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Understanding Health Care Option for Seniors
As you age, your needs may change and you may need assistance with your activities of daily living (ADL) or other more skilled health care services. This article will highlight a variety of health care options when it comes to caring for seniors at home.
Home Health Care
In-home health care is the most independent option. It allows you to remain in your own home and still receive the care you require. In-home health care brings therapy and care services to you, and it prolongs the need for a long-term care facility. Whether it’s speech therapy, physical therapy, nursing care or help with ADL, you can receive it in the comfort of your own home. Home health care companies are licensed by the state and employ nurses, aides or therapists, according to the ElderCare website. Home health care costs vary depending on the agency used and the type of care needed. Financial funding is available through the VA, Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance based on your individual situation.
Assisted living is the next step toward more skilled care. It still allows you to live independently within the housing setting of assisted living. Although services vary from facility to facility, most offer 24-hour emergency care, assistance with medications and ADL, medical and laundry services as well as social engagement activities. The level of health care for seniors is dependent on the type of care needed. Specialty care, such as memory support for those with dementia or Alzheimer’s, may also be offered in these types of facilities. Paying for assisted living requires either private pay, VA benefits, some insurances or eligible Medicaid plans. Medicare will not cover the cost of assisted living.
Long-term care focuses on health care that’s needed for a lengthy period of time, and it doesn’t specifically refer to just the elderly. Long-term care facilities such as nursing homes provide skilled health care, meals, social activities, help with ADL and rehabilitation services, but this care can also be provided in your home. As far as paying for nursing homes, Medicare will only offer certain benefits for this type of care. Most people will qualify for Medicaid to pay for their long-term care, but they must meet the income qualifications, according to the PA Elder Law website.
Continuing Care Retirement Communities
Continuing care retirement communities (CCRC) are a cross between assisted, independent and skilled living. These are often tiered communities where you stay in the same community and additional care is provide as you require more nursing care. You might start in your own independent living situation and then move to an assisted-living arrangement. These communities typically offer assistance with meals, housekeeping and transportation.
Paying for Senior Health Care
Payment options for elder care can include Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, VA Benefits, supplemental health insurance, out-of-pocket payments and several other options. Depending on your financial situation and the type of benefits you qualify for, advance planning for your long-term care needs and a consultation with an elder law attorney is recommended to know your rights and options.
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The Costs of Home Health Care
If you feel like you are unable to care for your elderly loved ones on your own or want to enable them to stay at home as long as possible, you should explore home health care. Here’s what you need to know about the costs of home health care.
The Average Cost Varies Significantly
The hourly rate for home health care has a wide range, but the average daily cost is between $200 and $350, as reported by the National Council for Aging Care. Your ultimate tab for home health care depends on how frequently your loved one needs care and the length of time you need the home health aide. For example, if you need care for your loved one 365 days a year, this results in an annual cost between $73,000 and $127,750.
Less Intensive Care Is Cheaper Than More Specialized Care
Another factor that influences the cost of home health care is the level of care that your loved one requires. Some elderly individuals need help with the activities of daily life, like eating regularly, dressing themselves and maintaining proper hygiene. This type of care is less expensive than specialized medical care required for individuals who suffer from dementia or are recovering from a major medical event (like a stroke or hip replacement).
Overnight Care Is Cheaper
All other factors being equal, overnight care usually has a lower cost than home health care provided during daytime hours. Typically, home health care aides perform less activities and tasks during the nighttime hours. The aide may help the patient go to the restroom or make sure that they don’t try to leave the house. You can combine overnight care with daily care, or you may use overnight care to supplement familial care during daytime hours.
Some Health Insurance Plans May Cover Home Health Care
A few Medicare Advantage plans do provide coverage for home health care, as stated by Home Health Care News. Medicare Advantage covers all of the items that conventional Medicare covers, but it typically offers a few additional benefits. Traditional Medicare doesn’t cover home health care. Medigap or supplemental Medicare policies may also provide coverage. If your loved one has private insurance, you should check the details of the plan to see if it offers home health care benefits.
Long-Term Care Insurance Can Also Alleviate Home Health Care Expenses
Long-term care insurance provides coverage for home health care expenses. However, you need to purchase long-term care insurance before you actually need it. It typically has a waiting period between the date of purchase and the date that you can begin drawing benefits. If your loved one needs home health care now, it is too late to consider long-term care insurance.
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Conclusion For Universal Health Care
Universal health care.
