native market and relief providing efforts to the labor through outsourcing ventures.
- Concludes that outsourcing remains an issue of concern for our government as well as for the people of the united states.
- Analyzes the benefits and disadvantages of outsourcing jobs in the manufacturing sector of the united states' economy.
- Argues that outsourcing is a highly polarizing and multifaceted issue for corporate entities and u.s. citizens alike.
- Explains buchholz's bringing the jobs home: how the left created the outsourcing crisis—and how we can fix it.
- Cites griswold, daniel t., and buss, dale. "economic benefits from foreign outsourcing."
- Analyzes how globalization has flattened out the world and made it easier for people to connect and share their ideas.
- Explains that there are three main categories of jobs that cannot be exported as described by friedman: specialized people, celebrities, local jobs, and middle-class workers.
- Explains tom peters' advice to gain an advantage over one's competitors: mastery, entrepreneurial instinct, and passion for renewal.
- Opines that one must work harder in their specific area of expertise to gain the competitive edge.
- Analyzes how the headline blared, followed by the disturbing preview of the article inside: "a new round of globalization is sending upscale jobs offshore.
- Narrates how jennifer, an american citizen working for a recruiter company, found out that her job was outsourced to india and she was no longer required in their office.
- Explains that a good economy is where money floats within the country itself. it can be defined through various factors like the availability of jobs for the citizens, the decreasing gap between the rich and poor, and the taxes charged must be low and equitable.
- Explains that offshore outsourcing has major negative downside in that many people, groups and communities will be adversely affected.
- Explains that many us companies lose business as a result of offshore outsourcing, which has most affected the commercial real estate market.
- Explains that the lower property value affects buyers and banks, which can save the economy or destroy it. rising prices in the real estate market can make banks or other financial institutions stable. outsourcing is one factor affecting this cycle.
- Argues that outsourcing will have two direct effects on us workers and the communities as predicted by the many economists.
- Analyzes how an article from the business week relates the story of john carson, an entrepreneur who was searching for some programmer for his new company.
- Opines that globalization is good at some point as it brings whole world together. american companies outsource their work and their culture.
- Opines that companies must consider some of the outsourcing risks which may cost much more than it is believed to be.
- Opines that outsourcing can be damaging to the company, community, and the economy as a whole.
- Cites hira, ron, dobbs, anil, and lou's book, outsourcing america: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas.
- Analyzes how harrop's new threat to skilled u.s. workers and friedman’s 30 little turtles discuss two different viewpoints of job-outsourcing, and their effects on society.
- Analyzes how froma harrop's essay, new threat to skilled u.s. workers, is a detailed and factual essay about the mystery of job-outsourcing.
- Analyzes how thomas friedman's essay, 30 little turtles, appeals to pathos. he tries to persuade people to see the positive effects of job-outsourcing on the young adults of india.
- Compares friedman's emotional piece and harrop' s factual composition. both essays discussed the effects of job-outsourcing, but both focused on americans and indians.
- Analyzes how harrop's new threat to skilled u.s. workers and friedman’s 30 little turtles have more differences than similarities, but there is a lot of information that has not been covered by these two articles.
- Opines that a free society requires and rewards individuals who are active-minded, forward-looking, keen to better themselves. a society moving towards state control of the economy requires individuals with tranquility, passivity, and lethargy.
- Analyzes how the opponents of "outsourcing" white-collar jobs eagerly present it as an unprecedented, catastrophic phenomenon.
- Explains that american businesses hire foreign workers because they want to grow and increase sales and profits. a free society demands the same of its citizens.
- Explains that henry ford introduced mass production of the automobile in the early 1900s, inevitably caused disruptions. the days of horse and buggy were numbered, but those who faced ford's advance prospered.
- Explains that the personal computer revolution ushered in by steve jobs, bill gates, and michael dell, almost no industry was unaffected. businesses that embraced the new invention prospered.
- Opines that as businesses hire white-collar workers abroad, similar opportunities will abound for those ready to change and grow. capital accumulation made possible by the increased efficiency and specialization at american companies will fuel demand for employees with new skills.
- Opines that it should not be surprising that 2,500 u.s. multinational corporations added 2.8 million foreign jobs and 5.5 million new us jobs from 1991 to 2001, or that 25 percent of americans now work at jobs not even listed in 1967 census bureau codes.
- Explains that those who prosper in a free society are individuals who choose, no matter how severe the change, to adapt, expand their skills, increase their knowledge, and grow. trade and specialization across one's city, state, country or globe are acknowledged as beneficial.
- Explains that there are those who resent the growth that a free society demands. they either cling to the old way of doing things or cry for governmental protection.
- Analyzes how the opponent of outsourcing demands that the government restrain the success of his fellow citizens by restricting them from dealing abroad.
- Analyzes how unscrupulous politicians pander to this backward mentality. thirty-five state legislatures have introduced "anti-outsourcing" legislation. john kerry denounces management as "benedict arnold ceos."
