Persuasive Essay On The Holocaust

The holocaust essay.

First, forced to leave your home and everything they worked for to move into a

Persuasive Essay About The Holocaust

There were about 500,000 living survivors of the Holocaust in 2014. It is vital for students to be taught about the Holocaust in school. The article, "combating" shows that the students need to be aware that the event did in fact happen. The article "Genocide" shows students what happens when hate against one group or culture becomes too much. Elie Wiesel's Night shows students an eyewitness account of how much violence, brutality, and abuse to the prisoners had to go through in the Holocaust. Though some people are against the subject of the Holocaust because it is too graphic or mature for the students, it is important that students learn from a trusted adult instead of letting other students try to teach it to themselves. The students should learn about the subject of the Holocaust in school because it teaches the importance of equality, about the events occurrence, and teaching about the dangers of discrimination and abuse.

Holocaust Survivors Essay

Who survived the holocaust? What are their lives like today? What has been the government's response towards those who survived after World War II? Have the survivors kept their faith? How has the survivors next generation been affected? The survivors of the holocaust were deeply effected by the trauma they encountered. This unforgettable experience influenced their lives, those around them, and even their descendants.

Essay on Learning Lessons from the Holocaust

The phrase "a lesson to be learned and a tragedy to behold" has been indelibly attached to the Holocaust that to think of it in any other way is thought to insult all those of the Jewish community who lost their lives to the attempted genocide of their race by the Nazi regime. Despite such brevity attached to learning lessons from the Holocaust one must wonder whether the lesson has actually been learned or if people will continue to repeat the mistakes of the past. Angela Merkel, the current German Chancellor, has stated that the German experiment towards multi-culturalism has failed, those who wish to migrate into the country must learn the German way whether it is the language they speak, the culture they have or the very religion they

Essay about The Holocaust

The Holocaust was the murder and persecution of approximately 6 million Jews and many others by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. The Nazis came to power in Germany in January of 1933. The Nazis thought that the “inferior” Jews were a threat to the “racially superior” German racial community. The death camps were operated from 1941 to 1945, and many people lost their lives or were forced to work in concentration camps during these years. The story leading up to the Holocaust, how the terrible event affected people’s lives, and how it came to and end are all topics that make this historic event worth learning about.

Challenges In Night By Elie Wiesel

During the Holocaust they counted that 6 million Jews died.The Jews faced many difficulties, death being the main one. In the book Night by Elie Wiesel, he told his story of the difficulties he faced during the Holocaust. The Nazis were horrible to the Jews; they gave them little food, made them march many miles, worked them long hard hours, and when on the train they had little air. Because Elie Wiesel overcame his difficulties he faced during the Holocaust, I feel I can overcome my problems and live a wonderful life.

Holocaust Informative Essay

To me the holocaust was a terrifying and horrible. People were dying because of not getting enough food and the diseases that were being spreaded throughout the camp were all the people were. They were not treated and not feed well enough to live. Even if they did the suddenst thing they could possibly be shot of hurt by a guard. According to the website The Holocaust began in 1933 when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany and ended in 1945 when the Nazis were defeated by the Allied powers. The term "Holocaust," originally from the Greek word "holokauston" which means "sacrifice by fire," refers to the Nazi's persecution and planned slaughter of the Jewish people. The Hebrew word

The holocaust, or Shoah was a systematic, planned program of genocide to exterminate all Jews. This government based program was carried out by Hitler, and its allies in the Nazi army during world war two. Approximately 6 million Jews were killed, and if the murder of the Romani, Soviet civilians and prisoners, the disabled, homosexuals, and others who apposed to Hitler’s religious, political and social views were counted, this number would be more like 11 to 17 million. The holocaust is generally described with two periods, 1933-1939, and 1939-1945, the end of WWII.

Argumentative Essay On The Holocaust

The Holocaust started in the 1933, when the Nazis and Adolf Hitler took power in Germany. The Holocaust from the Greek words “holos” (whole) and “kaustos” (burned) cause chaos and tragedy for Jewish people. At this time Germany was a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000 people. Nazis thought that they were the most inferior race and no other race was better than the Aryan race. This cause a lot of discrimination and hate against other people based on their beliefs and looks. The Nazis provoked the outbreak of World War II, when they invaded Poland. The Holocaust lasted 12 years and it end it on May of 1945.

Holocaust Essay On The Holocaust

Imagine living in a completely different world then you do now. Where you are kept in a confined space with no one and nothing to do. That’s what the jewish people of 1933 to 1945 suffered with. Concentration camps were everywhere, there was nowhere to go or hide. The Holocaust had an atrocious impact on jews and they will never be thought of the same After the camp, many were grateful for what they had and no longer took anything for granted. Each article shows a different way of how Jewish people were treated badly but each shares the same message. After the holocaust was over everybody was grateful for what they had.

Holocaust Essay

     Within the twentieth century, what event stands out to you as the most inhumane treatment of fellow humans. Without a doubt, most would agree that the Holocaust completely matches this sad frame of reference. The Holocaust in Germany was an unspeakable event in human history. In this terrible act, at its worst in Poland, was the direct cause of the deaths of 62.7% of the Jewish population in Europe (History 1). It is obvious that two themes stand out during this time period death and humanity, or inhumanity for that matter.

Narrative Essay On The Holocaust

I am and SS officer. I was stationed at Auschwitz. More Jews were coming in every day. There were eighty to a cattle cart. There were so many families that had to go separate ways from one another. I had killed mothers and the babies and weakest of the men that couldn’t work. It was horrible, I do say. If I could say no I would never do it again. I loved my country and Hitler at the time, so I was willing to do whatever it took to get noticed. I was then stationed at a woman’s concentration camp. They all had gotten shaved, had no gold teeth, and had had tattoos on their arms. It was their identification code. They were so skinny it was just skin stuck to the bones. They looked like corpses, but alive. I wonder how many died soon after.


As tensions mounted up until the point of World War II and the war stormed through Europe, another battle silently raged. Not only did Hitler and the Nazi party wage war on countries throughout Europe, they also assaulted and purged entire innocent groups. The Holocaust began in 1933 and reached its height in WW II, while coming to an end with the war in 1945. Hitler used the Holocaust as a mechanism to rid his "racially superior" German state of any "inferior" groups (especially Jews) that would be of some threat or sign of inferiority to Germany. As a result of the Holocaust, millions of men, women, and children of various national, ethnic, and social

The Holocaust was a horrible event and had many tragedies and losses of family and friends. This event starts in 1933 where Hitler rises to power, and ends in 1945 where Hitler is defeated and the holocaust has ended. There are many topics about the holocaust that people would want to know, but this topic is a crucial and important one. The topic is Life during the Holocaust where we learn about how Jewish people live during the holocaust and what happened to them in the concentration camps.

The Holocaust of 1933-1945, was the systematic killing of millions of European Jews by the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazis) (Webster, 430). This project showed the treacherous treatment towards all Jews of that era. Though many fought against this horrific genocide, the officials had already determined in their minds to exterminate the Jews. Thus, the Holocaust was a malicious movement that broke up many homes, brought immense despair, and congregated great discrimination. The Holocaust was an act of Hell on earth.