The Congressional Budget office believes that this plan will lower future deficits and the future Medicare spending (Carney, 2012). In 2011 the payout for Medicare and Medicaid was over 900 billion dollars (Is Medicare Spending the Biggest Driver of the Deficit, 2012). The Current system in the United States denies access to health care based on the person’s ability to pay for the coverage before services are required. Under a universal health care system all would have access to the affordable medical care and in some cases be reimbursed some of the cost
Universal Health Care Research Paper
The united states have a unique health care system of delivery that pursues to target some specific areas. The health reform, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act also called the Obama care (2010), which holds the promise of universal health coverage under government mandates. With a predominant role that is play from the government the Health Care Reform is said to be, one of the most important pieces of legislation today. Universal health care is the pourpose that all citizens should have access to affordable, high-quality medical care and acces to primary care. Health care reform will provide every American with the ability to obtain, health insurance regardless of race, ethnicity, or income. With universal health care, everyone’s
Universal Healthcare And The United States
Universal Healthcare eliminates the need for pre-existing condition clauses, as healthcare would no longer be a for-profit enterprise.
Universal Healthcare Essay
Therefore, many of these people who are uninsured “delay” treatment until it is absolutely necessary for them to see a doctor (Universal Health Care). By this time most of these patients have reached a point in their sickness where there is far more treatment needed, and therefore, costs more money. Consequently, this has an effect of places who are established to help the uninsured since they take in so many losses many of these establishments are forced to cut back on services or even be forced to shut down (Universal Health Care). To look at it in simple terms, Universal Health care would give everyone a right to carry some form of health coverage. As people who pay taxes, they would be getting coverage for things important in their life. This includes health care. These people would be able to be covered for “preventive care, pregnancy and childbirth, acute, chronic and catastrophic conditions, rehabilitation and end-of-life care” with no bearing on their economic condition (Howard, 2007, p. B.7).
Health Care in America is a Problem Essay
Also, everyone would be equal, no one would have better health care. This would help people and it would pretty much be a peacemaker. But since everyone has health care, people would go to the doctor for reasons that aren?t as important as others. This would also mean the wait for check-ups, surgeries, and visits at the hospital would be extremely long. ?Health tourists? fly to countries such as India, Turkey, Hungary, Germany, Malaysia, Poland and Spain to have surgeries performed without a wait. Doctors estimate that by the end of the decade, patients in Britain would be flying to places as far as South Africa and South America to have surgeries performed. People seem to be willing to pay extra money to be cured. Many patients in America say they would have died waiting to have their surgery. People like Donald Hilgendorf tell those wishing for universal health care to be careful. His doctor told him he should have a very serious and life-threatening surgery. He thought about what he should do and decided to get a second opinion and asked another clinic. They said he shouldn't do the surgery. He later found out that someone went ahead with the surgery and they died within months. So if there was universal health care in the country, no one would be able to get a second opinion. And thanks to a second opinion, a man lived.
Universal Healthcare in America
Healthcare should be a right for all U.S. citizens because not only would it drastically lower costs from the current healthcare system for both the individual and the government, but also greatly improve healthcare rankings and satisfy the majority of the population. By expanding coverage to all U.S. citizens, universal healthcare would significantly lower healthcare costs for both the individual and the government. Without a doubt, something should be done to fix the current healthcare system; it is just a matter of what should be done. Over the past several years, the cost of healthcare in the U.S. has risen significantly and does not seem to lower, surpassing “$2.2 trillion in 2007”. Universal Health Care is a "Social Program", not "socialized medicine"; under Universal Health Care, one can choose any doctor(s) or public hospital (A "private" hospital, even in the U.S.A. today, is just that. A hospital that is exclusive to the general population according to the wealth and contacts of an individual. There is no "out of network" doctor, hospital or medical facility in the program.
Comparing Canadian and American Health Care Systems Essay
- 8 Works Cited
The U.S. spend billions of dollars every year on preventative care such as heart disease, cancer, AIDS and many more disease; millions more are spent on trying to find a cure for disease such as MS, MD, AIDS, cancer, polo and so many more. The advantage to the U.S. would come by way of universal health care as it is today. With different measures of insurance coverage, a person benefits more by having the freedom to choose which health care and insurance needs are suitable for them, rather than being confined to only one group (Chernichovsky & Leibowitz, 2010).
I personally understand health care cost, and spending is a major concern for our society. Many governments around the world have established all-embracing health care, which takes the burden of health care expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial possibility. There are tons of arguments for universal health care, and related health care practices. Health care is an important part of health systems, and therefore, it often accounts for one of the largest areas of high spending for both governments and individuals all over the world. For example, medical debt is now a leading cause of personal bankruptcy in the United States. A policy should be created to help lower the cost of health care.2
Thesis Statement For Universal Health Care
“Health care is an essential requirement for well being” (Maruthappu). All over the world, health care is a constant concern because of the difficulty maintaining quality and affordability. In the United States, health care reform has been a huge debate topic. The purpose of health care is to satisfy the medical needs of an individual. However, many Americans consider health care a “luxury,”because millions of low-income families cannot afford the same care as the middle or high class. In this case, the right to quality and affordable health care is not extended to all Americans. Universal health care will ensure a higher life expectancy, reduce the cost of medical treatment through a single-payer method, and improve medical treatments.
