- Main Content
Citing online articles in apa format, sources for apa citation.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition BF76.7 C66
APA Style online (use Style & Grammar Guidelines menu)
Information needed for citations:
- Author name(s)
- Date of publication
- Title of article
- Title of source (e.g. journal, etc.) plus volume number and issue number
- Inclusive page numbers of article
- DOI (if included)
The DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique number that provides a persistent link to the location of content on the internet. It should be formatted as a URL.
- Example: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222224
If there is no DOI listed for an article, the citation ends after the page range of the article. Do not include database information for works obtained from most academic research databases or platforms because works in these resources are widely available.
- Authors are typed as Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Marie L. Jones would be Jones, M. L.)
- If there is no author listed, list the title of the article first, capitalizing the first word.
- Note that only the first word, proper nouns, and the word immediately after a colon are capitalized within the title of the article.
- Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.
- Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.
In-Text Citations: Narrative Citations
- Example: Jones (2009) found that diabetes symptoms improve with exercise.
- Example: Jones and Smith (2010) found that aerobic exercise improved circulation problems of diabetics.
- Example: Jones, et al. (2008) observed that blood glucose levels decreased following aerobic activity.
In-Text Citations: Parenthetical Citations
- Example: Increased exercise resulted in diminished diabetes symptoms (Jones, 2009).
- Example: Increased exercise resulted in diminished diabetes symptoms (Jones & Smith, 2009).
- Example: Blood glucose levels were observed to decrease following aerobic activity (Jones, et al., 2008).
- Example: Increased exercise promoted cardio-vascular health within diabetics ("Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes," 2010).
- every in-text citation must have a corresponding citation on the References page
- no source should be included on the References page if there is no corresponding in-text citation in the paper
Sample reference citations for online journal articles with and without DOI
(no author, with DOI)
Title of article. (year). Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
- Do not capitalize “a,” “an,” or “the” unless it is the first word of the title or subtitle.
(no author, without DOI)
Title of article. (year). Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number.
(one author, with DOI)
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. Author’s middle initial (if known). (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(one author, without DOI)
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. Author’s middle initial if known. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number.
(two authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(two authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number – page number.
(three to twenty authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number–page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(three to twenty authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number.
(more than twenty authors, with DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx
(more than twenty authors, without DOI)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), page number– page number.
Sample References Page
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.
You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .
General APA Guidelines
Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. Include a page header (also known as the “ running head ”) at the top of every page. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number. For a student paper, this only includes the page number. To create a page header/running head , insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual requires that the chosen font be accessible (i.e., legible) to all readers and that it be used consistently throughout the paper. It acknowledges that many font choices are legitimate, and it advises writers to check with their publishers, instructors, or institutions for guidance in cases of uncertainty.
While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. These include sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, and 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, 10-point Computer Modern.
Major Paper Sections
Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page , Abstract , Main Body , and References .
Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers (e.g., those intended for scholarly publication) and student papers (e.g., those turned in for credit in a high school or college course).
The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name , and the institutional affiliation . A professional paper should also include the author note . A student paper should also include the course number and name , instructor name , and assignment due date .
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).
Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.
A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page. This should be divided up into several paragraphs, with any paragraphs that are not relevant omitted. The first paragraph should include the author’s name, the symbol for the ORCID iD, and the URL for the ORCID iD. Any authors who do not have an ORCID iD should be omitted. The second paragraph should show any change in affiliation or any deaths of the authors. The third paragraph should include any disclosures or acknowledgements, such as study registration, open practices and data sharing, disclosure of related reports and conflicts of interest, and acknowledgement of financial support and other assistance. The fourth paragraph should include contact information for the corresponding author.
A student paper should not include an author note.
Note again that page headers/page numbers (described above for professional and student papers) also appear at the top of the title page. In other words, a professional paper's title page will include the title of the paper flush left in all capitals and the page number flush right, while a student paper will only contain the page number flush right.
Student APA title page
Title page for a student paper in APA 7 style.
Professional paper APA title page
Title page for a professional paper in APA 7 style.