- Urges the government to rescind the plethora of regulations that are strangling us. some companies are moving offshore because they find greater economic freedom.
- Explains how gregg davis, a former oshawa workman, was left jobless after his job was relocated to nashville, tennessee. the outsourcing phenomenon has been fueled by the recent trends in globalization with the hope of cutting cost and increasing production.
- Explains that globalization has existed since the beginning of time, but gained momentum when the earth was discovered not to be flat, and traveling east was possible by traveling west.
- Explains that government trading policies have played an important role in globalization, allowing the integration process to begin. the spur in free trade promoted the creation of the world trade organization (wto).
- Explains that technology has made the world a smaller place, making communication across the globe faster. globalization has increased worldwide trade and investment by allowing more companies to trade faster
- Explains that with the addition of china into the globalization world, the world supply of labor exceeds the demand. american corporations will have to lower wages to compete in the new global economy.
- Explains that the united states economy was strong at the start of the decade, but globalization is ending this. american workers have had their jobs outsourced to foreign countries for cheaper labor.
- Analyzes how globalization has had a negative effect on american jobs and workers' incomes. quality american workers have had their jobs terminated because their company had to outsource to stay successful.
- Explains that globalization, worker insecurity, and policy approaches are discussed in congressional research service reports and issue briefs.
- Explains that morrison, wayne m., "china and the world trade organization." congressional research service reports and issue briefs.
- Opines that fair labor and human rights play a large role in the global economy of the world today.
- Explains that consumers of products produced by multinational corporations have a direct association to the human rights issues arising in the labor market.
- Explains that nike, one of the msu licensed apparel manufacturers, has factories located around the globe. the kukdong factory in mexico has been the face of much backlash and controversy.
- Analyzes how the brazilian amazonian conflict is a fight against the political power of the landowners.
- Analyzes how the brazilians employed by the "rich" in "the burning season" are paid decent wages and meals to convert the rubber enriched amazon into farm land to export meat to the united states and britain.
- Argues that msu is taking an active role in transforming these developing countries into developed ones by subcontracting labor to these factories.
- Explains that businesses in the u.s. make products overseas, using labor services from a third party, despite the profits made from this technique, it can have repercussions on the us economy and the environment.
- Opines that both sides agree that outsourcing can be desirable for a business do to the potential profit. however, u.s. jobs are lost due to outsourcing and corporations taking advantage of loose environmental regulations.
- Explains outsourcing has proven to be beneficial for businesses by allowing executives to focus on the core structure of the firm rather than every specific element. the toy company mattel inc. would serve as an example.
- Explains that countries such as india and china have relaxed labor and environmental laws, which may prove profitable for many businesses.
- Estimates that by 2015, 3.3 million u.s. service and manufacturing jobs will have been shipped overseas.
- Opines that businesses make a questionable risk in trusting suppliers, as they have limited control over the quality of outsourced products and services.
- Explains that some outsourced service workers may have limited international mobility or limited knowledge of customers’ activities. this can cause confusion between suppliers and corporations or services and customers.
- Explains that china's neglect of the environment has taken a toll over the years due to the mass of industries outsourcing to china.
- Opines that there are many prospects to weigh for both sides of the agreement when one questions whether or not u.s. businesses should outsource jobs to other countries.
- Proposes a tax reduction for american businesses that do not outsource labor, which would cut expenses to encourage businesses to keep labor in america while creating jobs and decreasing pollution emitted into china’s ecosystem.
- Cites ahmed, syud amer, thomas w. hertel, and terrie l. walmsley. "outsourcing and the us labour market." world economy 34.2 (2011): 192-222
- Describes brecher, chen, and zhiqi chen's views on unemployment of skilled and unsawed labor in an open economy.
- Explains that u.s. companies paid more taxes overseas. businessweek online (2009): 5.
- Cites marquis, chrisopher, zhang jianjun, and zhou yanhua. "regulatory uncertainty and corporate responses to environmental protection in china."
- Analyzes salanţă, irina, dan c. lungescu, and veronica m. pampa's "outsourcing: the benefits and the risks." managerial challenges of the contemporary society.
- Analyzes how outsourcing critics cite labor laws in other nations.
- Explains wood, joel, the effects of environmental regulation on the competitiveness of us manufacturing. fraser forum (2012): 25.
- Cites zhang, ting, "international outsourcing and unemployment in a minimum-wage economy." business source premier.
- Analyzes the effectiveness of rhetorical devices used in two separate articles: "outsourcing: the good, the bad and the inevitable" and "ban outsourcing?"
- Explains slaughter's view that hiring overseas means fewer jobs in the united states. however, increased hires abroad also have complementary increases here.
- Analyzes how uses loaded language and an allusion in the first article to make readers aware that outsourcing is not a new concept.
- Explains that outsourcing isn't a new idea, and that it's an argument that is not approved easily. growing up, many parents would say, "if your friend jumped off the bridge, would you do it."