Universal Healthcare Be Beneficial For The Usa?
“That the U.S. health care system is broken and needs to be fixed is widely agreed to be true” (Universal Health Care Opposing Views p 19) is immediately apparent following a brief research of the organization of health care in the nation. There is an inability to control rising health care costs, and the system, although considered the most technologically advanced in the world, is riddled with waste and inefficiency. Year on year, doctors are spending increasingly more time dealing with insurance related administrative work rather than healing patients, there is gross overuse of care because employees view healthcare as part of a work-related benefit package, access to health care is based on ability to pay, and there is constant anxiety caused by the fear of losing employer-sponsored coverage. In contrast, a system of universal healthcare offers free services that are accessible to all, releases doctors from insurance paperwork to focus on healing, removes overuse of care because citizens fund the services through the payment of taxes, and may lead to healthier populations, among other things. Therefore, although vastly different from the current system, one could consider whether the introduction of universal healthcare would be beneficial for the USA?
Health Care Persuasive Essay
When it comes to our health, a good healthcare plan is a very important subject for all individuals. Some even argue that it is a basic right to have one. Bernie Sanders stated, “Healthcare must be recognized as a right, not a privilege. Every man, woman, and child in our country should be able to access the health care they need regardless of their income…” (“Issues: Medicare for All”). However, reality tells us a whole different story. America is one of the most developed countries in the world with some of the best medical care. Yet, how can the people enjoy the benefits when it is almost unaffordable to most. People are afraid to fall sick just because they are afraid of how much it would cost. However, sometimes a doctor or hospital visit is unavoidable. In most cases, it comes at a great price, especially to the middle class and the elderly. Wealthy individuals are likely to reap the benefits of having an expensive healthcare plan, while the rest may suffer from the unimaginable cost of treatments, or even worse, live a risky life without insurance. An effective solution to this problem would be a Universal Healthcare System. This would ensure that all people have equal and affordable health coverage, centralized healthcare records for all individuals which will help easy diagnosis by doctors and reduce the intensive labor costs of medical billing. Moreover, it may boost the economy by freeing business from providing expensive healthcare benefits to workers.
Deductive Arguments For Universal Healthcare
P3: Universal Healthcare would improve public health overall, with preventative care and overall health management.
The Universal Healthcare System
While some argue that a switch to universal healthcare will cost up to $1.5trillion,4 there are other factors at play that influence the economy. Most Americans have health insurance through their employer which causes a huge financial strain on that employer, which is in turn reflected in product and service prices. If the price of goods and services goes up, that could end up hurting the United States’ global competitiveness. Citizens are unwilling to leave their current employer and possibly start their own business for fear of not being able to afford health insurance on their own.5 Some of those would-be entrepreneurs could create the next big product that becomes a critical part of the national economy. On average, the typical family of four in America pays over $20,000 annually on health insurance,7 money that could be pushed back into the economy. This is all in addition to the societal costs caused by the lack of universal health care such as fewer years in the workforce, caused by poor health, and higher cost to public programs like Medicare and the criminal justice system.5 If someone is uninsured until they reach the appropriate age to enroll in Medicare, they could have pre-existing, otherwise preventable conditions that will end up costing more money than it would have to treat them in the first place. In 2005, economist Dr. Kenneth Thorpe published a report in which he calculated the overall
Argumentative Essay On Health Care
Since the beginning of human civilization, our health and well-being has sustained a high level of importance, because one’s physical and mental condition are things that are necessary to care for. The issue however remains in how our governments should assist in this care and how involved they should be in the world of doctors, drugs and healthcare companies. Many have strong opinions on this complex issue, and governments have attempted many different strategies which have been met with a sweeping range of results, from the corrupt health care companies which can be seen in the US to systems which have been denounced as communism to everything in between. Personally, I believe that completely universal healthcare is the best for society as a healthy population increases economic productivity, the system allows you to contribute incrementally over time and your wealth should not influence your access to care.
What Is Healthcare Taking Action
In this assignment I am going to discuss healthcare and how a universal healthcare system like the French healthcare system would be the most beneficial. As a country we spend the most money on health care out of any other country. The reason for this is because health insurance tends to be privatized the companies are able to ask for any price they want, and if you do not have health insurance you must pay a fine. Obamacare used to be an option but with the republican party looking to repeal it many people will be losing this very helpful asset, myself included. Universal healthcare effects everyone, from the rich to the poor.