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center and bold the word “Abstract” (no italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should typically be no more than 250 words.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
Abstracts are common in scholarly journal articles and are not typically required for student papers unless advised by an instructor. If you are unsure whether or not your work requires an abstract, consult your instructor for further guidance.
APA Abstract Page
Abstract page for a student paper in APA 7 style.
Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA
The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages still include this information.
In the absence of contributor/edit date information, treat the page as a source with a group author and use the abbreviation "n.d." for "no date":
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Title of resource. Purdue Online Writing Lab. http://Web address for OWL resource
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). General Writing FAQs. Purdue Online Writing Lab. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/general_writing_faqs.html
The generic APA citation for OWL pages, which includes author/edit date information, is this:
Contributors' names. (Last edited date). Title of resource . Site Name. http://Web address for OWL resource
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- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator
This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.
In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .
An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .
Parenthetical vs. narrative citation
The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.
- Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
- Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …
Multiple authors and corporate authors
The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.
When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.
APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.
Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.
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It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.
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On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .
Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:
- Double spacing (within and between references)
- Hanging indent of ½ inch
- Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
- Page number in the top right header
Which sources to include
On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
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When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Journal Citation
How to Cite a Journal Article in APA
Journal articles are one of the most important sources of information for research papers. Often times, they will serve as your main source of information, as journal articles contain information that is specific to a topic. This page will show you how to cite journal articles in APA style, updated for the 7th edition.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
APA Journal Article Citation
In-text apa citation for journal articles, reference page apa citation for journal articles, how to cite a journal article in apa (print), how to cite a journal article with multiple authors in apa, how to cite a journal article on a database in apa, troubleshooting.
This guide will help you create journal citations in APA format. Check out this hyperlink if you are looking to create APA books citation .
This section will help you create in-text APA citations for journal articles.
In-text citations refer to the crediting of articles within the body of a work, separate from the reference page at the end of a document. An in-text citation comes after a paraphrase or a direct quote. For any APA in-text citation in your own paper, you must include a full citation in your reference page as well.
Paraphrasing in APA
For an in-text APA journal citation that is not a direct quote, or an APA parenthetical citation , all you need to provide is the author’s last name and the year of publication.
You may provide a page number (preceded by “p.” for one page or “pp.” for multiple pages) as well if the passage or idea you are paraphrasing is on a certain page or set of pages, but this is not necessary for APA journal citations.
Narrative In-Text Citation Example:
According to Currie (2001), there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that early intervention programs can be effective.
Parenthetical In-Text Citation Example:
Research suggests that the absence of behavior problems is just as important to future success as the development of cognitive skills (Currie, 2001, p. 215).
Short quotes in APA
A short quote in APA style must be fewer than 40 words. When using a direct short quote for APA citation of journal articles, you must list the author, the year of publication, the page number(s), and use quotation marks. You can embed this information within the sentence or cite it at the end of the sentence, or use a mixture of both as long as all the components are used in your APA journal citation.
According to Currie (2001), “the difficulty of overcoming poor endowments later in life—through job training programs for high school dropouts, for example—makes early intervention appear attractive as well” (p. 216).
Long quotes in APA
A long quote in APA citation style (also called a block quote in APA ) has 40 words or more. Like short quotes, for APA citation of journal articles, you must also cite the author, year of publication and the page number(s) for long quotes, and this information can be embedded within the sentence surrounding the quote, cited at the end of the sentence, or a mixture of both.
Unlike short quotes, long quotes in an APA citation of journal article require you to start the quote on a new line with a ½ inch indent from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout the quote, and if you haven’t already embedded all the citation information in the sentence preceding the quote, include it at the end of the quote in parentheses after the closing punctuation mark. Do not use any quotation marks around a long quote for journal APA citation.
Currie’s (2001) study found the following:
Equalizing early endowments through early childhood intervention programs may be a superior approach to the problem of unequal allocations, both because it avoids many of the moral hazard problems that arise when society attempts to compensate those with poor outcomes and because early intervention to equalize allocations may be a more cost-effective way of promoting equity than compensating for unequal outcomes. (pp. 215-216)
Citing Multiple Authors in APA
- 2 authors: Give the information for the first author followed by a comma, then use an ampersand (&) and list the information for the second author.
