The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake
The family structure we’ve held up as the cultural ideal for the past half century has been a catastrophe for many. It’s time to figure out better ways to live together.
T he scene is one many of us have somewhere in our family history: Dozens of people celebrating Thanksgiving or some other holiday around a makeshift stretch of family tables—siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles, great-aunts. The grandparents are telling the old family stories for the 37th time. “It was the most beautiful place you’ve ever seen in your life,” says one, remembering his first day in America. “There were lights everywhere … It was a celebration of light! I thought they were for me.”
The oldsters start squabbling about whose memory is better. “It was cold that day,” one says about some faraway memory. “What are you talking about? It was May, late May,” says another. The young children sit wide-eyed, absorbing family lore and trying to piece together the plotline of the generations.
After the meal, there are piles of plates in the sink, squads of children conspiring mischievously in the basement. Groups of young parents huddle in a hallway, making plans. The old men nap on couches, waiting for dessert. It’s the extended family in all its tangled, loving, exhausting glory.
This particular family is the one depicted in Barry Levinson’s 1990 film, Avalon , based on his own childhood in Baltimore. Five brothers came to America from Eastern Europe around the time of World War I and built a wallpaper business. For a while they did everything together, like in the old country. But as the movie goes along, the extended family begins to split apart. Some members move to the suburbs for more privacy and space. One leaves for a job in a different state. The big blowup comes over something that seems trivial but isn’t: The eldest of the brothers arrives late to a Thanksgiving dinner to find that the family has begun the meal without him.
“You cut the turkey without me?” he cries. “Your own flesh and blood! … You cut the turkey?” The pace of life is speeding up. Convenience, privacy, and mobility are more important than family loyalty. “The idea that they would eat before the brother arrived was a sign of disrespect,” Levinson told me recently when I asked him about that scene. “That was the real crack in the family. When you violate the protocol, the whole family structure begins to collapse.”
As the years go by in the movie, the extended family plays a smaller and smaller role. By the 1960s, there’s no extended family at Thanksgiving. It’s just a young father and mother and their son and daughter, eating turkey off trays in front of the television. In the final scene, the main character is living alone in a nursing home, wondering what happened. “In the end, you spend everything you’ve ever saved, sell everything you’ve ever owned, just to exist in a place like this.”
“In my childhood,” Levinson told me, “you’d gather around the grandparents and they would tell the family stories … Now individuals sit around the TV, watching other families’ stories.” The main theme of Avalon , he said, is “the decentralization of the family. And that has continued even further today. Once, families at least gathered around the television. Now each person has their own screen.”
This is the story of our times—the story of the family, once a dense cluster of many siblings and extended kin, fragmenting into ever smaller and more fragile forms. The initial result of that fragmentation, the nuclear family, didn’t seem so bad. But then, because the nuclear family is so brittle, the fragmentation continued. In many sectors of society, nuclear families fragmented into single-parent families, single-parent families into chaotic families or no families.
If you want to summarize the changes in family structure over the past century, the truest thing to say is this: We’ve made life freer for individuals and more unstable for families. We’ve made life better for adults but worse for children. We’ve moved from big, interconnected, and extended families, which helped protect the most vulnerable people in society from the shocks of life, to smaller, detached nuclear families (a married couple and their children), which give the most privileged people in society room to maximize their talents and expand their options. The shift from bigger and interconnected extended families to smaller and detached nuclear families ultimately led to a familial system that liberates the rich and ravages the working-class and the poor.
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This article is about that process, and the devastation it has wrought—and about how Americans are now groping to build new kinds of family and find better ways to live.
The Era of Extended Clans
Through the early parts of American history, most people lived in what, by today’s standards, were big, sprawling households. In 1800, three-quarters of American workers were farmers. Most of the other quarter worked in small family businesses, like dry-goods stores. People needed a lot of labor to run these enterprises. It was not uncommon for married couples to have seven or eight children. In addition, there might be stray aunts, uncles, and cousins, as well as unrelated servants, apprentices, and farmhands. (On some southern farms, of course, enslaved African Americans were also an integral part of production and work life.)
Steven Ruggles, a professor of history and population studies at the University of Minnesota, calls these “corporate families”—social units organized around a family business. According to Ruggles, in 1800, 90 percent of American families were corporate families. Until 1850, roughly three-quarters of Americans older than 65 lived with their kids and grandkids. Nuclear families existed, but they were surrounded by extended or corporate families.
Read: What number of kids makes parents happiest?
Extended families have two great strengths. The first is resilience. An extended family is one or more families in a supporting web. Your spouse and children come first, but there are also cousins, in-laws, grandparents—a complex web of relationships among, say, seven, 10, or 20 people. If a mother dies, siblings, uncles, aunts, and grandparents are there to step in. If a relationship between a father and a child ruptures, others can fill the breach. Extended families have more people to share the unexpected burdens—when a kid gets sick in the middle of the day or when an adult unexpectedly loses a job.
A detached nuclear family, by contrast, is an intense set of relationships among, say, four people. If one relationship breaks, there are no shock absorbers. In a nuclear family, the end of the marriage means the end of the family as it was previously understood.
The second great strength of extended families is their socializing force. Multiple adults teach children right from wrong, how to behave toward others, how to be kind. Over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, industrialization and cultural change began to threaten traditional ways of life. Many people in Britain and the United States doubled down on the extended family in order to create a moral haven in a heartless world. According to Ruggles, the prevalence of extended families living together roughly doubled from 1750 to 1900 , and this way of life was more common than at any time before or since.
During the Victorian era, the idea of “hearth and home” became a cultural ideal. The home “is a sacred place, a vestal temple, a temple of the hearth watched over by Household Gods, before whose faces none may come but those whom they can receive with love,” the great Victorian social critic John Ruskin wrote. This shift was led by the upper-middle class, which was coming to see the family less as an economic unit and more as an emotional and moral unit, a rectory for the formation of hearts and souls.