- Health economics
- Public health
- Health insurance
- Universal health care
Assessing Health Care Reform (1993)
Constraining the rapid escalation of health care costs while extending health insurance coverage to all—the primary objectives of health care reform—will require significant improvements in the performance of our system for health care. This performance imperative is especially important because some of the factors behind rising health care expenditures, such as the aging of the population, are external to the health care system.
In the Preamble to this report, we set forth the committee's view that the fundamental goals of reform are to maintain and improve health and well-being, to make basic health coverage universal, and to encourage the efficient use of limited resources. The preceding sections of this document have provided a broad framework for assessing whether and how different reform proposals would pursue these goals. The elements of that framework—extending access to health care, containing health care costs, assuring quality of care, financing reform, and improving the infrastructure for effective change—all need to be addressed if system performance is truly to be improved. In some areas, we have made specific substantive recommendations based on the work of other IOM committees or the clear consensus of this committee; in other areas, we have laid out questions that proposals should answer.
A long-term perspective is essential. A framework for assessing reform, such as that we have suggested, will be useful both for the initial evaluation of proposals and for the assessment of progress over time. Indeed, to be most useful, as the results of reform efforts unfold the
committee's recommendations should be subject to the same type of ongoing evaluation as the reforms themselves.
The complexity of the health care system—and of health itself—presents major challenges to reform, and these challenges are intensified by the many important and often contending interests that have a stake in both the broad directions and intricate details of policy change. Reform proposals that focus primarily on financial issues and goals without recognizing that improved performance requires significant changes in how health care is organized and provided are unlikely to achieve the goals outlined here. Reform proposals must indicate their general approach to questions such as how health care professionals are to be appropriately trained and deployed (including expected responses to market signals from revised incentives), how better information is to be marshalled to improve performance, and how quality of care can be maintained and improved within resource constraints.
Finally, the reform of our health care system should be undertaken in the same spirit of continuous improvement and renewal that has so often been the keystone of success in America. The profound changes required for effective reform, even when the nation builds on the existing strengths of its health care system, demand that we learn from experience. To do that we need good information and sound analyses of results, flexibility and creativity in responding to that information, and an abiding focus on the concerns of the people whose health and well-being we seek to improve.
This book establishes a framework for assessing health care reform proposals and their implementation. It helps clarify objectives, identifies issues to be addressed in proposals, distinguishes between short- and long-term expectations and achievements, and directs attention to important but sometimes neglected questions about the organization and provision of health care services.
In addition, the volume presents a discussion and analysis of issues essential to achieving fundamental goals of health care reform: to maintain and improve health and well-being, to make basic health coverage universal, and to encourage the efficient use of limited resources.
The book is a useful resource for anyone developing or assessing options for reform.
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Should Healthcare Be Free? Essay on Medical System in America
Introduction, problem statement, why healthcare should be free, why healthcare should be paid, works cited.
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The US government has historically taken a keen interest in the health of its citizens. As far back as the beginning of the 1900s, President Theodore Roosevelt declared that “nothing can be more important to a state than its public health: the state’s paramount concern should be the health of its people” (Gallup and Newport 135). Despite these, the United States is classified as the nation with the most expensive, and yet inefficient, health care system among developed nations. An expensive health care system translates to an increasing proportion of the population being unable to access the much needed medical care. The New York Times reports that according to census survey carried out in the year 2007, an estimated 45.6 million people in the USA were uninsured and hence unlikely to receive comprehensive medical care from hospitals (1). Due to the perceived inefficiencies, there has been agreement that the current health care system is faulty and therefore in need of radical changes to make it better.
Majority of American’s are greatly dissatisfied with the current health care system which is extremely expensive and highly inefficient. While an effective system can be deemed to be one which is efficient, acceptable and at the same time equitable, the current system is lacking in this attributes. The aim of this paper will be to analyze the effects that free health care system in America would have. This paper will argue that a health care system which guarantees free health care for all Americans is the most effective system and the government should therefore adopt such a system.