- 3 to 20 authors: Separate the author names with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the final author’s name. In APA citations of journal articles, never list more than 20 authors.
- 21+ authors: List the first 19 names separated by commas. After the 19th author, add a comma, then an ellipsis (…), followed by the final author’s name.
Citing Group/Corporate Authors in APA
For a corporate author in an APA citation of a journal, use the publishing company in place of the author’s name in the citation. Place the name of the publishing company at the beginning of the citation just as you would the author’s name with proper capitalization.
Citing a Source with No Authors in APA
If no author is given, to create the APA citation of a journal, use the title of the article in place of the author information. Then, provide the publication date and publication name without repeating the article title.
This section will help you create an APA reference page or an APA bibliography .
How author names are structured in APA
Author names, if available, will always come first in your reference page for APA citation for journal articles. Start your reference page citation with the last name of the first author followed by a comma, followed by the author’s capitalized first initial and a period. Then list the author’s middle initial, if one is provided, followed by a period.
Rowling, J. K.
- 2 to 20 authors: Use a comma between all of the author names. Place an ampersand (&) before the final author’s name.
- 21 or more authors: List the names of the first 19 authors and use a comma between all of the names. After the 19th name, place an ellipsis (…) and then the final author’s name.
Structuring dates in APA
- Dates follow the author in APA citation for journal articles and should be in parentheses.
- List the year first followed by a comma.
- Then, list the month, fully spelled out (not abbreviated) and properly capitalized.
- Then, without using a comma after the month, list the numerical date.
- If any of this information is missing from the reference, simply omit it.
Structuring journal article titles in APA
- The article title follows the date.
- Only capitalize the first letter of the first word of the article.
- Do not italicize or underline the title of the article.
- Follow the article title with a period.
Structuring the journal name in APA
Follow the rules for journal article titles in APA citations.
- The name is capitalized throughout, just as the publication capitalizes the title
- The name should be italicized and followed by a comma.
Structuring volume and issue numbers in APA
- The volume and issue numbers follow the publication title.
- After the comma following the italicized title, put the volume number in italics.
- Then, omitting the space, put the issue number in parentheses without italics.
- Place a period after the closing parentheses, again omitting the space after the parentheses.
Structuring website addresses (URLs) and DOIs in APA
- URLs and DOIs for a journal article come after the volume and issue number. After the period following the issue number, put a space followed by the full URL or DOI with no period at the end.
- Since URLs can potentially change and DOIs cannot, APA journal citation style recommends using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) instead of a website URL when possible.
- A DOI in your reference should be formatted like this: https://doi.org/xxxx
- If a source has a DOI, it should be included; it doesn’t matter if you viewed the print or online version.
- In previous editions of APA, an APA website citation always included “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a URL. Since APA 7th edition, you no longer need to include this.
Yu, H., & Leadbetter, J. R. (2020, July 15). Bacterial chemolithoautotrophy via manganese oxidation. Nature, 583 (7816), 453–458. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2468-5
How to Cite an Online Journal Article in APA
The following examples show you how to format an online journal citation in APA style.
For an APA citation journal article from a database, you are not required to include the database information. This is because APA format includes a link to the website or the DOI instead, since database information can change over time. Simply follow the format for an APA citation journal from online as described above.
Here is a video that covers journal article citations in APA style:
Solution #1: What to do if you cannot find a journal article’s DOI
The DOI can typically be found on the first page of an article. For an online journal, the DOI is usually at the top of the webpage below the article’s title. It is a unique combination of numbers, letters, periods, which might appear in any of the forms below:
Sometimes, an article does not have a DOI, particularly if it is an older resource. Articles found on JSTOR may just have a stable URL instead of a DOI. If it cannot be found, use the URL in its place.