But while extended families have strengths, they can also be exhausting and stifling. They allow little privacy; you are forced to be in daily intimate contact with people you didn’t choose. There’s more stability but less mobility. Family bonds are thicker, but individual choice is diminished. You have less space to make your own way in life. In the Victorian era, families were patriarchal, favoring men in general and first-born sons in particular.
As factories opened in the big U.S. cities, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, young men and women left their extended families to chase the American dream. These young people married as soon as they could. A young man on a farm might wait until 26 to get married; in the lonely city, men married at 22 or 23. From 1890 to 1960, the average age of first marriage dropped by 3.6 years for men and 2.2 years for women.
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The families they started were nuclear families. The decline of multigenerational cohabiting families exactly mirrors the decline in farm employment. Children were no longer raised to assume economic roles—they were raised so that at adolescence they could fly from the nest, become independent, and seek partners of their own. They were raised not for embeddedness but for autonomy. By the 1920s, the nuclear family with a male breadwinner had replaced the corporate family as the dominant family form. By 1960, 77.5 percent of all children were living with their two parents, who were married, and apart from their extended family.
The Short, Happy Life of the Nuclear Family
For a time, it all seemed to work. From 1950 to 1965, divorce rates dropped, fertility rates rose, and the American nuclear family seemed to be in wonderful shape. And most people seemed prosperous and happy. In these years, a kind of cult formed around this type of family—what McCall’s , the leading women’s magazine of the day, called “togetherness.” Healthy people lived in two-parent families. In a 1957 survey , more than half of the respondents said that unmarried people were “sick,” “immoral,” or “neurotic.”
During this period, a certain family ideal became engraved in our minds: a married couple with 2.5 kids. When we think of the American family, many of us still revert to this ideal. When we have debates about how to strengthen the family, we are thinking of the two-parent nuclear family, with one or two kids, probably living in some detached family home on some suburban street. We take it as the norm, even though this wasn’t the way most humans lived during the tens of thousands of years before 1950, and it isn’t the way most humans have lived during the 55 years since 1965.
Today, only a minority of American households are traditional two-parent nuclear families and only one-third of American individuals live in this kind of family. That 1950–65 window was not normal. It was a freakish historical moment when all of society conspired, wittingly and not, to obscure the essential fragility of the nuclear family.
For one thing, most women were relegated to the home. Many corporations, well into the mid-20th century, barred married women from employment: Companies would hire single women, but if those women got married, they would have to quit. Demeaning and disempowering treatment of women was rampant. Women spent enormous numbers of hours trapped inside the home under the headship of their husband, raising children.
For another thing, nuclear families in this era were much more connected to other nuclear families than they are today—constituting a “ modified extended family ,” as the sociologist Eugene Litwak calls it, “a coalition of nuclear families in a state of mutual dependence.” Even as late as the 1950s, before television and air-conditioning had fully caught on, people continued to live on one another’s front porches and were part of one another’s lives. Friends felt free to discipline one another’s children.
In his book The Lost City , the journalist Alan Ehrenhalt describes life in mid-century Chicago and its suburbs:
To be a young homeowner in a suburb like Elmhurst in the 1950s was to participate in a communal enterprise that only the most determined loner could escape: barbecues, coffee klatches, volleyball games, baby-sitting co-ops and constant bartering of household goods, child rearing by the nearest parents who happened to be around, neighbors wandering through the door at any hour without knocking—all these were devices by which young adults who had been set down in a wilderness of tract homes made a community. It was a life lived in public.
Finally, conditions in the wider society were ideal for family stability. The postwar period was a high-water mark of church attendance, unionization, social trust, and mass prosperity—all things that correlate with family cohesion. A man could relatively easily find a job that would allow him to be the breadwinner for a single-income family. By 1961, the median American man age 25 to 29 was earning nearly 400 percent more than his father had earned at about the same age.
In short, the period from 1950 to 1965 demonstrated that a stable society can be built around nuclear families—so long as women are relegated to the household, nuclear families are so intertwined that they are basically extended families by another name, and every economic and sociological condition in society is working together to support the institution.
Video: How the Nuclear Family Broke Down
But these conditions did not last. The constellation of forces that had briefly shored up the nuclear family began to fall away, and the sheltered family of the 1950s was supplanted by the stressed family of every decade since. Some of the strains were economic. Starting in the mid-’70s, young men’s wages declined, putting pressure on working-class families in particular. The major strains were cultural. Society became more individualistic and more self-oriented. People put greater value on privacy and autonomy. A rising feminist movement helped endow women with greater freedom to live and work as they chose.
Read: Gen-X women are caught in a generational tug-of-war
A study of women’s magazines by the sociologists Francesca Cancian and Steven L. Gordon found that from 1900 to 1979, themes of putting family before self dominated in the 1950s: “Love means self-sacrifice and compromise.” In the 1960s and ’70s, putting self before family was prominent: “Love means self-expression and individuality.” Men absorbed these cultural themes, too. The master trend in Baby Boomer culture generally was liberation—“Free Bird,” “Born to Run,” “Ramblin’ Man.”
Eli Finkel, a psychologist and marriage scholar at Northwestern University, has argued that since the 1960s, the dominant family culture has been the “self-expressive marriage.” “Americans,” he has written , “now look to marriage increasingly for self-discovery, self-esteem and personal growth.” Marriage, according to the sociologists Kathryn Edin and Maria Kefalas , “is no longer primarily about childbearing and childrearing. Now marriage is primarily about adult fulfillment.”