- Analyzes how both rhetorical devises are not valid arguments and are open to more than one interpretation. the article can be viewed as persuasive in that by outsourcing, many people are still able to have jobs.
- Analyzes how the rhetorical device used in the second article was a hyperbole where it is an exaggeration.
- Analyzes how the second article uses comparisons, definitions and explanations to position rhetoric. this scare tactic makes it seem to the readers that they are considered outsiders.
- Analyzes how india is trying to change its approach to creating jobs, and the u.s. could ultimately benefit if it plays its cards right.
- Opines that the second article seemed a little more valid in that there were more details than the first article. both articles were rhetorical in nature and opened up the topic for more discussions.
- Explains that many american companies have consolidated their offshore outsourcing to the country, while larger companies like ibm, citigroup, coca-cola and several wall street investment banks are setting up offshore outsourcers in india.
- Explains that the political backlash in the us and high attrition rates of indian bpo companies are causing concerns about security-related issues and the quality of services.
- Opines that the idea that smaller indian vendors are not staying in business because of us businesses taking over is a challenging topic for them.
- Opines that working with an indian partner will help alleviate some of the issues presented. the u.s. benefits in their knowledge of gaining credit from india and with more and more businesses being outsourced to india.
- Opines that working with an indian partner may be an effective way to get around some of these issues. india is growing rapidly, hence caution should be exercised in forming appropriate business alliances.
- Concludes that outsourcing to india is good, bad and even deafening, and that the u.s. is the one causing delays due to the politics in the us.
- Cites kesavan, mascarenhas, o. a., and bernacchi, m. d. (2013). outsourcing services to india.
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The Effects And Importance Of Work
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The Work World and Nature, Essay Example
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Ehrenreich’s “Nickel and Dimed” describes the degrading and tedious work of manual labor. Hooks (2005), on the other hand, criticizes the capitalist mentality of Americans who seek work for the sake of obtaining financial reward, and emphasizes that reward can be obtained from work for the mere pleasure of it. Ehrenreich, however, describes work that employees, considering themselves cogs in the machine, clearly do not love and, in fact, consider meaningless and repetitive. How can one gain pleasure from such work?
It is possible, however, that the employees can gain satisfaction from such work in other ways. Here are some ideas:
Firstly, they could link the work to their talents. An ironmonger for instance might find that the work provides him with exercise, or accords him a chance of augmenting his personal skills. Some side benefit could be found from the work. A professor related a story of one of his smartest students who was offered lecturing positions in various distinguished universities. Intrigued regarding which position he would choose, the professor questioned him regarding his choice of vocation consequent to graduation. Answered the student, “a painter” “A painter”. “Yes. Because it gives me time to think and to do non-stressful, relaxing work whilst allowing me to mentally formulate mathematical equations at my leisure.” The job paid little and would be, predictably, monotonous, yet the student realized that it could accord him a step in the direction that he ultimately wished to take. Keeping an eye on one’s long-term goal – more importantly knowing that long term goal – can enable one to find satisfaction in one’s present job however dreary that present job may be. Trollope used the patent office as practice for his novel writing. Einstein used a similarly dead-end job as incubator for his physics. The job, meaningless though it may appear to be, can be a spring to one’s objectives in life.
Critics of Eherenreich can, I think, provide two alternate solutions to gaining benefit from a meaningless job. Adam Shepherds spent 10 months in South Carolina with only $25 eventually renting a home and buying a truck. The focus here can be on the money earned that is then used to move oneself forward to accomplish one’s dreams. As Bell herself writes, “most of us [black women] did not enter the workforce thinking of work in terms of finding a ‘calling’ or a vocation. Instead we thought of work as a way to make money” (43).
Charles Platt (2009) took an entry-level job at Wal-Mart and described the satisfaction he gained from positive interaction with supervisors and other employees and form incentives. This reminds me of the book “How Starbucks Saved my Life”, where the author, too, initially saw it as a dead-end job, yet credited it with saving his life. Seemingly meaningless jobs are not the end of the world; they might be the step-up to a better future, although it might take a Pollyanna to figure out how to squeeze lemon-juice form that sour lemon.
Gill, Michael(Michael Gates) How Starbucks Saved My Life. New York: Gotham Books, 2007.
Hooks, Bell. Sisters of the Yam: Black Women and Self-Recovery. N.Y: South End Press, 2005.
Platt, Charles (February 1, 2009). “Life at Wal-Mart”. Boing Boing . http://www.boingboing.net/2009/02/01/life-at-walmart.html. Retrieved 8/16/2010
Shepard, A. Scratch Beginnings: Me, $25, and the Search for the American Dream. N.Y.: Collins, 2008.