Corrigan, P.W. (2000) Mental health stigma as social attribution: Implications for research methods and attitude change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7 (1), 28-67. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2000-13942-004
Solution #2: How to cite another text cited within a journal article
If you wish to use a quote or information from an article that is cited as coming from another source, use the reference information provided to find the original source. Find the quote within the source and reference its original author and location. If you cannot locate it, you must still cite both sources, identifying the original author and its location within the secondary source.
Solution #3: How to find the volume and issue number of a journal
The volume and issue number can typically be found on the front cover of a journal. Within the pages of an article, they also might be listed in the top or bottom corners of the page. For an online journal, the volume and issue number are listed after the title of a journal.
Some other formats it might be found in:
vol. 18, no. 4
vol. 18, iss. 4
Published May 9, 2019. Updated July 16, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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Journal articles are the content within journals, which are a type of literature and are released periodically, are peer-reviewed, and provide some of the most up-to-date studies — basically, a great source for research. They typically focus on a particular topic and contain peer-reviewed articles written by experts in order to educate and inform other experts on the subject. Journals may contain several articles, similar to chapters in a book or articles in a magazine. Articles usually have an abstract, or a short summary of the article, at the beginning and a list of references at the end.
A “scholarly” article is an article that comes from an academic, peer-reviewed source. Because academic journals and non-academic magazines have a lot of structural similarities, the term “scholarly” differentiates this type of article from magazine articles. A scholarly article is typically written by experts for experts, and is peer-reviewed by other experts in the field.
A “peer-reviewed” article is one that has been reviewed by a board of experts in the field for quality and accuracy of the information before publishing. A “peer-reviewed” article is a more trustworthy source because it has been checked and approved by experts and is not based on opinion, low-quality research, or obsolete data.
Articles exist both in print and online and can be found at most academic libraries. Online articles can usually be found using academic databases, which contain structured sets of data or information. Many databases charge a fee to use the database and/or to access full articles. Most university library websites will provide information for accessing different academic databases.
Do not include the publisher and place of publication when citing a journal article in APA style. Publisher names are used for book-type references, reports, computer software and mobile apps, and data sets. Do not include the publisher’s location in references. Instead, the name of the journal will be included, which will provide the reader with sufficient information for locating the source.
To format a journal article in APA style, you will need the author name, publication year, title of the article, journal title, volume number, issue number, page range, and/or DOI (digital object identifier) or URL (uniform resource locator). The format for a journal article having just one author is given below:
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. URL or DOI
Note that the first name and middle name, following the author’s surname, are abbreviated and separated by a space. The title of the article should be set in sentence case. The first word of the subtitle, if present, should be capitalized. The name of the journal should be set in title case. Set the journal title and the volume number in italics, including the comma that separates them. An example is given below:
Rancière, J. (2016). Un-what? Philosophy & Rhetoric, 49 (4), 589–606. https://doi:10.5325/philrhet.49.4.0589
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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Apa quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Citing Business Reports
- Other Formats
- APA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.
Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.
For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Web page with author:
Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).
Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html
Web page with organizational author:
More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).
World Health Organization. (2018, March 22). Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Web page with no date:
Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by Multiple Authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three or more authors: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
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How to Cite Online News Articles in APA
Last Updated: December 5, 2022 References
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been viewed 59,956 times. Learn more...
If you're writing a research paper, you may want to use news articles you find online as sources. When using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation method, you'll need to include both an in-text citation and an entry in the Reference List at the end of your paper. Generally, these entries should include enough information for your readers to be able to find the article you used when writing your paper. For an online news article, this means including the URL for the story in your reference list entry.  X Trustworthy Source APA Style Definitive source for current APA style writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Formatting Your Reference List Entry
- Example: Alpert, A.
- If there are multiple authors, separate their names with commas, using an ampersand (&) before the last author's name.  X Research source
- If no individual author is listed, skip this element and start your entry with the title of the article.
- Example: Alpert, A. (2019, February 20).
- Example: Alpert, A. (2019, February 20). The good-enough life: The desire for greatness can be an obstacle to our own potential.