Read: An interview with Eli Finkel on how we expect too much from our romantic partners
This cultural shift was very good for some adults, but it was not so good for families generally. Fewer relatives are around in times of stress to help a couple work through them. If you married for love, staying together made less sense when the love died. This attenuation of marital ties may have begun during the late 1800s: The number of divorces increased about fifteenfold from 1870 to 1920, and then climbed more or less continuously through the first several decades of the nuclear-family era. As the intellectual historian Christopher Lasch noted in the late 1970s , the American family didn’t start coming apart in the 1960s; it had been “coming apart for more than 100 years.”
Americans today have less family than ever before. From 1970 to 2012, the share of households consisting of married couples with kids has been cut in half. In 1960, according to census data, just 13 percent of all households were single-person households. In 2018, that figure was 28 percent. In 1850, 75 percent of Americans older than 65 lived with relatives; by 1990, only 18 percent did.
Over the past two generations, people have spent less and less time in marriage—they are marrying later, if at all, and divorcing more. In 1950, 27 percent of marriages ended in divorce; today, about 45 percent do. In 1960, 72 percent of American adults were married. In 2017, nearly half of American adults were single. According to a 2014 report from the Urban Institute, roughly 90 percent of Baby Boomer women and 80 percent of Gen X women married by age 40, while only about 70 percent of late-Millennial women were expected to do so—the lowest rate in U.S. history. And while more than four-fifths of American adults in a 2019 Pew Research Center survey said that getting married is not essential to living a fulfilling life, it’s not just the institution of marriage they’re eschewing: In 2004, 33 percent of Americans ages 18 to 34 were living without a romantic partner, according to the General Social Survey; by 2018, that number was up to 51 percent.
Over the past two generations, families have also gotten a lot smaller. The general American birth rate is half of what it was in 1960. In 2012, most American family households had no children. There are more American homes with pets than with kids. In 1970, about 20 percent of households had five or more people. As of 2012, only 9.6 percent did.
Over the past two generations, the physical space separating nuclear families has widened. Before, sisters-in-law shouted greetings across the street at each other from their porches. Kids would dash from home to home and eat out of whoever’s fridge was closest by. But lawns have grown more expansive and porch life has declined, creating a buffer of space that separates the house and family from anyone else. As Mandy Len Catron recently noted in The Atlantic , married people are less likely to visit parents and siblings, and less inclined to help them do chores or offer emotional support. A code of family self-sufficiency prevails: Mom, Dad, and the kids are on their own, with a barrier around their island home.
Finally, over the past two generations, families have grown more unequal. America now has two entirely different family regimes. Among the highly educated, family patterns are almost as stable as they were in the 1950s; among the less fortunate, family life is often utter chaos. There’s a reason for that divide: Affluent people have the resources to effectively buy extended family, in order to shore themselves up. Think of all the child-rearing labor affluent parents now buy that used to be done by extended kin: babysitting, professional child care, tutoring, coaching, therapy, expensive after-school programs. (For that matter, think of how the affluent can hire therapists and life coaches for themselves, as replacement for kin or close friends.) These expensive tools and services not only support children’s development and help prepare them to compete in the meritocracy; by reducing stress and time commitments for parents, they preserve the amity of marriage. Affluent conservatives often pat themselves on the back for having stable nuclear families. They preach that everybody else should build stable families too. But then they ignore one of the main reasons their own families are stable: They can afford to purchase the support that extended family used to provide—and that the people they preach at, further down the income scale, cannot.
Read: ‘Intensive’ parenting is a strategy for an age of inequality
In 1970, the family structures of the rich and poor did not differ that greatly. Now there is a chasm between them. As of 2005, 85 percent of children born to upper-middle-class families were living with both biological parents when the mom was 40. Among working-class families, only 30 percent were. According to a 2012 report from the National Center for Health Statistics, college-educated women ages 22 to 44 have a 78 percent chance of having their first marriage last at least 20 years. Women in the same age range with a high-school degree or less have only about a 40 percent chance. Among Americans ages 18 to 55, only 26 percent of the poor and 39 percent of the working class are currently married. In her book Generation Unbound , Isabel Sawhill, an economist at the Brookings Institution, cited research indicating that differences in family structure have “increased income inequality by 25 percent.” If the U.S. returned to the marriage rates of 1970, child poverty would be 20 percent lower. As Andrew Cherlin, a sociologist at Johns Hopkins University, once put it, “It is the privileged Americans who are marrying, and marrying helps them stay privileged.”
When you put everything together, we’re likely living through the most rapid change in family structure in human history. The causes are economic, cultural, and institutional all at once. People who grow up in a nuclear family tend to have a more individualistic mind-set than people who grow up in a multigenerational extended clan. People with an individualistic mind-set tend to be less willing to sacrifice self for the sake of the family, and the result is more family disruption. People who grow up in disrupted families have more trouble getting the education they need to have prosperous careers. People who don’t have prosperous careers have trouble building stable families, because of financial challenges and other stressors. The children in those families become more isolated and more traumatized.
Read: The working-to-afford-child-care conundrum
Many people growing up in this era have no secure base from which to launch themselves and no well-defined pathway to adulthood. For those who have the human capital to explore, fall down, and have their fall cushioned, that means great freedom and opportunity—and for those who lack those resources, it tends to mean great confusion, drift, and pain.
Over the past 50 years, federal and state governments have tried to mitigate the deleterious effects of these trends. They’ve tried to increase marriage rates, push down divorce rates, boost fertility, and all the rest. The focus has always been on strengthening the nuclear family, not the extended family. Occasionally, a discrete program will yield some positive results, but the widening of family inequality continues unabated.
The people who suffer the most from the decline in family support are the vulnerable—especially children. In 1960, roughly 5 percent of children were born to unmarried women. Now about 40 percent are. The Pew Research Center reported that 11 percent of children lived apart from their father in 1960. In 2010, 27 percent did. Now about half of American children will spend their childhood with both biological parents. Twenty percent of young adults have no contact at all with their father (though in some cases that’s because the father is deceased). American children are more likely to live in a single-parent household than children from any other country.