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Persuasive Essay on the Holocaust

persuasive essay on the holocaust

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persuasive essay on the holocaust

Persuasive Essay On The Holocaust

The holocaust was a horrible and unthinkable event in history. It was instigated by one cruel individual with the right tactics to get millions of followers. This man was known as Adolf Hitler. Hitler was a very powerful and convincing individual. He made the German people believe he was a compassionate man looking at the best options to get Germany back to where there needed to be post WWI. Hitler did not step into office and bluntly tell the German people he was going to completely annex the race of Jews. If he did this then he would have never been given the authority he was given. With that being said, the German people as a whole should not be guilty. Majority of the German people supported Hitler for many reasons. He found ways to get …show more content…

In this essay, the author

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Introduction to the Holocaust . 17 11 2014 <>. Marcuse, Harold. "Translation of The Stuttgart Delaration of Guilt." 12 July 2014. 19 November 2014 <>. Moran, Benedict. 'Never again, ' again and again. 11 April 2014. 19 November 2014 <>. Power, Samantha. Never Again. 214. 2014 November 18 <>. Robinson, B.A. Atrocities since WWII. 15 Nov 2009. 17 November 2014 <>. Staff, 2009. 19 November 2014 <>. Bibliography "Brief Biography of Martin Niemoller." Brief Biography of Martin Niemoller. Introduction to the Holocaust. 17 11 2014 <>. Marcuse, Harold. "Translation of The Stuttgart Delaration of Guilt." 12 July 2014. 19 November 2014

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Why we still need to teach young people about the Holocaust

persuasive essay on the holocaust

Lecturer in Applied Health and Social Care, Edge Hill University

persuasive essay on the holocaust

Lecturer in the Psychosocial Analysis of Offending Behaviour, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Edge Hill University

persuasive essay on the holocaust

Senior Lecturer in Applied Health & Social Care, Edge Hill University

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persuasive essay on the holocaust

It has been more than 70 years since the Nazi-occupied Auschwitz concentration camp was liberated . Auschwitz was the most notorious of all the concentration camps – where it is believed that more than a million people were systematically exterminated via state systems of execution and torture.

Concentration camps were central to the Nazi ideology and victims were mostly Jews, Gypsies, black people , gay people and people with intellectual disabilities.

But while most people have heard of the major concentration camps – Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Treblinka – these were not the only places Jews and other prisoners were held. Each of the 23 main camps had sub-camps – there were nearly 900 of them in total.

The horrors of Auschwitz and World War II led Western scholars and governments to become increasingly sensitive to the need to educate society about the dangers of exclusionary institutional structures and genocidal social policies . Which is why schools throughout Europe and beyond teach students about the Holocaust – and the associated moral and ethical issues.

The importance of Holocaust commemoration has also helped to create symbolic places and memorials – such as the Museum of the History of Polish Jews . This museum has an educational training centre with facilities to enrich the studies on the Holocaust. Other sites include the Jewish Museum in Prague and the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

History repeating?

Young people today are growing up at a time when support for right-wing politics is on the rise across Europe. With unemployment rife and the prospects of owning a home diminishing, right-wing groups offer an alternative way for disengaged young people to see the world . This is evidenced by a surge of numbers and support for far-right parties groups across Europe – including France, Sweden, The Netherlands and Austria.

In these countries, outsider parties have had large increases in support for their populist and controversial political campaigns . And while most of these parties have not achieved a full grip on power, it is a cause for concern that radical right-ring candidates are getting votes and being taken seriously .

persuasive essay on the holocaust

This is increasingly worrying given that direct intolerance of others is being advocated by powerful world leaders. Since Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 US presidential election, he has caused tensions among ethnic minority groups in the US and beyond .

Parallels between this growth of far-right parties can be seen in our recent history. And the political unrest, inequalities, lack of employment opportunities and fragmented societies – the sort of conditions that helped the Nazis get into power all those years ago – are alarmingly similar to the current situation in Europe.

Importance of remembering

It is therefore timely and important that young people continue to develop an understanding of the consequences of these ideologies and develop a moral compass. One way this can be done is by taking students to these historical sites and memorials to gain a full insight as to what it was like live through horrific events such as the Holocaust.

Our ongoing research suggests that by visiting emotional sites such as Auschwitz, it may help students to become more morally and socially aware of the consequences of exclusionary policies . And that it also helps to foster a sense of responsibility among young people – and assist in the development of their emotional and interpersonal life skills .

This is vitally important, because we have found that some university educated students have a real lack of knowledge and understanding of the Holocaust – and recent political events – despite having this information at their fingertips.

Educating for the future

In this way then, universities and schools have an obligation to educate and develop the moral and social awareness of young people. And there is a real need to preserve Holocaust sites such as Auschwitz for future generations to learn from.

Young people today are the future leaders of the world tomorrow – so it is vital that we ensure these atrocities of the Holocaust are not repeated. Especially given the diminishing numbers of survivors able to “tell their story”.

This is why young people need to be exposed to these historical events . And now is the time to promote tolerance and an understanding of others . Because otherwise, how else can they truly understand the potentially dire consequences of exclusion, division and lack of tolerance of others.

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Essays on Holocaust

Holocaust: prejudice, hatred, and discrimination.

I am so excited to share my personal perspective on a topic so closely held to my Jewish Heritage. Growing up as an observant Jew I was taught about so many historical events that go back thousands of years. Amongst them, the Holocaust resonates in my mind as an event that I feel as a Jew, I need to understand. I continue to go back to 1933 when the onset of the Holocaust in Europe began, and had continued through […]

Holocaust Museum

As expected, going to the Holocaust Museum was a very emotional experience. I learned about the Holocaust throughout my middle and high school years and it makes me angry and disgusted, but once I saw all the artifacts and pictures of what the Jewish people and their families had to go through I have this indescribable sense of empathy, putting myself in their shoes which gives me a different feeling then of just learning about it from a book or […]

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Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights

To study history means that one must come to terms that it is ridden with evils, most against groups of human beings. Between the late 1930s and mid-1940s, one of the worst examples of a Genocide in history had taken place in Europe. The Holocaust saw Nazi’s in Germany slaughtering around six million Jews and an overall total of almost eleven million human beings. The use of gas chambers and experiments to torture and kill these innocent lives were used […]

Holocaust in Hollywood Movies

Hollywood is notorious for creating films based on true stories, but the end result elaborates the truth or adds details for entertainment to increase interest. Schindler’s List is no different. Many historical movies have had love interests or love story base line to appeal to more audiences therefore increasing revenue. Spielberg not only adds to the movie but chooses to leave out historical information to retell easier. Schindler’s List is based on the book written by Thomas Keneally which has […]

Holocaust Diaries

Over the past decade, moral, political and legal philosophers around the world became increasingly interested in understanding the concept of evil. The ascriptions of evil motivated this by journalists as they attempt to comprehend and respond to various atrocities and horrors of the past, Holocaust, and killing sprees by killers. Today, it is difficult to capture the moral significance of these acts, and their perpetrator by calling them ‘wrong.’ A concept of evil is therefore, needed. In understanding the concept, […]

Holocaust: Monuments, Memorials, and Public Demonstrations

In the same way that a film or picture can evoke countless feelings and emotions from its audience, monuments, memorials, and public demonstrations have the same ability. The events of the Holocaust have created an everlasting impact on not only those affected and the future generations, but even cities and countries that were not directly affected. The Holocaust Memorial located in Marion Square in Charleston, South Carolina attracts hundreds of residents of the city and tourists from all across the […]

Holocaust on Air in “The Pianist”

There is a controversial debate regarding the film The Pianist (2002) directed by Roman Polanski on whether it is a truthful representation of the Holocaust which involved systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution of six million Jews (Introduction to the Holocaust). In particular, there are many views that the film was not focused on the Holocaust event itself, but rather primarily intended to convey the power of art and the relationship between aesthetics and politics. Specifically, Polanski used devastating, chaotic conditions of […]

Holocaust Medical Experiments on Jews

6 million Jews were killed during the Holocaust; which is equal to one fifth of the Jewish religion. Multiple German doctors directed agonizing and often times deadly experiments to the prisoners in their lethal camps. This essay will be talking about Holocaust experiments that took place during World War?. Many traumatic events happened during this time. Some in which include the Experiments that Nazi’s did on the Jews. They did many experiments during this time, here are only a few […]