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- The Changing World of Work
The Changing World of Work - Research Paper Example
- Subject: Management
- Type: Research Paper
- Level: College
- Pages: 3 (750 words)
- Downloads: 4
- Author: luistorphy
Extract of sample "The Changing World of Work"
In the last ten years, jobs have been outsourced in large numbers and a dramatic change has occurred in the location and method of work. Another key driver of the modern and more importantly, the future age is diversity in the workplace. The transformation of the world into a global village has removed the cultural barriers. More and more people migrate to other countries every year for studies, work or both. This has made society multicultural in general and the workplace in particular. There is the diversity of age, gender, culture, language, ethnicity, religion and caste.
All of these factors of diversity give rise to the variety of perspectives which are quite beneficial for organizations in the competitive environment, but at the same time, also expose the organization to a lot of risks. Some of the risks include racism and dysfunctional conflicts among the employees whereas benefits include larger market value because of a diverse population of customers. Managers have experienced a significant increase in job responsibilities as they have to not only address the needs of the customers but also have to fulfill the increased demands of employees.
According to (Heerden), research concludes that young employees fundamentally look for three things in the changing world of work. They are briefly discussed below: 1. Opportunities for learning and development: Young people seek jobs where work would be challenging, yet they want to be rewarded upon succeeding. Professional growth at work is the biggest attraction for young job seekers. People want to serve in different positions and perform different roles in order to gain maximum experience. 2. Selection in a renowned organization which would decide the career path: In order to keep employees satisfied and motivated for work, employers need to share their strategies with employees and explain to them how their strategies are consistent with the requirements of the business.
Thus, employees need to be engaged in work for which the employee-employer rapport is extremely essential. 3. Flexibility in life: Having achieved a higher standard of living, one of the key priorities of all working people is to have increased control over their personal and social life. The conventional 40 hr week that has been so for long is now changing. People want the freedom of duty hours and employers often have no problem unless the work is affected. In today’s work environment, ways to communicate have altered a lot.
The changing trends impact many industries and hence, the career plans. A look into the future: In light of the aforementioned preferences of employees in the work environment, the work environment in the future would be more complying with the employees’ desires as it has in the past. It is obvious that an electronic system would be increased in use in the future. Therefore, it makes sense to assess the future work conditions for employees keeping the electronic system into consideration.
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The impact of world war ii, 2052: meeting the challenge of sustainable business, international human resources, human resource management: recruitment and selection, team rules: ethics and principles of good governance, the rise of capitalism, rift valley and jane axtell or the chairman, the impact of information system on business process design.
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Future of Work
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The future of work is one of the most discussed and debated topic of today. In this technology driven world, what impact automation technology like artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics will have on jobs, skills, and wages in the coming future. A new set of ideas and trends have emerged to create a new kind of industrial revolution. Automation and ‘thinking machines’ are replacing human tasks and jobs, and changing the skills that organizations are looking for in their people. These momentous changes raise huge organizational, talent and HR challenges – at a time when business leaders are already wrestling with unprecedented risks, disruption and political and societal upheaval.
In 2018, 41% of companies have fully implemented or have made significant progress in adopting cognitive, AI and robotics 77% of these companies believe technology is creating ‘better jobs’, and only 20% see job reductions. 50% are retraining workers to work side by side with machines, and 67% of employees believe they must continuously reskill themselves to stay in their career, and 58% believe they will have a new career within five years.
Gazing into the future may seem speculative, or even whimsical, because experience tells us that predictions about what the world will look like years from now are destined to be inaccurate. But what if, backed with extensive and robust research, an assessment of the labor market of the future could serve as a basis for a debate around the challenges and opportunities individuals and businesses are likely to face?
This kind of exercise has never been more relevant as we seek to make sense of the future in a landscape of rapid and profound change. For example, the potential disruptive impact on jobs of advances in robotics, artificial intelligence and 3D printing is a focus for fierce debate. As the fourth industrial revolution unfolds, companies are seeking to harness new and emerging technologies to reach higher levels of efficiency of production and consumption, expand into new markets, and compete on new products for a global consumer base composed increasingly of digital natives. Yet in order to harness the transformative potential of the fourth industrial revolution, business leaders across all industries and regions will increasingly be called upon to formulate a comprehensive workforce strategy ready to meet the challenges of this new era of accelerating change and innovation. If current trends run a steady path, in 2030 the workforce will be multi-generational, older, and more international, with women playing a stronger role. While the highly skilled will push for a better work-life balance, many others will experience increasing insecurity of employment and income. As businesses shrink their workforces to a minimum using flexibly employed external service providers to cover shortfalls, a much smaller group of employees will be able to enjoy long-term contracts.