Read: The divorce gap
We all know stable and loving single-parent families. But on average, children of single parents or unmarried cohabiting parents tend to have worse health outcomes, worse mental-health outcomes, less academic success, more behavioral problems, and higher truancy rates than do children living with their two married biological parents. According to work by Richard V. Reeves , a co-director of the Center on Children and Families at the Brookings Institution, if you are born into poverty and raised by your married parents, you have an 80 percent chance of climbing out of it. If you are born into poverty and raised by an unmarried mother, you have a 50 percent chance of remaining stuck.
It’s not just the lack of relationships that hurts children; it’s the churn. According to a 2003 study that Andrew Cherlin cites , 12 percent of American kids had lived in at least three “parental partnerships” before they turned 15. The transition moments, when mom’s old partner moves out or her new partner moves in, are the hardest on kids, Cherlin shows.
While children are the vulnerable group most obviously affected by recent changes in family structure, they are not the only one.
Consider single men. Extended families provided men with the fortifying influences of male bonding and female companionship. Today many American males spend the first 20 years of their life without a father and the next 15 without a spouse. Kay Hymowitz of the Manhattan Institute has spent a good chunk of her career examining the wreckage caused by the decline of the American family , and cites evidence showing that, in the absence of the connection and meaning that family provides, unmarried men are less healthy—alcohol and drug abuse are common—earn less, and die sooner than married men.
For women, the nuclear-family structure imposes different pressures. Though women have benefited greatly from the loosening of traditional family structures—they have more freedom to choose the lives they want—many mothers who decide to raise their young children without extended family nearby find that they have chosen a lifestyle that is brutally hard and isolating. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that women still spend significantly more time on housework and child care than men do, according to recent data. Thus, the reality we see around us: stressed, tired mothers trying to balance work and parenting, and having to reschedule work when family life gets messy.
Read: The loneliness of early parenthood
Without extended families, older Americans have also suffered. According to the AARP, 35 percent of Americans over 45 say they are chronically lonely . Many older people are now “elder orphans,” with no close relatives or friends to take care of them. In 2015, The New York Times ran an article called “ The Lonely Death of George Bell ,” about a family-less 72-year-old man who died alone and rotted in his Queens apartment for so long that by the time police found him, his body was unrecognizable.
Finally, because groups that have endured greater levels of discrimination tend to have more fragile families, African Americans have suffered disproportionately in the era of the detached nuclear family. Nearly half of black families are led by an unmarried single woman, compared with less than one-sixth of white families. (The high rate of black incarceration guarantees a shortage of available men to be husbands or caretakers of children.) According to census data from 2010, 25 percent of black women over 35 have never been married, compared with 8 percent of white women. Two-thirds of African American children lived in single-parent families in 2018, compared with a quarter of white children. Black single-parent families are most concentrated in precisely those parts of the country in which slavery was most prevalent. Research by John Iceland, a professor of sociology and demography at Penn State, suggests that the differences between white and black family structure explain 30 percent of the affluence gap between the two groups.
In 2004, the journalist and urbanist Jane Jacobs published her final book , an assessment of North American society called Dark Age Ahead . At the core of her argument was the idea that families are “rigged to fail.” The structures that once supported the family no longer exist, she wrote. Jacobs was too pessimistic about many things, but for millions of people, the shift from big and/or extended families to detached nuclear families has indeed been a disaster.
As the social structures that support the family have decayed, the debate about it has taken on a mythical quality. Social conservatives insist that we can bring the nuclear family back. But the conditions that made for stable nuclear families in the 1950s are never returning. Conservatives have nothing to say to the kid whose dad has split, whose mom has had three other kids with different dads; “go live in a nuclear family” is really not relevant advice. If only a minority of households are traditional nuclear families, that means the majority are something else: single parents, never-married parents, blended families, grandparent-headed families, serial partnerships, and so on. Conservative ideas have not caught up with this reality.
Read: How politics in Trump’s America divides families
Progressives, meanwhile, still talk like self-expressive individualists of the 1970s: People should have the freedom to pick whatever family form works for them. And, of course, they should. But many of the new family forms do not work well for most people—and while progressive elites say that all family structures are fine, their own behavior suggests that they believe otherwise. As the sociologist W. Bradford Wilcox has pointed out, highly educated progressives may talk a tolerant game on family structure when speaking about society at large, but they have extremely strict expectations for their own families. When Wilcox asked his University of Virginia students if they thought having a child out of wedlock was wrong, 62 percent said it was not wrong. When he asked the students how their own parents would feel if they themselves had a child out of wedlock, 97 percent said their parents would “freak out.” In a recent survey by the Institute for Family Studies, college-educated Californians ages 18 to 50 were less likely than those who hadn’t graduated from college to say that having a baby out of wedlock is wrong. But they were more likely to say that personally they did not approve of having a baby out of wedlock.
In other words, while social conservatives have a philosophy of family life they can’t operationalize, because it no longer is relevant, progressives have no philosophy of family life at all, because they don’t want to seem judgmental. The sexual revolution has come and gone, and it’s left us with no governing norms of family life, no guiding values, no articulated ideals. On this most central issue, our shared culture often has nothing relevant to say—and so for decades things have been falling apart.
Read: Why is it hard for liberals to talk about ‘family values’?
The good news is that human beings adapt, even if politics are slow to do so. When one family form stops working, people cast about for something new—sometimes finding it in something very old.
In the beginning was the band. For tens of thousands of years, people commonly lived in small bands of, say, 25 people, which linked up with perhaps 20 other bands to form a tribe. People in the band went out foraging for food and brought it back to share. They hunted together, fought wars together, made clothing for one another, looked after one another’s kids. In every realm of life, they relied on their extended family and wider kin.
Except they didn’t define kin the way we do today. We think of kin as those biologically related to us. But throughout most of human history, kinship was something you could create.