The Holocaust Survivor

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The Holocaust: how it Came to be

The Holocaust is a part of human history that baffles many, and understandably so due to its magnitude. One may find it difficult to conceptualize the sheer number of innocent people killed at the hands of such hatred. Many people wonder how the Holocaust came to creation. Though the Holocaust is a result of an innumerable number of influences, the political and economic situation of Germany following World War I as well as Hitler’s subsequent and rapid rise to power […]

Leon’s Holocaust

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The Holocaust – very Important Event in Human History

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The Holocaust Depicted through Film “The Pianist”

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The Holocaust: a Big Mistake

When the Nazi party took over Germany, they instituted rules and laws that affected Jews and other minorities differently than the primarily Caucasian majority. They caused extreme hardships for everyone during this time. These institutions, along with the inherent beliefs of the Nazi party, are what lead to what we now know as the Holocaust. The Holocaust was a period of time when the Nazi party had taken over Germany. They believed that certain people were dangerous and needed to […]

The Holocaust is One of the Worst Events in Human History

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The Holocaust: Isolationism and Antisemitism

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The Holocaust has been an undisputed fact of history since WW2. Yet there are people out there who deny that it ever happened, or that the events presented to us are altered in some way, be it death count or how the prisoners were actually treated. This belief first appeared almost immediately after the end of World War 2, as people were just learning about the brutality of the Nazi regime. A combination of shock and horror of the violence […]

To what Extent did German Jews have a Sufficient Warning of the Holocaust

“Prior to the events of the Holocaust there is an issue of whether or not German Jews had the chance to escape and/or avoid the mass genocide of the Holocaust Adolf Hitler had instigated; this brings a debate if there was a clear indication if this event was going to happen. In this case it is the argument of ‘To what extent did German Jews have a sufficient warning of the Holocaust?’. A sufficient warning is any clear indication of […]

Definition of Holocaust: Destruction or Slaughter on a Mass Scale

How Hitler rose to power On January 30, 1933 the president of Germany Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as the new chancellor of Germany. At the time Germany was in an economical depression that had put millions out of work, because of this its was fairly easily for someone like Adolf Hitler to rise to power. On July 14, 1933 the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche arbeiterpartei in German) was declared the only political party that was […]

How the Holocaust Happened

History has many common themes; persecution, genocide and discrimination are just a few of them. The Holocaust is one event that intertwines these three themes. The Jewish people have been persecuted numerous times throughout history. There have also been genocides that killed as many or more people as the Holocaust, such as; the depopulation of the USSR under Stalin between 1929-1939 that claimed approximately 20 million lives, or the killing of the North and South American Indians in the 16th […]

Responsibility for the Holocaust

Latisha made an important acknowledgment in mentioning, atrocities were devoted due to the Germans were so cruel, and aggressive during the time Hitler was in power. Fundamental attribution is defined as making a judgment about someone’s character which can be from a person’s conduct in a particular situation. Not seeing the German individuals were experiencing and why they were acting the way they were rather Latisha’s attention was straightforwardly on German Culture in Hitler’s opportunity. She moved her focal point […]

America and the Holocaust: Deceit and Indifference

“The film, America and the Holocaust: Deceit and Indifference, is about America’s involvement in saving the Jewish population from being subjected in the Holocaust. The film succeeds in persuading its audience, America and its citizens, that America could have been more active in saving the lives of many Jews. The film focuses on revealing the anti-semitic environment present in America during the early 20th century, biased immigration laws, and absolute indifference towards rescuing European Jews. Martin Ostrow, the director of […]

Implications of the Holocaust

The Holocaust has always been a hard topic to speak about, read about, and understand the why’s and how’s. Rarely is it spoken of the implications it had on the people who survived it, their posterity, and the world as a whole. Upon further examination of numerous online articles and biographies there are several mainstream affects that have afflicted all that have lived and will ever live in the limelight of the Holocaust. During the time that the Holocaust was […]

Eva Survived the Holocaust

Change heading format T’Mea Booth Prof. Esposito HST 121 019 October 2018 Eva Survived the Holocaust What is the Holocaust / who started it all Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was the founder and leader of the Nazi Party and the most influential voice in the organization, implementation, and execution of the Holocaust, the systematic extermination and ethnic cleansing of six million European Jews and millions of other non-arynes. On January 30, 1993, the Holocaust began to occur in Nazi Germany. Insert […]

My Reflection about Holocaust

During the Holocaust, around six million individuals, the majority being Jewish, were exterminated by the Nazis. Jews that were located across Germany, and the parts of Europe that were occupied by the Nazi regime and all gathered up and sent to death camps where they would then be forced into slave labor, and staved. Those seen as not fit for work would be gassed, shot, experimented on, and abused. The whole situation was killing and death on an enormous size, […]

Cause of the Holocaust and its Results

The Holocaust was a time during the second world war when Hitler killed a lot of Jews. In the territories they captured the Nazis figured the Jews were a problem in Germany. In 1942, the last resort for the Nazis was to kill the Jews. They were put in camps. These camps were called concentration camps which were places where prisoners from the war were kept. If they were not able to work their jobs were to be laborers. The […]

Extra Credit Assignment on Holocaust Survivor: Susan Cernyak-Spatz

The event which I attended was a presentation from Holocaust survivor, Susan Cernyak-Spatz. Unfortunately, she was not able to make it to speak due to not feeling well. Instead, a video of her speaking on surviving the Holocaust was played. The one problem I had with this event was that it was extremely hard to hear her in the video, which made it difficult to fully comprehend everything she had to say and to take notes on it. I did […]

One of the most important event that has ever occurred in history is, ‘The Holocaust.’ It was also known as the ‘Final Solution to The Jewish Questions, and the ‘Shoah.’ In Greek, Holocaust means ‘sacrifice by fire.’ The Holocaust was a massive genocide that mainly targeted Jews during World War Two. The Holocaust was started by Adolf Hitler. Around 6 million Jews, including children, died. The Jews died in Concentration Camps, Extermination Camps, Cattle Wagons, and Gas Chambers. Some of the Jews were tricked into entering the gas chambers. Those who were considered ‘abnormal’ or went against Hitler were also killed. The Holocaust began in 1933 and ended in 1945. Why was the Holocaust important and why did it leave a ‘mark’ in history? Well, in this essay I’m going to explain the importance of the Holocaust, why it happened, and what if it didn’t happen. There is not a definite answer to why 6 million Jews were killed. Some say the Holocaust happened because the Nazis believed it was the right thing to do because the Jews were ‘low and evil.’ Hitler and the Nazis also blamed the Jews for all the social and economic problems in Germany. For example, Hitler blamed them for the losing of World War One and the Economic Crisis. The Nazis wanted their race to be ‘perfect,’ and free/clean from any abnormalities. The concentration camps are where most of the Jews died. The largest concentration camp was Auschwitz.

The Nuremburg laws (Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor) that were placed, also prevented the Jews from having any rights. The Holocaust could’ve been prevented if enough people stood up for the Jews. If the Holocaust hadn’t had happened the Jews would still be ‘low and evil’ and have less power/status than they have today. There wouldn’t be any concentration camps and the death marches wouldn’t happen. The Germans also wouldn’t be looked down upon. The would probably be no World War 2 There would be a lot more Jews, and one of those Jews that died could’ve made the world a different place. Hitler would also probably would’ve gained more power, and someone would still have to end up defeating him. But because of the Holocaust, genocide was unacceptable instead of a normal part of warfare. Israel probably wouldn’t exist either if the Holocaust had not happened.