- Example: Alpert, A. (2019, February 20). The good-enough life: The desire for greatness can be an obstacle to our own potential. The New York Times .
- Example: Alpert, A. (2019, February 20). The good-enough life: The desire for greatness can be an obstacle to our own potential. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com
Reference List Format:
Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper or Website in Title Case . Retrieved from URL
Creating In-Text Citations
- For example, you might write: The idea that striving for greatness might not be the best goal for humanity runs through hundreds of years of philosophy (Alpert, 2019).
Tip: APA style requires a parenthetical citation at the end of every sentence in which a source is paraphrased. The only exception would be a block quote of several sentences from the same source. In that case, your parenthetical citation would go at the end of the quote.
- For example, suppose one of your sources was an article from The Globe and Mail titled "How Globe and Mail reporters traced the rise of fentanyl." This article doesn't have an individual author – it is simply attributed to "staff." If you paraphrased or quoted the article in your text, your in-text citation might be: ("How Globe and Mail," 2018).
- For example, you might write: A "good-enough" relationship with nature entails that "we recognize both the abundance and the limitations of the planet we share with infinite other life forms" (Alpert, 2019, para. 7).
- If you name the author in the body of your paper and quote the article directly, include a parenthetical citation after the quote with the page number or paragraph where the quoted material appears.
- For articles without an individual author, a full parenthetical citation isn't necessary if you include the title of the article in the body of your paper. As with the author's name, you would simply put the year the article was published in parentheses immediately following the title of the article.
You might also like.
- ↑ https://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-newspaper
- ↑ https://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=714519&p=5093747
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_electronic_sources.html
- ↑ https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/apa/newspapers
- ↑ http://aus.libguides.com/apa/apa-newspaper-web
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Webpage on a Website References
This page contains reference examples for webpages, including the following:
- Webpage on a news website
- Comment on a webpage on a news website
- Webpage on a website with a government agency group author
- Webpage on a website with an organizational group author
- Webpage on a website with an individual author
- Webpage on a website with a retrieval date
1. Webpage on a news website
Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies . HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e
Roberts, N. (2020, June 10). Trayvon Martin’s mother, Sybrina Fulton, qualifies to run for elected office . BET News. https://www.bet.com/news/national/2020/06/10/trayvon-martin-mother-sybrina-fulton-qualifies-for-office-florid.html
Toner, K. (2020, September 24). When Covid-19 hit, he turned his newspaper route into a lifeline for senior citizens . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html
- Parenthetical citations : (Bologna, 2019; Roberts, 2020; Toner, 2020)
- Narrative citations : Bologna (2019), Roberts (2020), and Toner (2020)
- Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
- Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post .
- Provide the writer as the author.
- Provide the specific date the story was published.
- Provide the title of the news story in italic sentence case.
- List the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
- End the reference with the URL.
2. Comment on a webpage on a news website
Owens, L. (2020, October 7). I propose a bicycle race between Biden and Trump [Comment on the webpage Here’s what voters make of President Trump’s COVID-19 diagnosis ]. HuffPost. https://www.spot.im/s/00QeiyApEIFa
- Parenthetical citation : (Owens, 2020)
- Narrative citation : Owens (2020)
- Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name and/or a username). The example shows a real name.
- Provide the specific date the comment was published.
- Provide the comment title or up to the ﬁrst 20 words of the comment in standard font. Then in square brackets write “Comment on the webpage” and the title of the webpage on which the comment appeared in sentence case and italics.
- Provide the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
- Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the webpage on which the comment appears. Either a full URL or a short URL is acceptable.
3. Webpage on a website with a government agency group author
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders . U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
- Parenthetical citation : (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)
- Narrative citation : National Institute of Mental Health (2018)
- For a page on a government website without individual authors, use the specific agency responsible for the webpage as the author.
- The names of parent agencies not present in the author element appear in the source element (in the example, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health). This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.
- Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
- Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date in the reference.
- Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference.
- Italicize the title of the webpage.