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Many commentators focus on technology and the role that automation is predicted to have on jobs and the workplace. We believe the real story is far more complicated. This is less about technological innovation and more about the manner in which humans decide to use that technology. The potential for digital platforms and AI to underpin and grow the world of work is unbounded. They already play an essential role in the development of all four worlds of work, matching skills to employer, capital to investor and consumer to supplier. This platform layer brings a digital value chain and commoditization and automation of the back office – but comes with warnings. While it can create a thriving marketplace, it can grow to take over the entire economic system. And with platform pervasiveness come vulnerability to cyber-attacks or wide-scale manipulation. Assisted intelligence, widely available today, improves what people and organizations are already doing. A simple example, prevalent in cars today, is the GPS navigation program that offers directions to drivers and adjusts to road conditions. Augmented intelligence, emerging today, helps people and organizations to do things they couldn’t otherwise do. For example, car ride-sharing businesses couldn’t exist without the combination of programs that organize the service. Autonomous intelligence, being developed for the future, establishes machines that act on their own. An example of this will be self-driving vehicles, when they come into widespread use. Some optimists believe AI could create a world where human abilities are amplified as machines help mankind process, analyze, and evaluate the abundance of data that creates today’s world, allowing humans to spend more time engaged in high-level thinking, creativity, and decision-making.
The four worlds of work in 2030 according to a report by PWC will be:
- The yellow world humans . Social-first and community businesses prosper. Crowd-funded capital flows towards ethical and blameless brands. There is a search for meaning and relevance with a social heart. Artisans, makers and ‘new worker guilds’ thrive. Humanness is highly valued.
- The red world innovation rules . Organizations and individuals race to give consumers what they want. Innovation outpaces regulation. Digital platforms give outsized reach and influence to those with a winning idea. Specialists and niche profit makers flourish.
- The green world companies’ care . Social responsibility and trust dominate the corporate agenda with concerns about demographic changes, climate and sustainability becoming key drivers of business.
- The blue world corporate is king . Big company capitalism rules as organizations continue to grow bigger and individual preferences trump beliefs about social responsibility.
It’s clear that automation will result in a massive reclassification and rebalancing of work. Some sectors and roles, even entire sections of the workforce will lose out but others will be created. Automation will not only alter the types of jobs available but their number and perceived value. By replacing workers doing routine, methodical tasks, machines can amplify the comparative advantage of those workers with problem-solving, leadership, EQ (emotional intelligence), empathy and creativity skills. Those workers performing tasks which automation can’t yet crack, become more pivotal – and this means creativity, innovation, imagination, and design skills will be prioritized by employers.
Governments, organizations and society should work together to develop a responsible approach and policies that govern the impact of technology and automation on jobs – including a clear discussion on the ethics of AI. Governments should engage with organizations developing the use of robotics and AI at all stages of policy making, to create a pool of thought leaders with a deep understanding of the interplay between technology and its effect on society. Empathy, creativity, and human skills are more important than ever. Our job is to design our organizations and jobs to empower people and the customer experience.
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In this paper I will be comparing the sociology of work and industry to some sub-fields of sociology. Industrial sociology is a field that deals with the study and examination of relation of human in labor markets, technological change, work organization, managerial practices and globalization. Industrial sociology got to do with work and industry. Sociology of work is all about the application of sociology to the world of work, sociological imagination is functional in the world of work, it attempts...
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Essays About Work: Top 5 Examples and 8 Prompts
If you want to write well-researched essays about work, check out our guide of helpful essay examples and writing prompts for this topic.
Whether employed or self-employed, we all need to work to earn a living. Work could provide a source of purpose for some but also stress for many. The causes of stress could be unmanageable workload, low pay, slow career development, an incompetent boss, and companies that do not care about your well-being.
Work can still be a happy place to develop essential skills such as leadership and teamwork. If we adopt the right mindset, we can focus on situations we can improve and avoid stressing ourselves over situations we have no control over. We should also be free to speak up against workplace issues and abuses to defend our labor rights.
If you’re writing about work, read on to see a handful of essay examples and prompts to guide you.
5 Examples of Essays About Work
1. when the future of work means always looking for your next job by bruce horovitz, 2. ‘quiet quitting’ isn’t the solution for burnout by rebecca vidra, 3. the science of why we burn out and don’t have to by joe robinson , 4. how to manage your career in a vuca world by murali murthy, 5. the challenges of regulating the labor market in developing countries by gordon betcherman, 8 writing prompts on essays about work, 1. a dream work environment, 2. how is school preparing you for work, 3. the importance of teamwork at work, 4. a guide to find work for new graduates, 5. finding happiness at work, 6. motivating people at work, 7. advantages and disadvantages of working from home, 8. critical qualities you need to thrive at work.
“For a host of reasons—some for a higher salary, others for improved benefits, and many in search of better company culture—America’s workforce is constantly looking for its next gig.”
A perennial search for a job that fulfills your sense of purpose–—this is the emerging trend in the landscape of work in the past years. Yet, as human resource managers scramble to find ways to minimize employee turnover, there are still those who believe that there will still be workers who can exit a company through a happy retirement.
“…[L]et’s creatively collaborate on ways to re-establish our own sense of value in our institutions while saying yes only to invitations that nourish us instead of sucking up more of our energy.”
Quiet quitting signals more profound issues underlying work, such as burnout or the bosses themselves. It is undesirable in any workplace, but to have it in school, among faculty members, spells doom as the future of the next generation is put at stake. In this essay, a teacher learns how to keep from burnout and rebuild a sense of community that drew her into the job in the first place.