Anthropologists have been arguing for decades about what exactly kinship is. Studying traditional societies, they have found wide varieties of created kinship among different cultures. For the Ilongot people of the Philippines, people who migrated somewhere together are kin. For the New Guineans of the Nebilyer Valley, kinship is created by sharing grease —the life force found in mother’s milk or sweet potatoes. The Chuukese people in Micronesia have a saying: “My sibling from the same canoe”; if two people survive a dangerous trial at sea, then they become kin. On the Alaskan North Slope, the Inupiat name their children after dead people, and those children are considered members of their namesake’s family.
In other words, for vast stretches of human history people lived in extended families consisting of not just people they were related to but people they chose to cooperate with. An international research team recently did a genetic analysis of people who were buried together —and therefore presumably lived together—34,000 years ago in what is now Russia. They found that the people who were buried together were not closely related to one another. In a study of 32 present-day foraging societies , primary kin—parents, siblings, and children—usually made up less than 10 percent of a residential band. Extended families in traditional societies may or may not have been genetically close, but they were probably emotionally closer than most of us can imagine. In a beautiful essay on kinship, Marshall Sahlins, an anthropologist at the University of Chicago, says that kin in many such societies share a “mutuality of being.” The late religion scholar J. Prytz-Johansen wrote that kinship is experienced as an “inner solidarity” of souls. The late South African anthropologist Monica Wilson described kinsmen as “mystically dependent” on one another. Kinsmen belong to one another, Sahlins writes, because they see themselves as “members of one another.”
Back in the 17th and 18th centuries, when European Protestants came to North America, their relatively individualistic culture existed alongside Native Americans’ very communal culture. In his book Tribe , Sebastian Junger describes what happened next: While European settlers kept defecting to go live with Native American families, almost no Native Americans ever defected to go live with European families. Europeans occasionally captured Native Americans and forced them to come live with them. They taught them English and educated them in Western ways. But almost every time they were able, the indigenous Americans fled. European settlers were sometimes captured by Native Americans during wars and brought to live in Native communities. They rarely tried to run away. This bothered the Europeans. They had the superior civilization, so why were people voting with their feet to go live in another way?
When you read such accounts, you can’t help but wonder whether our civilization has somehow made a gigantic mistake.
We can’t go back, of course. Western individualists are no longer the kind of people who live in prehistoric bands. We may even no longer be the kind of people who were featured in the early scenes of Avalon . We value privacy and individual freedom too much.
Our culture is oddly stuck. We want stability and rootedness, but also mobility, dynamic capitalism, and the liberty to adopt the lifestyle we choose. We want close families, but not the legal, cultural, and sociological constraints that made them possible. We’ve seen the wreckage left behind by the collapse of the detached nuclear family. We’ve seen the rise of opioid addiction, of suicide, of depression, of inequality—all products, in part, of a family structure that is too fragile, and a society that is too detached, disconnected, and distrustful. And yet we can’t quite return to a more collective world. The words the historians Steven Mintz and Susan Kellogg wrote in 1988 are even truer today: “Many Americans are groping for a new paradigm of American family life, but in the meantime a profound sense of confusion and ambivalence reigns.”
From Nuclear Families to Forged Families
Yet recent signs suggest at least the possibility that a new family paradigm is emerging. Many of the statistics I’ve cited are dire. But they describe the past—what got us to where we are now. In reaction to family chaos, accumulating evidence suggests, the prioritization of family is beginning to make a comeback. Americans are experimenting with new forms of kinship and extended family in search of stability.
Usually behavior changes before we realize that a new cultural paradigm has emerged. Imagine hundreds of millions of tiny arrows. In times of social transformation, they shift direction—a few at first, and then a lot. Nobody notices for a while, but then eventually people begin to recognize that a new pattern, and a new set of values, has emerged.
That may be happening now—in part out of necessity but in part by choice. Since the 1970s, and especially since the 2008 recession, economic pressures have pushed Americans toward greater reliance on family. Starting around 2012, the share of children living with married parents began to inch up. And college students have more contact with their parents than they did a generation ago. We tend to deride this as helicopter parenting or a failure to launch, and it has its excesses. But the educational process is longer and more expensive these days, so it makes sense that young adults rely on their parents for longer than they used to.
In 1980, only 12 percent of Americans lived in multigenerational households. But the financial crisis of 2008 prompted a sharp rise in multigenerational homes. Today 20 percent of Americans— 64 million people, an all-time high —live in multigenerational homes.
The revival of the extended family has largely been driven by young adults moving back home. In 2014, 35 percent of American men ages 18 to 34 lived with their parents . In time this shift might show itself to be mostly healthy, impelled not just by economic necessity but by beneficent social impulses ; polling data suggest that many young people are already looking ahead to helping their parents in old age.
Another chunk of the revival is attributable to seniors moving in with their children. The percentage of seniors who live alone peaked around 1990. Now more than a fifth of Americans 65 and over live in multigenerational homes. This doesn’t count the large share of seniors who are moving to be close to their grandkids but not into the same household.
Immigrants and people of color—many of whom face greater economic and social stress—are more likely to live in extended-family households. More than 20 percent of Asians, black people, and Latinos live in multigenerational households, compared with 16 percent of white people. As America becomes more diverse, extended families are becoming more common.
African Americans have always relied on extended family more than white Americans do. “Despite the forces working to separate us—slavery, Jim Crow, forced migration, the prison system, gentrification—we have maintained an incredible commitment to each other,” Mia Birdsong, the author of the forthcoming book How We Show Up , told me recently. “The reality is, black families are expansive, fluid, and brilliantly rely on the support, knowledge, and capacity of ‘the village’ to take care of each other. Here’s an illustration: The white researcher/social worker/whatever sees a child moving between their mother’s house, their grandparents’ house, and their uncle’s house and sees that as ‘instability.’ But what’s actually happening is the family (extended and chosen) is leveraging all of its resources to raise that child.”