4. Webpage on a website with an organizational group author
World Health Organization. (2018, May 24) . The top 10 causes of death . https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
- Parenthetical citation : (World Health Organization, 2018)
- Narrative citation : World Health Organization (2018)
- For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author.
- Because the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element to avoid repetition.
5. Webpage on a website with an individual author
Horovitz, B. (2021, October 19). Are you ready to move your aging parent into your home? AARP. https://www.aarp.org/caregiving/home-care/info-2021/caregiving-questions.html
Schaeffer, K. (2021, October 1). What we know about online learning and the homework gap amid the pandemic. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/10/01/what-we-know-about-online-learning-and-the-homework-gap-amid-the-pandemic/
- Parenthetical citations : (Horovitz, 2021; Schaeffer, 2021)
- Narrative citations : Horovitz (2021) and Schaeffer (2021)
- When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.
- Provide the site name in the source element of the reference.
6. Webpage on a website with a retrieval date
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock . U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/
- Parenthetical citation : (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
- Narrative citation : U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)
- When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.
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How to Reference Journal Articles in APA Format
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.
Do you know how to create references for journal articles in APA format ? If you write a psychology paper, then you are going to probably need to reference a number of different journal articles. Such articles summarize the results of studies and experiments conducted by researchers. In most cases, you will need to create references for at least five or more journal articles for every APA format paper you write.
APA format details a set of clear rules for referencing articles that appear in academic journals and other periodicals. These vary somewhat based on where the article appears and who the authors are. While many articles you will use in your references appear in academic and professional journals, you might also find articles in magazines, newspapers, and online publications.
The reference section is one of the easiest places to lose points due to incorrect APA format, so always check your references before you hand in your psychology papers . Learning to reference articles in proper APA style can help you throughout your study of psychology.
Basic Structure for Journal Article References
Start by listing the author's last name and first initials, followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Provide the title of the article, but only capitalize the first letter of the title. Next, list the journal or periodical and volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses. Finally, provide the page numbers where the article can be found.
Author, I. N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal or Periodical, volume number (issue number), page numbers.
Smith, L. V. (2000). Referencing articles in APA format. APA Format Weekly, 34 (1), 4-10.
If possible, include the DOI (digital object identifier) number at the end of your reference. If a DOI number is not available and you accessed the article online, give the URL of the journal's home page.
- Capitalize the first word in the title , subtitle, and proper nouns.
- References should be double-spaced.
- The first line of each reference should be flush left and any remaining lines should be indented.
Be sure to check your references using the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. See an example of different types of references and learn more about APA format .
The structure for an article appearing in a magazine is similar to that of a journal article. However, the publication date should also include the month and day of publication.
James, S. A. (2001, June 7). Magazine articles in APA format. Newsweek, 20, 48-52.
References for newspaper articles follow the basic structure as magazines, but you should list each individual page the article appears on rather than recording a page range.
Tensky, J. A. (2004, January 5). How to cite newspaper articles. The New York Times, 4D, 5D.
Articles With Two Authors
If an article has two authors, follow the basic format for a journal reference. Place a comma after the first initial of the first author followed by an ampersand (&). Then include the last name and first initial of the second author.
Mischel, W., & Baker, N. (1975). Cognitive transformations of reward objects through instructions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 , 254-261.
Articles With Three to Twenty Authors
For journal articles with three to 20 authors, follow a similar format as you would with two authors, but separate each author and initials with a comma. The final author should be preceded by an ampersand. Follow this same format for each additional author up to 20 authors.
Hart, D., Keller, M., Edelstein, W., & Hofmann, V. (1998). Childhood personality influences on social-cognitive development: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1288-1289. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118
Keller, J. L., Smithfield, K. B., Ellis, M., Michelina, R., & Bels, S. (1987). The limitations of anchoring bias. J ournal of Market Research, 17 , 115-119.
Articles With More Than Twenty Authors
The rules for referencing both single and multiple authors apply to all sources, whether the material came from books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, journal articles, or online sources. Include the last name and first initials of each author, with each individual separated by a comma. The last author should be preceded with an ampersand.