Free health care would result in a healthier nation since people would visit the doctors when necessary and follow prescriptions. Research by Wisk et al. indicated that both middle and lower class families were suffering from the high cost of health care (1). Some families opted to avoid going to the doctor when a member of the family is sick due to the high cost of visiting the doctor and the insurance premiums associated with health care. In the event that they go to the doctor, they do not follow prescriptions strictly so as to reduce cost. Brown reveals that “60 percent of uninsured people skipped taking dosages of their medication or went without it because it cost too much” (6). Such practices are detrimental to a person’s health and they cost more in the long run. The last few years have been characterized by financial crises and recessions which have negatively affected the financial well being of many Americans. In these economic realities, the cost of health care has continued to rise to levels that are unaffordable to many Americans. This loss of access to health care has led to people being troubled and generally frustrated. A report by Brown indicates that the price for prescription drugs in the US has escalated therefore becoming a financial burden for the citizens (6). The productivity of this people is thereby greatly decreased as they live in uncertainty as to the assurance of their health and thereby spend more time worrying instead of being engaged in meaningful activities that can lead the country into even greater heights of prosperity. Free health care would lead to a peace of mind and therefore enable people to be more productive. Since medical care is not free, many people have to make do with curative care since they cannot afford to visit medical facilities for checkups or any other form of preventive medical care. This assertion is corroborated by Colliver who reveals that many people are opting to go without preventative care or screening tests that might prevent more serious health problems due to the expenses (1). Research shows that approximately 18,000 adults die annually due to lack of timely medical intervention (The New York Times 1). This is mostly as a result of lack of a comprehensive insurance cover which means that the people cannot receive medical attention until the disease has progressed into advanced stages. This is what has made medical care so expensive since “sick patients need more care than relatively healthy ones” (Sutherland, Fisher, and Skinner 1227). This is an opinion shared by Sebelius who reveals that 85% of medical costs incurred in the country arise from people ailing from chronic conditions (1). She further notes that if screened early, these diseases such as diabetes and obesity can be prevented thus saving the medical cost to be incurred in their treatment. It therefore makes sense to have a health care system that makes it possible for everyone to access preventive care thus curbing these conditions before they are fully blown.
While most people assume that free health care will result in better services as more people will be able to access health care, this is not the case. The increase in people who are eligible for health care will lead to an increase in the patients’ level meaning that one may have to wait for long before receiving care due to shortage of medical personnel or the rationing of care. A European doctor, Crespo Alphonse, reveals that when health care is free, people start overusing it with negative implications for the entire system (AP). In addition to this, free health care would invariably lead to cost cutting strategies by hospitals. This would lead to scenario where finding specialized care is hard and the rate of medical mistakes would increase significantly. As a matter of fact, a survey on Switzerland hospitals found that medical errors had jumped by 40% owing to the introduction of mandatory health insurance (AP). While it is true that free health care will increase the number of people visiting the doctor, this may be a positive thing since it will encourage preventive care as opposed to the current emphasis on curative care. Free health care is a move towards a socialistic system. As it is, the US is a nation that is built on strong capitalistic grounds. This is against the strong capitalistic grounds on which the United States society is build on. While detractors of the private insurance firms are always quick to point out that the firms make billions of dollars from the public, they fail to consider the tax that these firms give back to the federal government (Singer 1). Free health care would render players in the health industry such as private insurance companies unprofitable. Free health care will bring about a shift from a profit oriented system to a more people oriented system. Without money as a motivation, research efforts will plummet thereby leading to a decrease in the medical advancement as investment in research will not be as extensive (Singer 1). The Associate Press reveals that doctors may also lack to be as motivated if they are no incentives and thereby the quality of their work may weaken (1). As such, a free health care system would have far reaching consequences for the economy of the nation since the health care industry is a profitable industry for many.
The Healthcare system is one of the most important components of the U.S. social system since full productivity cannot be achieved without good health. This paper has argued that a free health care system would be the most effective system for America. To reinforce this assertion, the paper has articulated the benefits that the country would accrue from free health care. With free health care, all Americans would be able to access health services when they need it leading to increased quality of life. In addition, many people would make use of preventive healthcare services, therefore reducing the financial burden that the expensive curative services result in. The paper has taken care to point out that free health care has some demerits, most notably of which is overloading the health services with a high number of patients. Even so, the observably advantages to be reaped from the system far outweigh the perceived risks. As it is, decades of reform on the US health care system have failed to provide any lasting solution to the problem. Making health care free for all may be the strategy that will provide a solution for the ideal health care system that has thus far remained elusive. From the arguments presented in this paper, it can irrefutably be stated that free health care will result in a better health care system for the country.
Associate Press. (AP). Europe’s free health care has a hefty price tag . 2009. Web. Brown, Paul. Paying the Price: The High Cost of Prescription Drugs for Uninsured Americans. U.S. PIRG Education Fund, 2006. Colliver, Victoria. “Jump in middle-income Americans who go without health insurance,” San Francisco Chronicle (SFGate.com), April 26, 2006. Gallup, Andrew, and Newport Francis. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion . Gallup Press, 2005. Print. Sebelius, Kathleen. Health Insurance Reform Will Benefit All Americans . 2009. Web. Singer, Peter. Why We Must Ration Health Care . 2009. Web. Sutherland, Jason., Fisher Elliott, and Skinner Jonathan. “Getting Past Denial – The High Cost of Health Care in the United States” . New England Journal of Medicine 361;13, 2009). The New York Times. The Uninsured . 2009. Web. Wisk, Lauren. High Cost a Key Factor in Deciding to Forgo Health Care . 2011. Web.