The Jews were also unable to defend themselves, for they had no weapons, rights, and help from others. We learn about the Holocaust today because it helps people understand the past, prejudice, racism, and stereotyping. The Holocaust also shows that something bad could’ve been prevented if someone spoke up instead of being a bystander. The Holocaust demonstrates that one person shouldn’t have too much power(Hitler), and that the people should also have power. George Santayana also said, ‘those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’It’s important to know about the Holocaust so that you avoid making the same mistakes again. In conclusion, it’s important to know about the Holocaust and why it happened, so that it doesn’t happen again. It helps people understand that racism is wrong. Even though the Holocaust is a terrible event it helped make the world a better place, and to tolerate people who have different beliefs. 

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Editor’s Note: Harry D. Wall is on the Board of Directors of the Olga Lengyel Institute for Holocaust Studies and Human Rights. He has long been involved in human rights activities, Jewish and other non-profit organizations. His reportage and videos are on Jewish Discoveries . The views expressed in this commentary are his own. View more opinion at CNN.

Ignorance about the Holocaust is growing, particularly among young people. In the United States, a 2018 survey showed that 66% of millennials could not identify what the Auschwitz concentration and death camp was.

A recent CNN poll in Europe revealed that about a third of the 7,000 European respondents across seven countries knew “just a little or nothing at all” about the Holocaust. In France, nearly 20% of young adults between the ages of 18 and 34 said they had never heard of the Holocaust.

Harry D. Wall

These studies paint a disquieting picture of widening gaps in the knowledge and understanding of the Holocaust with the passing years. The concern isn’t only that the Holocaust is fading from memory, it’s that the lessons that can be applied to the ongoing human rights abuses and threats to democracy are also being lost. Today, January 27, is International Holocaust Remembrance Day, and there is no better time to call for a renewed effort to educate young people about the Nazi genocide of 6 million Jews.

As awareness of the Holocaust declines, we have witnessed, perhaps not coincidentally, a surge in anti-Semitic attacks. The FBI reported a 37% spike in anti-Jewish hate crimes in 2017 compared to the previous year. In October, a gunman shouting anti-Semitic slurs opened fire at a Pittsburgh synagogue, killing 11 worshipers in what was the deadliest attack against Jews in US history.

A 1944 Nazi book detailing the Jewish population in North America and once owned by Adolf Hitler has been acquired by Canada's national archive and library.

Hitler-owned book hints at plans for North American Holocaust

And in Europe, the very continent where six million Jews perished by Nazi genocide, it is alarming and appalling that anti-Semitism once again threatens Jewish communities.

An EU-commissioned poll in 2017 found that 28% percent of European Jews said they had been harassed that year.

Nearly 90% of European Jews, according to the same survey, believe anti-Semitism has worsened online in their respective countries over the last five years, and more than one in three are considering emigration.

In the face of growing anti-Semitism, there is a compelling need to teach the Holocaust in schools in the US and Europe. Holocaust education also serves a broader purpose, since it can provide a historical context to understand and prevent other atrocities. The Holocaust began with words, racial stereotyping and demonization – and that has also been the prelude to mass violence around the globe.

Edith Eger State of Hate pkg

Holocaust survivor: It was hell, yet I'm here

The Holocaust reduced social and economic pressures to simplistic responses, which blamed one segment of the population for national or social problems. It was not the first time in history that Jews have been singled out for blame and attack. The vilification of Judaism extends for two millennia. It’s important to note that contemporary fascists, racists and extremists employ similar tactics against other minorities.

Studying the Holocaust can provide a necessary understanding of how an entire population was bullied and manipulated by demagogues before succumbing to hate and fear-mongering. It can also serve as a blueprint for recognizing the dangers of demonization and incitement, and help guard human rights and strengthen core democratic values.

The Holocaust can also teach young people today how to confront bigotry through the stories of courageous individuals in Nazi-occupied Europe who stood up to the power of the mob and risked their lives to save Jews. There is much to be learned from examining the motivations and behavior of perpetuators and collaborators, as well as bystanders, protesters and heroes.

A member of Berlin's Jewish Community walks past the Star of David inside the Synagogue Rykestrasse in Berlin prior to a ceremony on November 9, 2018 to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the Kristallnacht Nazi pogrom. - Germany remembers victims of the Nazi pogrom that heralded the start of the Third Reich's drive to wipe out Jews, at a time when anti-Semitism is resurgent in the West. (Photo by Tobias SCHWARZ / AFP)        (Photo credit should read TOBIAS SCHWARZ/AFP/Getty Images)

Europe's rising anti-Semitism demands a new social contract

Several states in the United States, among them California, New York, and Illinois, mandate some form of Holocaust and genocide education.

Europe, Germany, the UK, and France are among the countries that require schools to teach the Holocaust. And 32 nations belong to the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, established in 1998, which encourages education and research.

Too often, however, required education is treated as a perfunctory curriculum obligation, sandwiched in a lesson plan about World War II or modern European history.

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Notable as this is, more must be done. Education, including Holocaust studies, is only one of the important ways for societies to confront rising extremism, prejudice and hate. Outspoken leadership – in politics, media, and other sectors – is also essential.

Democracy is fragile, and human rights are easily weakened or demolished. What happened to the Jews in Nazi Germany is one of history’s worst atrocities. It certainly wasn’t the last of its kind, as witnessed in Srebrenica, Rwanda, and now Myanmar. Unless we learn the lessons of the past, no society or country is safe from the demons that lurk among us.

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<p>Affidavit signed by Rudolf Hoess attesting to the gassing of Jews while he was the commandant of the Auschwitz killing center. The German text reads: "I declare herewith under oath that in the years 1941 to 1943 during my tenure in office as commandant of Auschwitz Concentration Camp 2 million Jews were put to death by gassing and a 1/2 million by other means. Rudolf Hoess. May 14, 1946." The confession is also signed by Josef Maier of the US Chief of Counsel's office. A photoreproduction of the original document is on display on the third floor of the Permanent Exhibition at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.</p>

Combating Holocaust Denial: Evidence of the Holocaust presented at Nuremberg

The Holocaust is the best documented case of genocide. During the trials held in Nuremberg after the war, Allied prosecutors submitted thousands of German documents proving that the Nazi regime had carried out the systematic persecution and destruction of the Jewish people. This evidence included numerous photographs and films created by Nazi Germans. It also included eyewitness accounts by survivors and perpetrators.

The Nuremberg trial of the major Nazi war criminals exposed Nazi Germany’s plans for premeditated war against its European neighbors and its implementation of policies that led to the persecution and mass murder of Europe’s Jews.

In its case against the Nazi leadership, the prosecution assembled a mass of evidence, documents as well as personal testimony, on the Holocaust.

This evidence serves as conclusive proof of the Holocaust and a lasting refutation of those who attempt to deny it.

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The best known of the war crimes trials held after World War II was the trial of “major” German war criminals held in Nuremberg, Germany. Leading officials of the Nazi regime were tried before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, before judges from Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States. The IMT tried 22 Germans as major war criminals on charges of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. In twelve subsequent proceedings, the United States tried 183 German leaders in Nuremberg.

But the Nuremberg trials did more than just try leading Nazi officials in government, the armed forces, and the economy. Their lasting legacy included the deliberate assembly of a public record of the horrific crimes, including those of the Holocaust , committed by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II .