“We don’t think about managing the demands that are pushing our buttons, we just keep reacting to them on autopilot on a route I call the burnout treadmill. Just keep going until the paramedics arrive.”
Studies have shown the detrimental health effects of stress on our mind, emotions and body. Yet we still willingly take on the treadmill to stress, forgetting our boundaries and our wellness. It is time to normalize seeking help from our superiors to resolve burnout and refuse overtime and heavy workloads.
“As we start to emerge from the pandemic, today’s workplace demands a different kind of VUCA career growth. One that’s Versatile, Uplifting, Choice-filled and Active.”
The only thing constant in work is change. But recent decades have witnessed greater work volatility where tech-oriented people and creative minds flourish the most. The essay provides tips that you could start applying at work daily to survive and even thrive in the VUCA world.
“Ultimately, the biggest challenge in regulating labor markets in developing countries is what to do about the hundreds of millions of workers (or even more) who are beyond the reach of formal labor market rules and social protections.”
The challenge in regulating work is balancing the interest of employees to have dignified work conditions and for employers to operate at the most reasonable cost. But in developing countries, the difficulties loom larger, with issues going beyond equal pay to universal social protection coverage and monitoring employers’ compliance.
In this essay, talk about how you envision yourself as a professional in the future. You can be as creative as to describe your workplace, the position you have, and the perception your colleagues have of you. Next, explain why this is the line of work you dream of and what you can contribute to society through this work. Finally, add what learning programs you’ve signed up to prepare your skills for your dream job.
For your essay, look deeply into how your school prepares the young generation to be competitive in the future workforce. If you want to go the extra mile, you can interview students who have graduated from your school and are now professionals. Ask them about the programs or practices in your school that they believe have helped mold them better at their current jobs.
In a workplace where colleagues compete against each other, leaders could find it challenging to cultivate a sense of cooperation and teamwork. So, find out what creative activities companies can undertake to encourage teamwork across teams and divisions. For example, regular team-building activities help strengthen professional bonds while helping workers recharge their minds.
Finding a job after receiving your undergraduate diploma can be full of stress, pressure, and hard work. Write an essay that handholds graduate students in drafting their resumes and preparing for an interview. You may also recommend the top job market platforms that match them with their dream work. You may also ask recruitment experts for tips on how graduates can make a positive impression in their job interviews.
Creating fun and happy workplace may seem impossible. But there has been a flurry of efforts in the corporate world to keep workers happy. Why? To make them more productive. So for your essay, gather research on what practices companies and policy-makers should adopt to help workers find meaning in their jobs. For example, how often should salary increases occur? You may also focus on what forces drive people to quit jobs that rake in big money. If it’s not the financial package that makes them satisfied, what does? Discuss these questions with your readers for a compelling essay.
Motivation could scale up workers’ productivity, efficiency, and ambition for higher positions and a longer tenure in your company. Knowing which method of motivation best suits your employees require direct managers to know their people and find their potential source of intrinsic motivation. For example, managers should be able to tell whether employees are having difficulties with their tasks to the point of discouragement or find the task too easy to boredom.
A handful of managers have been worried about working from home for fears of lowering productivity and discouraging collaborative work. Meanwhile, those who embrace work-from-home arrangements are beginning to see the greater value and benefits of giving employees greater flexibility on when and where to work. So first, draw up the pros and cons of working from home. You can also interview professionals who have worked or are currently working at home. Finally, provide a conclusion on whether working from home can harm work output or boost it.
Identifying critical skills at work could depend on the work applied. But there are inherent values and behavioral competencies that recruiters demand highly from employees. List the top five qualities you think a professional should possess to contribute significantly to the workplace. For example, being proactive is a valuable skill because workers have the initiative to produce without waiting for the boss to prod them.
If you need help with grammar, our guide to grammar and syntax is a good start to learning more. We also recommend taking the time to improve the readability score of your essays before publishing or submitting them.
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Yna Lim is a communications specialist currently focused on policy advocacy. In her eight years of writing, she has been exposed to a variety of topics, including cryptocurrency, web hosting, agriculture, marketing, intellectual property, data privacy and international trade. A former journalist in one of the top business papers in the Philippines, Yna is currently pursuing her master's degree in economics and business.
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Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research
Another essay about the future of work
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Spectacular failures in prediction related to computing, the history of the future of work, robotics and ai and the future of work, an assessment: where do things stand, disclosure statement, additional information, editorial preface.
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Seemingly, people have always been curious, and worried about, the future. The future of work is no exception. Today, a key focus of thought about the future is how the development and dissemination of robots and artificial intelligence (AI) will affect work. In the past, the information systems community has made several predictions about computing and work. We have rarely been correct, and in making our predictions, we have completely missed the development of computing technologies that have had dramatic and long-lasting impacts on our field and on the world (e.g., smart phones). In this essay, we review past thinking about the future of work as well as current thought about the impacts of robotics and AI. While we can be sure that work will change, we are limited in our ability to say what form those changes will take.
Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own. Matthew 6:34
“The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man.” An Essay on the Principle of Population , 1798
“Don’t stop thinking about tomorrow.” - Christine McVie, singer-songwriter, “Don’t Stop,” 1977
“The future will be better tomorrow” - Dan Quayle, Vice President of the U.S., 1989-1993, Late 1980s
Yet our concerns about what tomorrow may bring persist. Futurist Paul Saffo says that thinking about the future is “what defines us as a species (Behrendt, Citation 2006 ).” Currently, one of the more popular things to worry about is how work will change going forward (do a quick Google search on “The Future of Work”). Today the particular focus of predictions about future work is what will happen as a result of the spread of robotics and artificial intelligence (AI). While concerns about the evolution of work are not new (scholars in the past worried about the effects of steam power during the First Industrial Revolution, for example), the laser-like focus on robots and AI is. And such a focus is of particular interest to an information systems (IS) audience, since robotics and AI fall into our sphere of interest, for both research and teaching.
In this essay, we will provide an historical context for current thinking about the future of work, particularly from an IS perspective. We will then review some of the predictions being made now for the role of robotics and AI in changing work. We will end with an assessment of the material we review. But before all of this, it is important to remind the reader of just how difficult it is to accurately predict how things will change over time.
I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. - Thomas Watson, Sr., founder of IBM, 1943
There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. - Ken Olson, founder of Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 1977
Note that both of these predictions came from men who were pioneers in the computing field, who were extremely successful. While both were hugely knowledgeable about computing, neither of them could foresee the trajectory for computing’s growth and dissemination. Their predictions were amazingly wrong, which is why we used these particular quotes. But they were not alone in their lack of vision. As a field, we in IS completely missed the advent and ramifications of technological changes that are now taken for granted, specifically personal computers, the Web, and smart phones. We were not able to grasp how much the computing landscape would change, and over a relatively short period of time, after the introduction of these technologies. Add to this list the sudden appearance of COVID-19 and all it brought with it, including a sudden massive dependence on videoconferencing platforms. In general, our track record for successfully predicting the future of computing, and computing work, is not so good.
It isn’t clear when people first started to think about how work would change in the future. It seems certain that early hunter-gatherers didn’t think much about how agriculture would change how they lived. And it’s doubtful feudal serfs thought much about how things would be different when the Renaissance arrived, much less about how the (First) Industrial Revolution would alter work. Until the early 20 th century in the U.S., changes in the workforce and how people made a living were slow to evolve. In the U.S., the plurality of the workforce engaged in agriculture until 1906; at that point, the proportion of the workforce engaged in agriculture began to decline (to under 2% today), and factory work began to dominate (Porat, Citation 1978 ). However, the reign of factories as dominant was relatively short – by 1954, the plurality of the U.S. workforce earned their living as part of the “information society” (Porat, Citation 1978 ).
In the 1950s, we began to see depictions of what the information society held for work and for workers. Many such views were dystopian. Vonnegut’s 1952 novel Player Piano presented a world where factories were completely automated and most of the population did not work at all. They lived instead on government assistance (Vonnegut, Citation 1999 ). The popular fictional series “The Expanse” (both novels and the television series), set some 300 years from now, continues this line of thinking, as half of people on Earth do not work and need government provided “Basic Assistance” to survive.
As the cost of IT continues to decrease and its capability continues to increase, the portion of tasks that can be substituted by computers will continue to expand. Former jobs considered to be non-routine will gradually become routine and are subject to substitution by computers. (Peng et al., Citation 2018 , p. 218)
Now we sit at the beginning of what is called the Fourth Industrial Revolution (the First was based on water and steam, the Second on electricity; the Third on electronics and IT). The Fourth Industrial Revolution builds on the Third and is “characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres” (Schwab, Citation 2016 ). The enabling technologies include artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, the Internet-of-Things, genetic engineering, and quantum computing (McGinnis, Citation 2020 ). Many people have predicted how the Fourth Industrial Revolution will affect work. We will review some of them now.
“There certainly will be job disruption. Because what’s going to happen is robots will be able to do everything better than us. … I mean all of us.” - Elon Musk, developer of PayPal and founder of Tesla and SpaceX, (Clifford, Citation 2017 )
Table 1. world economic forum predictions about the future of work, 2018 & 2020.
Both forecasts include very large numbers of disrupted jobs, but with the addition of large numbers of new job roles that will emerge, the net effect is an increase in jobs. However, of the total number of tasks performed, more and more of that work will be done by machines instead of by humans. In order to keep their jobs, a sizable proportion of the workforce will need to be reskilled. By 2025, that proportion will be 70%! There is some good news for IS, though. The top three job roles with the most demand are all in areas where we conduct research and teach: data analytics, AI and machine learning, and big data (2020 report).