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Universal Health Care: Arguments For and Against
Introduction, works cited.
The constant debates around the health care system in the United States, recently heated by the president’s health care reforms proposal, is a direct indication that the issue of health care in the United States is a painful subject. On the one hand, there is a support for the health care owned by the private sector, in which the medical treatment should be paid for ensuring higher efficiency, and on the other hand there are supporters of the opinion that health care is a right that should be accessible to everybody. The mutual point of intersection between the two groups is that both of them acknowledge that the current system needs reform (Roberts). Taking the position of the health care as a right accessible to everyone, “Sicko”, a 2007 documentary film by Michael Moore, outlined the effectiveness of such system – universal health care, showing and comparing the implementation of this system in practice in other developed countries such as Canada and France, and accordingly, pointing to the deficiencies of the current, based on insurance, health care in the United States. In that regard, this paper takes the position for universal health care, outlining the supportive arguments, as well as the arguments used by its opposition.
In the majority of universal health care system, the government’s involvement is the main approach in providing health care. In that regard, the sources of government coverage stem from general and dedicated taxation, and social insurance (McDougall, Duckett and Manku). Accordingly, it can be seen that the reliance on universal health care will lead the creation of more government positions.
Such point can be seen through Moore’s film, where the example of France is showing the social services provided by the government. Accordingly, it can be assumed that the necessity for such positions in any country adopting a universal health care system will lead to the creation of more government jobs.
Nevertheless, it should be stated that such positions imply limiting health care providers to the government, rather than that the payment methods will be regulated. In the example of France indicated in the film, the “The state sets the ceiling for health insurance spending, approves a report on health and social security trends and amends benefits and regulation”.
Following the previous argument, it can be said that government regulations will lead to a decrease in the doctors’ payment within a universal health care system. One point of controversy, which is held by the opposition of universal health care, is the possibility of health care quality reduction due to regulation of payments by the government and “enslaving the doctors”.
Looking at the representation of the doctors working in universal health care systems in Moore’s film, the doctors in Britain are paid by the government, and accordingly the system of commission implemented in Britain implies that the doctors are paid more when there are documented improvements in patients’ conditions. In such way, the doctors are interested in providing the best treatment for their patients, and at the same time the patient is sure that the aid he is receiving is not dependable on such factor as the doctors’ income.
Taking a look at other countries with universal health care such as France, where the fees are negotiable with the government, Switzerland, where the government negotiates rates with doctor organizations, and Netherlands, where insurers negotiate rates (McDougall, Duckett and Manku), it can be seen that such approach is definitely will not deprive the doctors of their rights, especially considering that negotiating imply a more flexible approach for the doctors, rather than regulation, where payments are regulated in government programs, as seen in the United States (Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation, The Commonwealth Fund and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation).
Finally, the most important argument, which can be considered as the criterion, based on which the health care system should be evaluated is the effectiveness seen through the results. In that regard, one of the arguments used in Moore’s film, in addition to the accessibility of the health care to everyone, is the results of such implementation on the overall health of the population. Taking the example of Great Britain in the film, a report from the AMA (American Medical Association) into the health of 55- to 64-year-olds says Brits are far healthier than Americans. That was only one example of the way the universal health care is more effective.
Taking life expectancy as a measure, the United States is the behind the such countries as Great Britain, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Canada, Sweden, Austria and France (McDougall, Duckett and Manku). Accordingly, in infant mortality rate as of 1999, the United States is ranked the last among the previously mentioned countries. In fact, the health care in the United States might have positive results in some areas, taking various positions surpassing the position of some of the countries in the list. However, it should be stated that considering the fact that “the U.S. spends far more per capita on health care than any other nation,” (Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation, The Commonwealth Fund and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation) it is not the leader in health among other developed countries.
Opposing the universal health care system, the arguments used vary in their effectiveness and accuracy, although some of them can be considered logical. Taking the example of the insurance company, one argument that might used can be seen in the statement that private insurance companies will go out of business. The as arguments is stemming from the fact that the current health system in the United States is largely operated by the private sector, either in provision of medical services or the insurance, where in terms of the latter the percentage of people covered by private health insurance was 67.5 as of 2007 (DeNavas-Walt et al.). Nevertheless, it can be stated that the universal health care system implies the option for private insurance companies, where taking the example of Switzerland the health system comprises of universal coverage, a mandate that everyone buy insurance and a major role for private insurance companies (McManus).