In his opening statement to the IMT on November 21, 1945, Justice Robert H. Jackson, Chief of Counsel for the United States, outlined the case against the Nazi leaders and the evidence he planned on introducing into the trial. He stated:

This Tribunal, while it is novel and experimental, is not the product of abstract speculations… We will not ask you to convict these men on the testimony of their foes. There is no count in the Indictment that cannot be proved by books and records…[these men] arranged frequently to be photographed in action. You will see their own conduct and hear their own voices as these defendants reenact for you some of the events in the course of the conspiracy. — US Chief Prosecutor Robert H. Jackson Opening statement before the International Military Tribunal

Listen to an excerpt 1

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By using Nazi documents against the defendents, one of the prosecution’s goals was to prove that the Nazis had deliberately set out to destroy the Jewish people. They did this by assembling evidence that confirmed a Nazi plan to systematically murder Europe’s Jews. In his opening statement, Jackson further explained:

These crimes were organized and promoted by the [Nazi] Party leadership, executed and protected by the Nazi officials, as we shall convince you by written orders of the Secret State Police [Gestapo] itself... The conspiracy or common plan to exterminate the Jew...largely has succeeded. Only remnants of the European Jewish population remain in Germany, in the countries which Germany occupied, and in those which were her satellites or collaborators.

Nazi German Documents as Evidence

The American prosecutors at Nuremberg decided the best evidence against Nazi war criminals was the record left by the Nazi German state itself. They wanted to convict Nazi war criminals with their own words. While the Germans destroyed some of the historical record at the end of the war and some German records were destroyed during the Allied bombing of German cities, Allied armies captured millions of documents during the conquest of Germany in 1945. Allied prosecutors submitted tens of thousands of documents at the Nuremberg trials . More than a decade later, beginning in 1958, the United States National Archives, in collaboration with the American Historical Association, published 62 volumes of finding aids to the records captured by the US military at the end of the war. More than 30 further volumes were published before the end of the 20th century.

Benjamin (Beryl) Ferencz describes collecting evidence against alleged war criminals

The US Army made many significant finds of Nazi booty and records, among them gold, currency, artworks, and documentation discovered on April 7, 1945, by engineers of the US 90th Infantry Division in the Kaiseroda Salt Mine in Merkers, Germany. Millions of documents were captured at various locations, including records of the German Army High Command records; files from Krupp, Henschel, and other German industrial concerns; Luftwaffe (German air force) material; and records kept by Heinrich Himmler (the Chief of the German Police and Reich Leader of the SS), the German Foreign Office, and many others.

Map titled

Even where central files had been destroyed, the Allies were able to some extent to reconstruct events and operations from the records they did secure. The Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) records, for example, were burned in the basement of its Prague regional headquarters but copies of many RSHA records were found and collected from the files of local Gestapo (secret state police) offices across Germany.

Captured German documents, such as the Einsatzgruppen Reports, also provided a record of the policies and actions of the Nazi state. Einsatzgruppen (special action groups) were assigned among other tasks to kill Jewish civilians during the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. The Einsatzgruppen Reports, which documented their progress, were among the documents submitted at Nuremberg that were central to proving the Holocaust had occurred.

Among the most crucial documents submitted as evidence at Nuremberg was the Wannsee Conference Protocol. This document is one of the most important surviving German documents on the Holocaust. It comprises the carefully revised minutes of the Wannsee Conference (January 20, 1942), chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, at which he outlined the expansion of Nazi mass murder to encompass 11 million Jews in Europe. The Protocol was compiled, and heavily edited, by Adolf Eichmann from notes taken during the meeting. It identifies not only the participants at the conference, but their agreement to collaborate on a continental scale in the “ Final Solution to the Jewish Question,” in other words, mass murder.

These are just a few examples of the types of documents collected and presented by the prosecution at Nuremberg.

Photographs and Film as Evidence

During the Nuremberg trial, Nazi Germany's dedicated filming of itself was also turned into evidence of its crimes. From the earliest beginnings of the Nazi Party in the 1920s, through the military invasions of World War II and graphic depictions of atrocities, German photographers and camera crews recorded (often proudly) what they accomplished in pursuit of their ideology. Toward the end of the war, teams of Allied military personnel worked tirelessly to locate, collect, and categorize this photographic and film record.

Film Presented as Evidence: "The Nazi Plan"

In addition to official photography and films produced at the order of the Nazi state, German soldiers and police took numerous photographs and film footage of German operations against Jews and other civilians. They documented the public humiliation of Jews, their deportation, mass murder, and confinement in concentration camps. This became powerful visual evidence of Nazi war crimes submitted at Nuremberg. Such photographic documentation came from all levels of the Nazi hierarchy.

For example, Allied prosecutors submitted as evidence to the IMT the so-called “Stroop Report,” a commemorative album from SS and Police Leader Jürgen Stroop to his superior Heinrich Himmler. The report documented Stroop’s brutal suppression of the Warsaw ghetto uprising in spring 1943. An appendix included an album of photographs taken on his orders. According to Stroop's own calculations, his forces captured more than 55,000 Jews. Of these, they killed at least 7,000 people and sent 7,000 more to the Treblinka killing center .

Stroop Report cover

Further visual documentation came from the US Army Signal Corps , which, in the course of photographing and filming American operations in World War II, also played a crucial role in documenting evidence of Nazi atrocities and the Holocaust. Many of the early still and moving pictures of newly liberated Nazi concentration camps were taken by Army photographers such as Arnold E. Samuelson and J Malan Heslop . A number of these images were later transmitted to news agencies in the United States and other countries, where they helped to inform the world about the horrors of Nazism and the plight of concentration camp prisoners.

On November 29, 1945, the IMT prosecution introduced an hour-long film titled "The Nazi Concentration Camps." When the lights came up in the Palace of Justice all assembled sat in silence. The human impact of this visual evidence was a turning point in the Nuremberg trial. It brought the Holocaust into the courtroom.

  Film Presented as Evidence

Survivor and Perpetrator Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness testimony from both perpetrators and survivors laid the foundation for much of what we know about the Holocaust, including details of the Auschwitz death machinery, atrocities committed by the Einsatzgruppen and other SS and police units, the destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, and the original statistical estimate of six million murdered Jews. Many people directly involved in the killing program died before the end of the war, but the Allies interrogated many of those who were still alive in preparation for the trial. None of the perpetrators denied the Holocaust. Most just tried to deflect their responsibility for the killings.

Three key perpetrators gave evidence directly related to the Holocaust. Hermann Göring, the highest official of the Nazi state tried at Nuremberg, testified openly and frankly about the persecution of German Jews from the rise of the Nazi Party to power in 1933 until the outbreak of war in 1939. Otto Ohlendorf testified directly about his unit, Einsatzgruppe D, killing 90,000 Jews in southern Ukraine in 1941. And the long-time commandant of Auschwitz, Rudolf Hoess, testified frankly about the gassing of more than a million Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center during the war. All three claimed that they carried out the legitimate orders of the state. The testimony of these and other perpetrators is often chilling in its frankness about the killing program.

Nuremberg Trial: Goering testifies

Irrefutable Evidence of the Holocaust

The IMT’s findings and the fact that perpetrators themselves admitted that the “Final Solution” took place is irrefutable evidence of the Holocaust.

During the trial, the perpetrators themselves never said that the Holocaust did not happen. Rather, they tended to absolve themselves of individual guilt. Neither they nor their defense attorneys claimed that the mass murder of Europe’s Jews did not happen.

No less important are personal, immediate, and compelling testimonies of the Holocaust provided as evidence by survivors, who directly experienced Nazi genocidal policies. Survivors like Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier, who testified at Nuremberg about her experiences at Auschwitz, provided the human element to the trial proceedings. Such witnesses conveyed what it meant to be the target of genocide.

Taken together, the documents, photographs, film, and eyewitness testimonies at postwar trials, as well as thousands of hours of survivor testimony recorded since the IMT took place in 1945, provide undeniable documentation of the Holocaust.