Read: Why black families struggle to build wealth
The black extended family survived even under slavery, and all the forced family separations that involved. Family was essential in the Jim Crow South and in the inner cities of the North, as a way to cope with the stresses of mass migration and limited opportunities, and with structural racism. But government policy sometimes made it more difficult for this family form to thrive. I began my career as a police reporter in Chicago, writing about public-housing projects like Cabrini-Green. Guided by social-science research, politicians tore down neighborhoods of rickety low-rise buildings—uprooting the complex webs of social connection those buildings supported, despite high rates of violence and crime—and put up big apartment buildings. The result was a horror: violent crime, gangs taking over the elevators, the erosion of family and neighborly life. Fortunately, those buildings have since been torn down themselves, replaced by mixed-income communities that are more amenable to the profusion of family forms.
The return of multigenerational living arrangements is already changing the built landscape. A 2016 survey by a real-estate consulting firm found that 44 percent of home buyers were looking for a home that would accommodate their elderly parents, and 42 percent wanted one that would accommodate their returning adult children. Home builders have responded by putting up houses that are what the construction firm Lennar calls “two homes under one roof.” These houses are carefully built so that family members can spend time together while also preserving their privacy. Many of these homes have a shared mudroom, laundry room, and common area. But the “in-law suite,” the place for aging parents, has its own entrance, kitchenette, and dining area. The “Millennial suite,” the place for boomeranging adult children, has its own driveway and entrance too. These developments, of course, cater to those who can afford houses in the first place—but they speak to a common realization: Family members of different generations need to do more to support one another.
The most interesting extended families are those that stretch across kinship lines. The past several years have seen the rise of new living arrangements that bring nonbiological kin into family or familylike relationships. On the website CoAbode , single mothers can find other single mothers interested in sharing a home. All across the country, you can find co-housing projects, in which groups of adults live as members of an extended family, with separate sleeping quarters and shared communal areas. Common , a real-estate-development company that launched in 2015, operates more than 25 co-housing communities, in six cities, where young singles can live this way. Common also recently teamed up with another developer, Tishman Speyer, to launch Kin , a co-housing community for young parents. Each young family has its own living quarters, but the facilities also have shared play spaces, child-care services, and family-oriented events and outings.
Read: The hot new Millennial housing trend is a repeat of the Middle Ages
These experiments, and others like them, suggest that while people still want flexibility and some privacy, they are casting about for more communal ways of living, guided by a still-developing set of values. At a co-housing community in Oakland, California, called Temescal Commons , the 23 members, ranging in age from 1 to 83, live in a complex with nine housing units. This is not some rich Bay Area hipster commune. The apartments are small, and the residents are middle- and working-class. They have a shared courtyard and a shared industrial-size kitchen where residents prepare a communal dinner on Thursday and Sunday nights. Upkeep is a shared responsibility. The adults babysit one another’s children, and members borrow sugar and milk from one another. The older parents counsel the younger ones. When members of this extended family have suffered bouts of unemployment or major health crises, the whole clan has rallied together.
Courtney E. Martin, a writer who focuses on how people are redefining the American dream, is a Temescal Commons resident. “I really love that our kids grow up with different versions of adulthood all around, especially different versions of masculinity,” she told me. “We consider all of our kids all of our kids.” Martin has a 3-year-old daughter, Stella, who has a special bond with a young man in his 20s that never would have taken root outside this extended-family structure. “Stella makes him laugh, and David feels awesome that this 3-year-old adores him,” Martin said. This is the kind of magic, she concluded, that wealth can’t buy. You can only have it through time and commitment, by joining an extended family. This kind of community would fall apart if residents moved in and out. But at least in this case, they don’t.
Read: The extended family of my two open adoptions
As Martin was talking, I was struck by one crucial difference between the old extended families like those in Avalon and the new ones of today: the role of women. The extended family in Avalon thrived because all the women in the family were locked in the kitchen, feeding 25 people at a time. In 2008, a team of American and Japanese researchers found that women in multigenerational households in Japan were at greater risk of heart disease than women living with spouses only, likely because of stress. But today’s extended-family living arrangements have much more diverse gender roles.
And yet in at least one respect, the new families Americans are forming would look familiar to our hunter-gatherer ancestors from eons ago. That’s because they are chosen families—they transcend traditional kinship lines.
The modern chosen-family movement came to prominence in San Francisco in the 1980s among gay men and lesbians, many of whom had become estranged from their biological families and had only one another for support in coping with the trauma of the AIDS crisis. In her book, Families We Choose: Lesbians, Gays, Kinship , the anthropologist Kath Weston writes, “The families I saw gay men and lesbians creating in the Bay Area tended to have extremely fluid boundaries, not unlike kinship organization among sectors of the African-American, American Indian, and white working class.”
Like their heterosexual counterparts, most gay men and lesbians insisted that family members are people who are “there for you,” people you can count on emotionally and materially. “They take care of me,” said one man, “I take care of them.”
These groups are what Daniel Burns, a political scientist at the University of Dallas, calls “forged families.” Tragedy and suffering have pushed people together in a way that goes deeper than just a convenient living arrangement. They become, as the anthropologists say, “fictive kin.”
Over the past several decades, the decline of the nuclear family has created an epidemic of trauma—millions have been set adrift because what should have been the most loving and secure relationship in their life broke. Slowly, but with increasing frequency, these drifting individuals are coming together to create forged families. These forged families have a feeling of determined commitment. The members of your chosen family are the people who will show up for you no matter what. On Pinterest you can find placards to hang on the kitchen wall where forged families gather: “Family isn’t always blood. It’s the people in your life who want you in theirs; the ones who accept you for who you are. The ones who would do anything to see you smile & who love you no matter what.”