If the article includes 20 or fewer authors, list each author separately. If there are more than 20, include the first 19 and then include an ellipses (. . . ) in place of the author names before listing the final author.
Arlo, A., Black, B., Clark, C., Davidson, D., Emerson, E., Fischer, F., Grahmann, G., Habib, H., Ianelli, I., Juarez, J., Kobayashi, K., Lee, L., Martin, M., Naim, N., Odelsson, O., Pierce, P., Qiang, Q., Reed, R., Scofield, S., . . . Thatcher, T. (2011). Even more references. APA Format Today, 11 (4), 30-38.
Articles With No Author
If an article does not cite any authors, then start by giving the title of the article, followed by the publication date, source, and URL if you accessed the article electronically.
Scientists seek source of creativity. (2012, March, 6). Dayton County News. http://www.daytoncountynews.com/news/39756_39275.html
American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). The American Psychological Association, 2019.
By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
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Article United Kingdom: New Sanctions Ban Export of Battlefield Items to Russia
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The United Kingdom (U.K.) has recently introduced 92 new sanctions that prohibit the “export of every item Ukraine has found Russia using on the battlefield to date.” These sanctions form part of a series of internationally coordinated sanctions and trade measures that include bans on the export of hundreds of goods, including aircraft parts, radio equipment, and electronic components.
The government has frozen the assets of a number of entities that made goods or technology available “that could contribute to destabilising Ukraine or undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty or independence of Ukraine.” Other entities have been sanctioned for “‘obtaining a benefit from or supporting the Government of Russia’ by carrying on business in the strategically important defence sector.”
The government has also frozen the assets of, and banned travel into the U.K. by, senior executives at Russia’s state-owned nuclear power company, which is believed to have been supplying arms manufacturers with technology and materials. Four banks are also being sanctioned, as banking is considered to be “a sector of strategic significance to the government of Russia.” The aim of imposing sanctions on the banks is to “further isolat[e] Russia from the international financial system and help the UK and partners to prevent circumvention.” A number of Russian and Iranian executives are also targeted in the sanctions.
The government stated :
Military intelligence has shown that a shortage of components in Russia as a result of sanctions is already likely affecting their ability to produce equipment for export, such as armoured vehicles, attack helicopters and air defence systems. As a result, it is highly likely that Russia’s role as a reliable arms exporter and their military-industrial complex are being undermined by international sanctions. Today’s measures will damage them further, undermining Putin’s military machine which is already having to mobilise soviet-era tanks and harvest freezers for low-grade chips.
The aim of the sanctions is to “encourag[e] Russia to cease actions destabalising Ukraine or undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty or independence of Ukraine.”
The U.K. is also introducing trade measures that will prohibit the import of 140 goods from Russia, which include iron and steel products that are processed in third countries. The government has stated that since trade sanctions were introduced, the export of goods to Russia has fallen by 80% and the import of Russian goods has dropped by 99%.
In addition to these sanctions, the government is extending current measures in place in Crimea to target the Russian-controlled oblasts of Kherson and Zaporizhzhia to restrict the access of these areas to U.K. trade and finance.
The U.K. government currently appears to have over 1,700 sanctions in place on the sanctions list made under the Russia Sanctions (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 . These sanctions freeze assets and prohibit U.K. citizens, wherever they are located, and businesses in the U.K. from dealing with any economic resources or funds owned, held, or controlled by the person or entity designated in the sanctions. Travel bans prohibit the entry of designated individuals into the U.K. Entities or individuals subject to transport sanctions commit a criminal offense by flying or landing in the U.K. The sanctions also ban Russian ships from U.K. ports.
Clare Feikert-Ahalt, Law Library of Congress March 3, 2023 Read more Global Legal Monitor articles .
About this Item
- United Kingdom: New Sanctions Ban Export of Battlefield Items to Russia
- Global Legal Monitor (7,293)
- Law Library of Congress (376,023)
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- International Affairs
- Russian Federation
- United Kingdom
- Feikert-Ahalt, Clare
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For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.