Series: Holocaust Denial

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Evidence from the Holocaust at the First Nuremberg Trial

Combating holocaust denial: origins of holocaust denial.

persuasive essay on the holocaust

Holocaust Deniers and Public Misinformation

Holocaust denial: key dates, series: international military tribunal.

persuasive essay on the holocaust

Postwar Trials

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How Were the Crimes Defined?

persuasive essay on the holocaust

International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg

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International Military Tribunal: The Defendants

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Building the Courtroom, Building the Case

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Translation in the Courtroom

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Who Tried the Case?

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Witnessing History

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Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

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Further Reading

Evans, Richard J.  Lying About Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial . New York: Basic Books, 2001.

Gottfried, Ted.  Deniers of the Holocaust: Who They Are, What They Do, Why They Do It . Brookfield, CT: Twenty-First Century Books, 2001.

Lipstadt, Deborah.  Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory . New York: Free Press, 1993.

Shermer, Michael, and Alex Grobman.  Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It?  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Zimmerman, John C.  Holocaust Denial: Demographics, Testimonies, and Ideologies . Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000.

We will not ask you to convict these men on the testimony of their foes. There is no count in the Indictment that cannot be proved by books and records. The Germans were always meticulous record keepers, and these defendants had their share of a Teutonic passion for thoroughness in putting things on paper. Nor were they without vanity. They arranged frequently to be photographed in action. We will show you their own films. You will see their own conduct and hear their own voices as these defendants reenact for you some of the events in the course of the conspiracy.

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Visual Essay: The Impact of Propaganda

At a Glance

Propaganda was one of the most important tools the Nazis used to shape the beliefs and attitudes of the German public. Through posters, film, radio, museum exhibits, and other media, they bombarded the German public with messages designed to build support for and gain acceptance of their vision for the future of Germany. The gallery of images below exhibits several examples of Nazi propaganda, and the introduction that follows explores the history of propaganda and how the Nazis sought to use it to further their goals.

The Impact of Propaganda

Nazi national welfare program.

This 1934 propaganda poster in support of the national welfare program reads: “National health, national community, child protection, protection of mothers, care for travelers, are the tasks of the NS-Welfare Service. Join now!”

Nazi Recruitment Propaganda

This mid-1930s poster says, “The NSDAP [Nazi Party] protects the people. Your fellow comrades need your advice and help, so join the local party organization.

Hitler Youth Propaganda

This 1935 poster promotes the Hitler Youth by stating: “Youth serves the Führer! All ten-year-olds into the Hitler Youth.”

Nazi Propaganda Newspaper

An issue of the antisemitic propaganda newspaper  Der Stürmer  (The Attacker) is posted on the sidewalk in Worms, Germany, in 1935. The headline above the case says, "The Jews Are Our Misfortune."

Triumph of the Will Propaganda Film

Leni Riefenstahl's documentary-style film glorified Hitler and the Nazi Party. It was shot at the 1934 Nazi Party congress and rally in Nuremberg.

Propaganda Portrait of Hitler

This portrait,  The Standard Bearer , was painted by artist Hubert Lanzinger and displayed in the Great German Art Exhibition in Munich in 1937.

The Eternal Jew

This 1938 poster advertises a popular antisemitic traveling exhibit called  Der Ewige Jude  (The Eternal Jew).

Antisemitic Display at Der Ewige Jude

Women examining a display at the  Der Ewige Jude  (The Eternal Jew) exhibition in the Reichstag building in November 1938.

Antisemitic Children's Book

From the 1938 antisemitic children’s book  The Poisonous Mushroom . The boy is drawing a nose on the chalkboard, and the caption reads: “The Jewish nose is crooked at its tip. It looks like a 6.”

Introduction to the Visual Essay

The readings in this chapter describe the Nazis’ efforts to consolidate their power and create a German “national community” in the mid-1930s. Propaganda—information that is intended to persuade an audience to accept a particular idea or cause, often by using biased material or by stirring up emotions—was one of the most powerful tools the Nazis used to accomplish these goals.

Hitler and Goebbels did not invent propaganda. The word itself was coined by the Catholic Church to describe its efforts to discredit Protestant teachings in the 1600s. Over the years, almost every nation has used propaganda to unite its people in wartime. Both sides spread propaganda during World War I, for example. But the Nazis were notable for making propaganda a key element of government even before Germany went to war again. One of Hitler’s first acts as chancellor was to establish the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, demonstrating his belief that controlling information was as important as controlling the military and the economy. He appointed Joseph Goebbels as director. Through the ministry, Goebbels was able to penetrate virtually every form of German media, from newspapers, film, radio, posters, and rallies to museum exhibits and school textbooks, with Nazi propaganda. 

Whether or not propaganda was truthful or tasteful was irrelevant to the Nazis. Goebbels wrote in his diary, "no one can say your propaganda is too rough, too mean; these are not criteria by which it may be characterized. It ought not be decent nor ought it be gentle or soft or humble; it ought to lead to success." 1 Hitler wrote in  Mein Kampf  that to achieve its purpose, propaganda must "be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan. As soon as you sacrifice this slogan and try to be many-sided, the effect will piddle away."

Some Nazi propaganda used positive images to glorify the government’s leaders and its various activities, projecting a glowing vision of the “national community.” Nazi propaganda could also be ugly and negative, creating fear and loathing by portraying the regime’s “enemies” as dangerous and even sub-human. The Nazis’ distribution of antisemitic films, newspaper cartoons, and even children’s books aroused centuries-old prejudices against Jews and also presented new ideas about the racial impurity of Jews. The newspaper  Der Stürmer  (The Attacker), published by Nazi Party member Julius Streicher, was a key outlet for antisemitic propaganda. 

This visual essay includes a selection of Nazi propaganda images, both “positive” and “negative.” It focuses on posters that Germans would have seen in newspapers like  Der Stürmer  and passed in the streets, in workplaces, and in schools. Some of these posters were advertisements for traveling exhibits—on topics like “The Eternal Jew” or the evils of communism—that were themselves examples of propaganda. 

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Facing History and Ourselves, " Visual Essay: The Impact of Propaganda ," last updated April 29, 2022.

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The entrance to the main camp at Auschwitz, bearing the motto “Arbeit Macht Frei.”

The entrance to the main camp at Auschwitz, bearing the motto “Arbeit Macht Frei.” ——US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Instytut Pamieci Narodowej


Background information, linguistic analyses, dictionaries, additional resources.

Every detail of daily life was strictly controlled and regulated under National Socialism. This control by the state extended to the German language, both in the colloquial and the official context. Certain words such as Volk (“the people”) and Fanatismus (“fanaticism”) became synonymous with the official party line of the Third Reich. Other terms were created as euphemisms to hide acts of terror. For example, in the language of the Nazis, Sonderbehandlung (“special treatment”) meant execution, and the term Endlösung (“final solution”) referred to the systematic extermination and mass murder of the Jewish peoples.

The following bibliography was compiled to guide readers to materials on Nazi terminology and the use of the German language during the Third Reich that are in the Library’s collection. It is not meant to be exhaustive. Annotations are provided to help the user determine the item’s focus, and call numbers for the Museum’s Library are given in parentheses following each citation. Those unable to visit might be able to find these works in a nearby public library or acquire them through interlibrary loan. Follow the “Find in a library near you” link in each citation and enter your zip code at the Open WorldCat search screen. The results of that search indicate all libraries in your area that own that particular title. Talk to your local librarian for assistance.

Bein, Alex. “The Jewish Parasite - Notes on the Semantics of the Jewish Problem, with Special Reference to Germany.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 9 (1964): 3-40. (DS 135 .G3 A262 v.9) [ Find in a library near you ]

Explores racist and derogatory descriptions of Jews in the German language, beginning with the 18th century with particular emphasis on the period of the Third Reich.