The World Economic Forum has also investigated the need for reskilling in more detail. According to their 2019 report (World Economic Forum, Citation 2019 ), businesses note that the need for reskilling is due to a gap between the skills needed for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the skills their current (and potential) employees have. WEF estimates that one-quarter of the technologically displaced workforce in the U.S. could be successfully reskilled for an investment of $4.7 billion USD, with a positive cost-benefit balance. In other words, it’s cheaper to successfully retrain a current worker than to fire him or her and hire a new employee. Further, the WEF report estimates that, for an investment of $19.9 billion USD, the U.S. government could successfully reskill 77% of its expected displaced workforce.
In the long term, AI-enabled human-computer superminds will facilitate new forms of societal endeavor in business, science, and art that are as different from what we know today as today’s computers are from the adding machines of half a century ago. – (Malone et al., Citation 2020 , p. 30)
However, the report’s authors believe that government, schools and universities, businesses, labor unions and community organizations need to be proactive and prepare for the coming changes.
We noted above that the findings from the WEF reports were good news for IS faculty and researchers, as the most in-demand skills for employees are all in areas in which we teach and research. However, the future of teaching, like the future of other types of work, is not immune from technological change. In September 2017, Anthony Seldon, a UK expert on education, stated that robots would replace teachers by 2027 (Houser, Citation 2017 ). One reason for turning to robots was presented in a 2015 UNESCO report, which predicted that, by 2028, the world would need 20.1 million new teachers in order to meet its goal of equal access to quality education. In addition, 48.6 million teachers would leave the profession and would have to be replaced in the same timeframe. Filling these teaching positions with robots would solve multiple problems: robots don’t need to be paid; they don’t get sick and miss work; they don’t take vacations; and “the systems would never make mistakes.” On the other hand, Rose Luckin, a professor at the University College London Knowledge Lab, believes robots will never outright replace teachers. Instead, teachers and robots will work collaboratively to educate students (Luckin et al., Citation 2016 ).
But the potential for AI to successfully replace teachers has already been demonstrated as a proof-of-concept by Professor Ashok Goel, of Georgia Tech, when he created and introduced a robot teaching assistant (based on IBM’s Watson) in his online class on AI (Schrager & Wang, Citation 2017 ). The robot (Jill Watson – get it?) was readily embraced by Goel’s students for her patience, quick responses, and for the few mistakes that she made. According to the authors of this report, similar efforts are underway at companies like Pearson and Hobsons, and research in this area is being funded by the Gates Foundation, the co-CEO of Netflix, Reed Hastings, and Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg.
There are several take-aways from this brief review of the history of the future of work, and of recent predictions about the effects of robots and AI. First, work will change. That is guaranteed. And a corollary is that the pace of change will continue to increase, compared to past rates of change. Second, predictions about how robots and AI will change work are risky. The more broad and generic the prediction, the better the odds that it will be correct. On the other hand, specific predictions, such as how many people will lose their jobs due to the changing nature of work, are not necessarily a safe bet. Third, predictions come from the data we have and the analysis we are able to do with it, but there are always unknowns that – by definition – we don’t foresee, but which may have outsized and long-lasting impacts (think smart phones). With all that said, what reasonable things can we say about the future of work, from the perspective of IS scholars and teachers?
First, as we saw in the Third Industrial Revolution, which was based on electronics and IT, new job roles and industries will emerge from the use of IT. These are based on unanticipated business and consumer needs and desires, and on new business dynamics and relationships which the technologies enable. So it’s a safe bet to expect new job roles to emerge in the Fourth Industrial Revolution as well. But what these will be is largely unknown. We can only make educated guesses about them. Second, while it is nice to think that job disruption will be compensated for by all of the new job roles that are created, the resulting balance is hard to foresee. Clearly, for millions of workers to transition from their current jobs to new jobs will require vast outlays of time, effort and funding, from industry and government alike. We can safely say that massive reskilling efforts will be necessary to prevent massive unemployment. But we can’t be sure of the extent to which that will happen or what shape it will take. It is also nice to envision a future where robots/AI work harmoniously with humans, doing more together than they could achieve alone. But note the trajectory of the changes in the division of labor between humans and machines in the WEF reports: 43% of tasks done by machines in 2022, and 47% done by machines in 2025. If we continue along this line, what is the proportion by 2030? Such a trajectory does not favor a future of harmonious co-work if machines are continually increasing the proportion of work they do. Finally, some of the predictions we reviewed are very good for IS faculty. Our field is totally invested now in training students for jobs in analytics, machine learning, and big data. If the future needs our students, it needs us too. But some predictions are not so good. It could well be that our universities determine that AI-based teachers like “Jill Watson” can do a better job than human faculty and at less cost.
It’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).
This essay began life as a keynote speech for the 2020 MWAIS conference. Unfortunately, the keynote was canceled due to COVID-19. Some of the thoughts from my original Powerpoint presentation made it into the essay, but the presentation was much more humorous and had many more pictures.
Notes on contributors
Joey f. george.
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