Omitting such factor as less payment for doctors, as previously explained in the example Britain, another important argument is overcrowded hospitals in universal health care systems. Such argument seems reasonable, where the examples of hospitals being overcrowded can be seen in such countries as Japan, Australia and others. In the case of Australia, Australian Medical Association stated that “there are 1500 unnecessary deaths in Australia due to overcrowding in public hospitals” (SHEPHERD). In that regard, such argument has sense, but nevertheless, it cannot be generalized on universal health care systems everywhere, rather than examples of funding issues might have led to such consequences in specific cases. Taking such factor as performance effectiveness, measured based on average length of stay, it can be seen that there are countries with universal health care that are leading with such indicators, which generally can imply that the type of health care system is not influencing such factor. Accordingly, such variables as the number of beds can be resulted from ineffective funding programs, rather than general health deficiencies.
It can be concluded that the universal health system is an option to hold to, specifically measuring such factors as costs and outcomes. Generally speaking, separate examples do not indicate the superiority of the system or its failure, while general trends examined through several developed countries shows the perspectives of such system. Universal health care is a step forward toward confirming the statement that health care is a right that is accessible to everyone.
“The State of Affairs in 16 Countries in Summer 2004”. World Health Organization . Eds. Grosse-Tebbe, Susanne and Josep Figueras. Web.
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, et al. “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007”. 2008. Census.gov . U.S. Government Printing Office. Web.
McDougall, Ashley, Paul Duckett, and Manjeet Manku. “International Health Comparisons”. National Audit Office . Web.
McManus, Doyle. “Switzerland’s Example of Universal Healthcare”. 2009. LA Times .Web.
“Sicko”. Dir. Moore, Michael. DVD. 2007.
Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation, The Commonwealth Fund, and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Compare International Medical Bills”. 2008. National Public Radio . Web.
Roberts, Joel. “Poll: The Politics of Health Care”. 2007. CBS News . Web.
SHEPHERD, TORY. “Needless Hospital Deaths”. 2008. News Limited . Web.
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The government offers free healthcare services but not to everyone. According to the World Health Organization, universal health coverage is the most important aspect of eliminating socioeconomic disparities and a critical component of sustainable growth. In several countries, universal health coverage is sought by a mix of private and public sector healthcare programs (Plianbangchang 2018). The government gives older people above 65 years of age free medical services; they also consider younger people suffering from disabilities and people who have renal issues. It definitely means that the government does not consider the other members of society, especially the working class. My essay will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of universal healthcare due to the government not offering free medical services to everyone.
Universal health care exemplifies nationwide healthcare programs in which all citizens have equal access to superior healthcare facilities regardless of individual or familial financial circumstances (Maruthappu, Ologunde, and Gunarajasingam 2013). Furthermore, universal health care encompasses social programs that include both nonmedical and medical services and infrastructure that is critical in promoting public health. Furthermore, universal health care (UHC) can significantly advance the trajectory of humanoid development. However, to achieve UHC, the government and the public health community must mobilize significant financial, technical, and human capital while still avoiding implementation challenges.
Many people will be glad and overwhelmed when they can walk into a hospital and feel optimistic that they will receive medical assistance regardless of their financial status (Jewell and McGiffert 2009). This will bring life to many citizens who were dying and suffering because they cannot afford to pay for medical bills, but the government has helped this group of people at the expense of the working-class group. UHC is also essential for a variety of reasons. First, preserving everyone’s mental and physical well-being is compatible with distributive justice ethics and proper behavior. The second explanation is related to the recognition of health as a fundamental human right. The ultimate aim is economic, in which UHC modifies market deficiencies related to health, such as the social benefits of sickness prevention and good health, which promote economic welfare at the macroeconomic level.
Furthermore, universal health care benefits society’s overall economic and social growth (LiPuma and Robichaud 2020). Based on primary healthcare, virtually every nation created its national health policies, which were later consolidated into the Global Plan for Health for All. Many countries worldwide have been captivated by the UHC concept application because they see it as a guiding force to assist governments in achieving the goal of good health for all individuals. Furthermore, as the number of sick people grows, governments worldwide have adopted UHC to provide sufficient care and treatment while also improving medical facilities. UHC is critical because it plays a vital role in reducing the rising prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases, which necessitate long-term care and treatment that is prohibitively costly. In addition, ambulatory treatment and public hospitals are typically endorsed and promoted as essential components of national healthcare systems when the UHC approach is used.