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Cite This Item
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Feikert-Ahalt, Clare. United Kingdom: New Sanctions Ban Export of Battlefield Items to Russia . 2023. Web Page. https://www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2023-03-02/united-kingdom-new-sanctions-ban-export-of-battlefield-items-to-russia/.
APA citation style:
Feikert-Ahalt, C. (2023) United Kingdom: New Sanctions Ban Export of Battlefield Items to Russia . [Web Page] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2023-03-02/united-kingdom-new-sanctions-ban-export-of-battlefield-items-to-russia/.
MLA citation style:
Feikert-Ahalt, Clare. United Kingdom: New Sanctions Ban Export of Battlefield Items to Russia . 2023. Web Page. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2023-03-02/united-kingdom-new-sanctions-ban-export-of-battlefield-items-to-russia/>.
For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Webpage or Piece of Online Content If the page names an individual author, cite their name first: Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist.
Follow these instructions to set up your APA reference page: Place the section label "References" in bold at the top of the page (centered). Order the references alphabetically. Double-space all text. Apply a hanging indent of 0.5 inches. Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article Cite
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
Name of Publication, Volume Number (Issue Number), page. Online magazine article Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Publication. Volume Number (Issue Number), URL Note: If there is no volume or issue number available, you can omit that information from the citation Online Encyclopedia Articles
Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author's name. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the "Cite this Scribbr article" button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator. Caulfield, J. (2022, June 17). How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style | Format & Example. Scribbr.
Citing Online Articles in APA Format Sources for APA Citation Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition BF76.7 C66 APA Style online (use Style & Grammar Guidelines menu) Information needed for citations: Author name (s) Date of publication Title of article
Reference List Entry Download Article 1 Start your entry with the name of the author. Type the author's last name first, followed by a comma, then their first initial, followed by a period. If the author's middle initial is given, add it after the first initial, also followed by a period.  Example: Potter, H. J.
Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019) If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference. Always include the issue number for a journal article. If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range (for an explanation of why, see the database information ...
Instead, include a reference to the website in the body of your paper and cite any web page individually. Example: The Department of Justice has just released a new site called ReportCrime.gov at https://www.reportcrime.gov/ to help people identify and report crimes in their area.
The term "website" can cause confusion because people use it to refer to both a reference category (see Section 10.16 in the Publication Manual and Section 10.14 in the Concise Guide) and a method of retrieval (i.e., online).. When you are citing something on a website, ensure you are thinking about its reference type and not its method of retrieval.
To cite an article from an academic journal, you need an in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the name (s) of the author (s), the publication date, the article title and journal name, the volume and issue numbers, the page range, and the URL or DOI. Different citation styles present this information differently.
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines.
Formatting the APA reference page The basics On the reference page, you list all the sources that you've cited throughout your paper. Place the page right after the main body and before any appendices. On the first line of the page, write the section label "References" (in bold and centered).
Paraphrasing in APA. For an in-text APA journal citation that is not a direct quote, or an APA parenthetical citation, all you need to provide is the author's last name and the year of publication.. You may provide a page number (preceded by "p." for one page or "pp." for multiple pages) as well if the passage or idea you are paraphrasing is on a certain page or set of pages, but ...
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).
For an online news article, this means including the URL for the story in your reference list entry.  Method 1 Formatting Your Reference List Entry Download Article 1 Start your entry with the last name of the author.
Provide the name of the news website in the source element of the reference. Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the webpage on which the comment appears. Either a full URL or a short URL is acceptable. 3. Webpage on a website with a government agency group author.
Basic Structure for Journal Article References. Start by listing the author's last name and first initials, followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Provide the title of the article, but only capitalize the first letter of the title. Next, list the journal or periodical and volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in ...
The United Kingdom (U.K.) has recently introduced 92 new sanctions that prohibit the "export of every item Ukraine has found Russia using on the battlefield to date.". These sanctions form part of a series of internationally coordinated sanctions and trade measures that include bans on the export of hundreds of goods, including aircraft ...