Bosmajian, Haig A. The Language of Oppression . Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1974. (P 120 .R48 B67 1974) [ Find in a library near you ]

Includes a chapter on the antisemitic language of the Third Reich, illustrating the Nazi use of ambiguous terminology as a small step towards the Final Solution. Considers Hitler’s low regard of his audiences and the advantage of the spoken word over the written. Includes reference list of both primary and secondary sources.

Esh, Shaul. “Words and Their Meanings: Twenty-Five Examples of Nazi Idiom.” Yad Vashem Studies 5 (1963): 133-167. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.5) [ Find in a library near you ]

Analyzes the changes in the German language under National Socialism, including artificially created terms such as Einvolkung (“assimilation”) and Entjudung (“de-Judaization”). Discusses how some of these terms and phrases, although grammatically incorrect, nevertheless became part of the official language of the Nazi administration. Includes an index of Nazi terms mentioned in the article.

Friedlander, Henry. “The Manipulation of Language.” In The Holocaust: Ideology, Bureaucracy, and Genocide , edited by Henry Friedlander and Sybil Milton, 103-113. Millwood, NY: Kraus International, 1980. (D 810 .J4 S25 1977) [ Find in a library near you ]

Discusses the public and bureaucratic aspects of “Nazi language.” Includes information on euphemisms, code words, and idioms used in the concentration camps.

Horan, Geraldine. Mothers, Warriors, Guardians of the Soul: Female Discourse in National Socialism, 1924-1934 . Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 2003. (PF 3074 .H67 2003) [ Find in a library near you ]

Analyzes how women used language in Germany from 1924 through the early parts of the Nazi regime, with special emphasis on the years 1931-1934. Examines in detail the women’s movement and the role of women in German society during the 1920s and 1930s, and investigates how women involved in National Socialism defined themselves through language. Features images of original letters, detailed footnotes, and a bibliography.

Hutton, Christopher. Linguistics and the Third Reich: Mother-tongue Fascism, Race and the Science of Language . New York: Routledge, 1999. (P 119.32 .G3 H88 1999) [ Find in a library near you ]

Re-examines long-standing myths about the role of language within the Nazi state. Compares and analyzes the work of numerous German linguists from the Third Reich period. Features a special chapter on Yiddish linguistics. Includes an extensive bibliography.

Pegelow, Thomas. “ Linguistic Violence: Language, Power and Separation in the Fate of Germans of Jewish Ancestry, 1928-1948 .” Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 2004. (P 119.32 .G3 P44 2004) [ Find in a library near you ]

Focuses on the central role of political and cultural language during the Weimar period and Nazi era, discussing the significance of terms such as “Germanness” and “Jewishness.” Examines the role of government agencies and cultural organizations in the dissemination of these “racialized” categories and statements and highlights German resistance to language reforms. Includes a bibliography, footnotes, and an appendix of frequently used “racialized” terms in Nazi publications.

Saussure, Louis de, and Peter Schulz, editors. Manipulation and Ideologies in the Twentieth Century: Discourse, Language, Mind . Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005. (P 302.77 .M36 2005) [ Find in a library near you ]

Collection of essays examining speeches given by totalitarian leaders, emphasizing ideologies presented and the language employed. Includes a linguistic analysis of Hitler’s Mein Kampf , an examination of significant Nazi speeches, and an exploration of the implications of the regulations and mandates issued to the German press during the Nazi regime. Includes examples from the original Nazi Press Instructions and an index.

Yahil, Leni. “Sprachregelung.” In Encyclopedia of the Holocaust , edited by Israel Gutman, 1398-1399. New York: MacMillan, 1990. (Reference D 804.25 .E527 1990 v.3) [ Find in a library near you ]

An overview of the regulations imposed by the Nazis on everyday language during the Third Reich. Discusses the use of language for propaganda purposes and to disguise acts of terror and destruction, such as Endlösung (“final solution”) and Sonderbehandlung (“special treatment”).

Young, John Wesley. Totalitarian Language: Orwell’s Newspeak and its Nazi and Communist Antecedents . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. (P 119.3 .Y68 1991) [ Find in a library near you ]

Analyzes language in totalitarian regimes. Devotes one section to “Nazi German,” drawing comparisons with Orwell’s “Newspeak,” the fictional language set forth in his book 1984. Similarities include the dehumanization of man, militarization of speech, extensive use of jargon and rhetoric, “semanticide”, and calls to blind obedience. Includes an extensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

Birken-Bertsch, Hanno and Reinhard Markner. Rechtschreibreform und Nationalsozialismus: Ein Kapitel aus der politischen Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache . Göttingen: Wallstein, 2000. (PF 3151 .B47 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

Documents the Nazi pursuit of a uniform German Language through reforms of written German, commonly called the Rechtschreibreform . Examines inter-organizational conflicts and the struggle for language unification during the Third Reich. Extensively footnoted.

Ehlich, Konrad. Sprache im Faschismus . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1989. (PF 3087 .S63 1989) [ Find in a library near you ]

A collection of essays by several linguists about the use of language and grammar under National Socialism. Features numerous examples of Nazi language use and multiple bibliographies.

Gorr, Doris. Nationalsozialistische Sprachwirklichkeit als Gesellschaftsreligion: Eine sprachsoziologische Untersuchung zum Verhältnis von Propaganda und Wirklichkeit im Nationalsozialismus . Aachen: Shaker, 2000. (PF 3087 .G67 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

Considers the role of language in Nazi society, examining the relationship between propaganda and reality. Examines both the Nazi manipulation of language as well as the pre-existing elements in society which served their causes. Also explores the religious tones of Nazi language and its impact on society. Introduces the reader to the basics of linguistic and social theories. Includes a bibliography and a guide for teaching on language in the Third Reich at modern day German high-schools.

Haensel, Carl, and Richard Strahl. Politisches ABC des neuen Reichs: Schlag- und Stichwörterbuch für den deutschen Volksgenossen . Stuttgart: J. Engelhorn, 1933. (Rare JN 3951 .A5 H3 1933) [ Find in a library near you ]

A handbook issued to the German public in 1933 explaining the Nazi administration’s official terminology and giving practical examples of usage by members of the Nazi elite.

Römer, Ruth. Sprachwissenschaft und Rassenideologie in Deutschland . München: W. Fink, 1989. (P 35.5 .G3 R66 1989) [ Find in a library near you ]

Examines the relationship between language and racist ideologies in Germany from the early nineteenth century through 1945. Analyzes the work of German philologists during this time period and the evolution of racial terminology and ideas in the German language. Includes a bibliography and index.

Sternberger, Dolf, Gerhard Storz, and W. E. Süskind. Aus dem Wörterbuch des Unmenschen . München: Deutscher Taschenbuch, 1962. (PF 3585 .S83 1962) [ Find in a library near you ]

One of the earliest books about Nazi language and terminology. Examines post-War German language for the persistence of words reflecting the Nazi style and official tone. Analyzes particular words in view of their history.

Winckler, Lutz. Studie zur gesellschaftlichen Funktion faschistischer Sprache . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1970. (DD 247 .H5 W488 1970) [ Find in a library near you ]

Analyzes the role of language in German society during the Third Reich, with emphasis on Hitler’s Mein Kampf . Includes an annotated listing of citations and sources.

Eskew, Margaret. The Syntactic Preferences of Adolf Hitler in his Declaration of War on Poland . New York: P. Lang, 2000. (DD 247.H5 E77 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

An analysis of Adolf Hitler’s treatment and manipulation of language, with emphasis on the syntactic and grammatical nuances present in his speeches. Reviews previous scholarly works on the subject and includes assessments of Hitler’s oratorical skills by Joseph Goebbels and Albert Speer, a transcript of Hitler’s speech before the Reichstag in September 1939, and related bibliographies.