Two years ago , I started something called Weave: The Social Fabric Project . Weave exists to support and draw attention to people and organizations around the country who are building community. Over time, my colleagues and I have realized that one thing most of the Weavers have in common is this: They provide the kind of care to nonkin that many of us provide only to kin—the kind of support that used to be provided by the extended family.
Lisa Fitzpatrick, who was a health-care executive in New Orleans, is a Weaver . One day she was sitting in the passenger seat of a car when she noticed two young boys, 10 or 11, lifting something heavy. It was a gun. They used it to shoot her in the face. It was a gang-initiation ritual. When she recovered, she realized that she was just collateral damage. The real victims were the young boys who had to shoot somebody to get into a family, their gang.
She quit her job and began working with gang members. She opened her home to young kids who might otherwise join gangs. One Saturday afternoon, 35 kids were hanging around her house. She asked them why they were spending a lovely day at the home of a middle-aged woman. They replied, “You were the first person who ever opened the door.”
In Salt Lake City, an organization called the Other Side Academy provides serious felons with an extended family. Many of the men and women who are admitted into the program have been allowed to leave prison, where they were generally serving long sentences, but must live in a group home and work at shared businesses, a moving company and a thrift store. The goal is to transform the character of each family member. During the day they work as movers or cashiers. Then they dine together and gather several evenings a week for something called “Games”: They call one another out for any small moral failure—being sloppy with a move; not treating another family member with respect; being passive-aggressive, selfish, or avoidant.
Games is not polite. The residents scream at one another in order to break through the layers of armor that have built up in prison. Imagine two gigantic men covered in tattoos screaming “Fuck you! Fuck you! Fuck you!” At the session I attended, I thought they would come to blows. But after the anger, there’s a kind of closeness that didn’t exist before. Men and women who have never had a loving family suddenly have “relatives” who hold them accountable and demand a standard of moral excellence. Extreme integrity becomes a way of belonging to the clan. The Other Side Academy provides unwanted people with an opportunity to give care, and creates out of that care a ferocious forged family.
I could tell you hundreds of stories like this, about organizations that bring traumatized vets into extended-family settings, or nursing homes that house preschools so that senior citizens and young children can go through life together. In Baltimore, a nonprofit called Thread surrounds underperforming students with volunteers, some of whom are called “grandparents.” In Chicago, Becoming a Man helps disadvantaged youth form family-type bonds with one another. In Washington, D.C., I recently met a group of middle-aged female scientists—one a celebrated cellular biologist at the National Institutes of Health, another an astrophysicist—who live together in a Catholic lay community, pooling their resources and sharing their lives. The variety of forged families in America today is endless.
You may be part of a forged family yourself. I am. In 2015, I was invited to the house of a couple named Kathy and David, who had created an extended-family-like group in D.C. called All Our Kids , or AOK-DC. Some years earlier, Kathy and David had had a kid in D.C. Public Schools who had a friend named James, who often had nothing to eat and no place to stay, so they suggested that he stay with them. That kid had a friend in similar circumstances, and those friends had friends. By the time I joined them, roughly 25 kids were having dinner every Thursday night, and several of them were sleeping in the basement.
I joined the community and never left—they became my chosen family. We have dinner together on Thursday nights, celebrate holidays together, and vacation together. The kids call Kathy and David Mom and Dad. In the early days, the adults in our clan served as parental figures for the young people—replacing their broken cellphones, supporting them when depression struck, raising money for their college tuition. When a young woman in our group needed a new kidney, David gave her one of his.
We had our primary biological families, which came first, but we also had this family. Now the young people in this forged family are in their 20s and need us less. David and Kathy have left Washington, but they stay in constant contact. The dinners still happen. We still see one another and look after one another. The years of eating together and going through life together have created a bond. If a crisis hit anyone, we’d all show up. The experience has convinced me that everybody should have membership in a forged family with people completely unlike themselves.
Ever since I started working on this article, a chart has been haunting me . It plots the percentage of people living alone in a country against that nation’s GDP. There’s a strong correlation. Nations where a fifth of the people live alone, like Denmark and Finland, are a lot richer than nations where almost no one lives alone, like the ones in Latin America or Africa. Rich nations have smaller households than poor nations. The average German lives in a household with 2.7 people. The average Gambian lives in a household with 13.8 people.
That chart suggests two things, especially in the American context. First, the market wants us to live alone or with just a few people. That way we are mobile, unattached, and uncommitted, able to devote an enormous number of hours to our jobs. Second, when people who are raised in developed countries get money, they buy privacy.
For the privileged, this sort of works. The arrangement enables the affluent to dedicate more hours to work and email, unencumbered by family commitments. They can afford to hire people who will do the work that extended family used to do. But a lingering sadness lurks, an awareness that life is emotionally vacant when family and close friends aren’t physically present, when neighbors aren’t geographically or metaphorically close enough for you to lean on them, or for them to lean on you. Today’s crisis of connection flows from the impoverishment of family life.
I often ask African friends who have immigrated to America what most struck them when they arrived. Their answer is always a variation on a theme—the loneliness. It’s the empty suburban street in the middle of the day, maybe with a lone mother pushing a baby carriage on the sidewalk but nobody else around.
For those who are not privileged, the era of the isolated nuclear family has been a catastrophe. It’s led to broken families or no families; to merry-go-round families that leave children traumatized and isolated; to senior citizens dying alone in a room. All forms of inequality are cruel, but family inequality may be the cruelest. It damages the heart. Eventually family inequality even undermines the economy the nuclear family was meant to serve: Children who grow up in chaos have trouble becoming skilled, stable, and socially mobile employees later on.