The government’s strategic goal of universal health coverage is to ensure that everyone, regardless of socioeconomic status, has access to the health care they need without financial ruin or the possibility of poverty (Blattner, Price, and Holtkamp 2018). Specific patients, as well as the entire population, are served by UHC facilities. Many national governments worldwide see progress toward UHC as a driving value for the development of healthcare systems to provide a healthy population. Furthermore, the curative and preventive services provided by UHC protect both income and health. The explanation for this is that when we have healthy children in a society, they learn well without any health complications; however, when adults are well, they contribute both economically and socially (Burke, Normand, Barry, and Thomas 2016). Nonetheless, under the concept of universal healthcare, no cash payments will be made that exceeded a certain affordability level for the most unfortunate people. As a result, all governments must decide on the appropriate health services and devise strategies to ensure affordable, accessible, high quality, and effectiveness.
Insurance-based health funding is exceptionally vulnerable to profiteering by the private healthcare industry. UHC not only raises healthcare costs in a country noted for its fiscal prudence, but it also degrades existing public health services due to the increased likelihood of individuals opting for private healthcare (Zieff, Kerr, Moore, and Stoner 2020). As a result, the private sector maximizes its profits by focusing on more cost-effective issues while driving complex, inefficient, and chronic issues into already overburdened public health systems. Furthermore, regardless of the thrust and growth surrounding universal healthcare, we can conclude that the continued neglect of primary healthcare elements will still be the same. Furthermore, recent research indicates that a tax-based public health system improves health equity and comprehensiveness while remaining highly affordable in low and middle-income countries instead of insurance-based universal health coverage.
As much as the government opted for the introduction of universal health care, it is a time-consuming process since it must go through regulatory, taxation, and legislative mechanisms (Kumar, Braeken, Jurcut, Liyanage, and Ylianttila 2020). The majority of people in single-pay systems face financial distress by using healthcare services such as health promotion, support, prevention, palliative care, and recovery. Many people see UHC as a burden because of out-of-pocket expenses as well as catastrophic healthcare costs. The goal of achieving universal healthcare is challenging due to many challenges in healthcare systems, politics, and the economic-political climate. Furthermore, achieving universal health care is complicated by the presence of gross disparities in health status between developed and developing nations, rich and poor, female and male, and other classes.
The government’s free healthcare can make people irresponsible; people might decide not to take care of themselves and live irresponsible lives because the medical services are free (Plianbangchang 2018). The quality of service offered in the hospital will degrade because of the rising number of patients making the doctors and nurses work extra hours attending to patients. In several countries, universal health coverage is sought by a mix of private and public sector healthcare programs. Furthermore, many low- and middle-income countries’ healthcare programs are expanding rapidly in the private sector. The key cause is a shortage of infrastructure and doctors to meet all healthcare needs in the public sector. Nonetheless, almost half of the healthcare funding in low-income countries comes from their own pockets. However, with the anticipated increase in the general fraction of care provided by the private sector, the costs may be financially catastrophic for low-income individuals.
To summarize, the government should not offer free health services to everyone in society but to only the aged and the disabled people who are not in a position to work or earn enough money for paying their medical bills (Jewell and McGiffert 2009). Society should also support universal healthcare and not look down on the individuals using this medical cover as people who are not well off in society. As governments work to ensure that free health care is implemented, they can also strengthen the infrastructures of medical facilities to ensure that the number of patients who come for treatment is well cared for and that they access all of the available services to them.
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Universal Healthcare in America. Healthcare should be a right for all U.S. citizens because not only would it drastically lower costs from the current
From the outset it was clear that the dramatic and evolving change in health care practice and policies presents a broad array of opportunities and problems.
Constraining the rapid escalation of health care costs while extending health insurance coverage to all—the primary objectives of health care reform—will
The Healthcare system is one of the most important components of the U.S. social system since full productivity cannot be achieved without good
Conclusion. It can be concluded that the universal health system is an option to hold to, specifically measuring such factors as costs and
Health and well being are deeply personal matters. Nothing could be more intimate than the experience of giving birth to a
Although the universal system may reduce the quality of care the people receive, there are too many people not able to get any kind of care. Therefore a
"Conclusion on healthcare" Essays and Research Papers · Good Essays. Conclusion. 268 Words · Satisfactory Essays. conclusions. 284 Words · Satisfactory Essays
The appointed leaders in the health care systems have to understand the importance of improving patient satisfaction and quality, how quality and technology
Should healthcare be a basic human right? There are many things in the world, specifically America, that are not easy to afford.
The government offers free healthcare services but not to everyone. According to the World Health Organization, universal health coverage is the most