Klemperer, Victor. The Language of the Third Reich: LTI - Lingua Tertii Imperii: A Philologist’s Notebook. New Brunswick, NJ: Athlone Press, 2000. (PF 3074 .K613 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

An analysis of Nazi terminology and phrasing based on the author’s diary entries and first-hand observations under the Third Reich. The Library also has an edition in German under the title, LTI: Notizbuch eines Philologen .

Beisswenger, Michael. Totalitäre Sprache und textuelle Konstruktion von Welt: Am Beispiel ausgewählter Aufsätze von Joseph Goebbels über “die Juden” . Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2000. (PF 3087.B45 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

Linguistic analysis of nine texts written by Goebbels. Examines the language he employed to establish realities, capitalize on existing antisemitic ideas, and make his agenda acceptable to the public through subtly manipulative methods. Includes texts of the sources analyzed.

Fischer-Hupe, Kristine. Victor Klemperers “LTI, Notizbuch eines Philologen”: Ein Kommentar . Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2001. (PF 3074 .K63 F57 2001) [ Find in a library near you ]

A scholarly examination of Victor Klemperer’s book on Nazi terminology and language, LTI: Notizbuch eines Philosophen . Discusses the book’s creation and publication history, Klemperer’s editing process, and the post-World War II reaction to the work by various scholars, critics, and the public. Features eight essays about Klemperer, his life and philosophy, and a lengthy historical commentary on topics discussed in his notebook. Also provides an appendix featuring facsimiles of handwritten pages from the original notebook, articles from contemporary newspapers, examples of book jackets of various editions of Klemperer’s work, a bibliography and an index.

Greule, Albrecht, and Waltraud Sennebogen, editors. Tarnung – Leistung – Werbung: Untersuchungen zur Sprache im Nationalsozialismus . Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2004. (PF 3087 .T37 2004) [ Find in a library near you ]

Examines the use of language in three key Nazi documents: the Wehrmachtbericht , Reicharbeitdienst , and the regulations of language in the Wirtschaftswerbung . Explores the use of language to neutralize and camouflage Nazi ideology. Analyzes individual word choice and lists the words in questions within their context. Includes index of foreign words replaced by German terms.

Kopperschmidt, Josef. Hitler der Redner . München: Fink, 2003. (DD 247 .H5 H567 2003) [ Find in a library near you ]

Explores Hitler’s ability to motivate and seduce an audience through his speeches. Describes the influence of these persuasive speeches in film, radio, and photographic images on the German people. Addresses the staging of these speeches and critiques his skill as an orator. Includes multiple bibliographies.

Sauer, Christoph. Der Aufdringliche Text: Sprachpolitik und NS-Ideologie in der “Deutschen Zeitung in den Niederlanden.” Wiesbaden: Deutsche Universitäts Verlag, 1998. (P 301.5 .P73 S28 1998) [ Find in a library near you ]

Attempts to reconstruct the linguistic relationship between National Socialist ideology and its power in occupied countries, by examining the language used in German newspapers in the occupied Netherlands. Analyzes both verbal and written Nazi communication, and discusses theories such as the heterogeneity of language and propaganda strategies. Includes excerpts from the Deutschen Zeitung in den Niederlanden as well as a bibliography.

Warmbold, Nicole. Lagersprache zur Sprache der Opfer in den Konzentrationslagern Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Buchenwald. Sprache - Politik - Gesellschaft . Bremen: Hempen, 2006. (D 805.6 .L35 W35 2008) [ Find in a library near you ]

Documents the use of language by Survivors and the psychological and social aspects of language in three different camps: Sachsenhausen, Dachau, and Buchenwald.  Includes index and bibliography.

Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust Encyclopedia

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Majer, Diemut. “Glossary of Traditional German Legal Terms and National Socialist Legal Terminology.” In “Non-Germans” under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945 . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. (KK 6050 .M3413 2003) [ Find in a library near you ]

Glossary of traditional German legal terms and Nazi legal terminology with a brief introduction. Presents English translations and brief explanation of the terms, as well as etymology. Library also has a copy in German under the title “Fremdvölkische” im Dritten Reich .

Michael, Robert, and Karin Doerr. Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. (Reference PF 3680 .M48 2002) [ Find in a library near you ]

A dictionary of Nazi language and specialized vocabulary, including the terminology of Nazi ideology, propaganda slogans, military terms, ranks and offices, abbreviations and acronyms, euphemisms and code names, slang, antisemitic and chauvinistic vocabulary, and racist and ethnic slurs. Includes scholarly essays by each of the authors, as well as supplementary information such as a list of the major concentration camps, military, government, and party ranks, the words to famous Nazi songs, and other Nazi indoctrination texts. Also provides a bibliography of related works.

Paechter, Heinz. Nazi-Deutsch: A Glossary of Contemporary German Usage, With Appendices On Government, Military, and Economic Institutions. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1944. (Reference PF 3689 .P35 1944) [ Find in a library near you ]

One of the earliest dictionaries of Nazi terminology, originally compiled for the Office of European Economic Research. Based on German newspapers of the time, German military dictionaries, and the writings of Hitler, Goebbels, and others. Includes an introduction on “the spirit and structure of totalitarian language,” and a special appendix on terminology relating to Nazi philosophy and “Weltanschauung.”

Rademacher, Michael. Abkürzungen des Dritten Reiches: ein Handbuch für deutsche und englische Historiker. (Abbreviations in Use in the Third Reich: A Handbook for German and English Historians.) Vechta: M. Rademacher, 2000. (Reference DD 256.47 K33 2000) [ Find in a library near you ]

A bilingual dictionary of more than 3,500 abbreviated terms used in official correspondence and reports during the Third Reich. Explains abbreviations in both German and English. Includes terminology from the state administration, Nazi party, and military areas. Based on the “C.I. Handbook” used by allied counterintelligence during World War II.

Wires, Richard. Terminology of the Third Reich . Muncie, IN: Ball State University, 1985. (Reference DD 256.5 .W57 1985) [ Find in a library near you ]

A concise dictionary of terms and phrases used by the Nazis, meant to aid the user in understanding German terms that often are not explained or left untranslated in historical writings. Provides an annotation with a brief historical explanation for each term, including important geographical names.

Eitz, Thorsten, and Georg Stötzel. Wörterbuch der Vergangenheitsbewältigung: die NS-Vergangenheit im öffentlichen Sprachgebrauch . Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag, 2007. (DD 256.48 .E48 2007) [ Find in a library near you ]

Explores the past and present usage of a selection of terms relevant to or used by the Nazi regime. Contains excerpts from newspapers, political speeches, and other published materials to illustrate how terms were commonly used at a particular time. Includes a comprehensive bibliography and an index.

Peters, Ludwig. Volkslexikon Drittes Reich: Die Jahre 1933-1945 in Wort und Bild . Tübingen: Grabert, 1994. (Reference DD 256.5 .P439 1994) [ Find in a library near you ]

Combines the features of a dictionary and encyclopedia to provide information on important geographical and personal names, Nazi terminology, and acronyms and abbreviations often used in Nazi correspondence and official communications.

Schmitz-Berning, Cornelia. Vokabular des Nationalsozialismus . Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1998. (DD 256.5 .S35 H3 1998) [ Find in a library near you ]

A comprehensive vocabulary of Nazi terminology. Provides a brief explanation of each term followed by excerpts from Nazi literature, reports and public speeches in which the term is used. Includes an extensive bibliography arranged by type of source and time period.

Subject Headings

To search library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on Nazi terminology and language, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:

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