The Gay Guide to Wedded Bliss
Family Reunions: Not Just for Grandparents
The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration
When hyper-individualism kicked into gear in the 1960s, people experimented with new ways of living that embraced individualistic values. Today we are crawling out from the wreckage of that hyper-individualism—which left many families detached and unsupported—and people are experimenting with more connected ways of living, with new shapes and varieties of extended families. Government support can help nurture this experimentation, particularly for the working-class and the poor, with things like child tax credits, coaching programs to improve parenting skills in struggling families, subsidized early education, and expanded parental leave. While the most important shifts will be cultural, and driven by individual choices, family life is under so much social stress and economic pressure in the poorer reaches of American society that no recovery is likely without some government action.
The two-parent family, meanwhile, is not about to go extinct. For many people, especially those with financial and social resources, it is a great way to live and raise children. But a new and more communal ethos is emerging, one that is consistent with 21st-century reality and 21st-century values.
When we discuss the problems confronting the country, we don’t talk about family enough. It feels too judgmental. Too uncomfortable. Maybe even too religious. But the blunt fact is that the nuclear family has been crumbling in slow motion for decades, and many of our other problems—with education, mental health, addiction, the quality of the labor force—stem from that crumbling. We’ve left behind the nuclear-family paradigm of 1955. For most people it’s not coming back. Americans are hungering to live in extended and forged families, in ways that are new and ancient at the same time. This is a significant opportunity, a chance to thicken and broaden family relationships, a chance to allow more adults and children to live and grow under the loving gaze of a dozen pairs of eyes, and be caught, when they fall, by a dozen pairs of arms. For decades we have been eating at smaller and smaller tables, with fewer and fewer kin.
It’s time to find ways to bring back the big tables.
This article appears in the March 2020 print edition with the headline “The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake.” When you buy a book using a link on this page, we receive a commission. Thank you for supporting The Atlantic .
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Nuclear Family Arrangement The Nuclear Family Is
Nuclear Family Arrangement: The nuclear family is simple and consists of heterosexual married couple and their children. The nuclear family arrangement is one of the oldest family structure and is prevalent in almost every part and society of the world. Traditionally, role and responsibility of the father in the nuclear family is of bread earner and protector of the whole family. On the other hand, woman in the traditional nuclear family is viewed as responsible for the households chores. Despite the emergence of different types of family structure and arrangement, like single parent families, extended families, and many more, the nuclear family arrangement is still believed to be the most effective and efficient family structure. Although, the nuclear family structure has been under some criticism, still the advantages and benefits of this family structure are strong enough to ignore and overcome all criticism (Chamratrithirong, Morgan, & Rindfuss, 926-950). Some of…
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat, Morgan, Philip, & Rindfuss, Ronald. "Living arrangements and family formation." Social Forces 66.4 (Jun. 1988): 926-950.
Grief, Avner. Family structure, institutions, and growth: the origin and implications of western corporation. Prepared for an AEA session on the family, institutions, and economic growth, 2005. 10 July. 2011.
Nuclear Family vs The Blended
" All in all, this article points to the obvious advantages the nuclear family has over a blended family. O'Leary, Daniel K., Heyman, Richard E., and Jongsma, Arthur E. The Couples Psychotherapy Treatment Planner. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. This book provides a wide range of approaches to dealing with the behavioral, psychological and social problems that occur in a blended family. Not that nuclear families don't have their own stressors and problems, but the issues that Heyman, et al., present are unique to blended families and stack up as reasons why nuclear families are generally more successful. Behavioral issues with stepfamilies include: a) suspicions by the female partner that the male partner is "sexually attracted to her daughter"; b) arguments between partners over "favoritism" or financial support and gifts for "biological vs. non-biological children"; c) frequent arguments over child discipline strategies; d) concerns as to leaving "opposite-sex…
Web Search for Nuclear Family Arrangement Using
Web Search for "Nuclear Family Arrangement" Using the search engine Google, the term "nuclear family arrangement" results in a variety of different websites from wikis and scholarly articles, to videos and discussion groups. Google can find more that 2,500,000 results for that particular keyword search, but if your overall purpose for the search was to find support for the thesis: "the nuclear family arrangement is not the only practicable structure for a thriving family environment," one will only be partly satisfied. The first three results are Wikipedia pages that start with "Nuclear Family," "Culture of the United States," and "Average Joe." The basic assumptions of all three sites is that the nuclear family is still considered the "norm" in American culture, even though demographic data demonstrates that "such households constitute less than a quarter of all households." ("Average Joe") And the very next site is an article that quotes a…
"Average Joe." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia." Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_Joe
Kottak, Conrad. "Families, Kinship, and Descent." McGraw Hill Online Learning Center. Retrieved from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/
"Nuclear Family" Retrieved from http://family.jrank.org/pages/1222/Nuclear-Families.html
Pro Nuclear Family Getting Started
Freewriting allows the writer to crystallize thoughts in preparation for a final paper or oral debate. Another strategy is engaging in dialogue with others. As Goshgarian et al. point out, the dialogue does not have to be limited to conversation. It can include brainstorming together, soliciting of responses to one's freewriting, and interviews. The dialogue can be face-to-face or via electronic resources such as chat rooms, e-mail or listservs (Goshgarian et al. 70). Dialogue enables the writer to gather other opinions and perspectives. The writer may or may not change her mind; even if she does not, she gains an understanding of other's arguments and can use them as a starting point for the research that will support her own views in a debate. The debate topic, that the nuclear family arrangement is not the only practicable structure for a thriving family environment, is one on which most people have…
Goshgarian, Gary, Krueger, Kathleen, and Minc, Janet Barnett. Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader. 4th ed. Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003. Print.
Traditional Nuclear Family Has Transformed
They worked longer hours in the workplace, but men had not made commensurate efforts in the home" (Pleck, npg). t is evident that while the role of women in the workplace and as a wage earner within the household has dramatically increased, their responsibilities within the home have not decreased a proportionate amount. The result of having women as a secondary wage earner has created a differing division of labor. Men, who are traditionally negligent of family duties, must now assume more family responsibility. UN study results reveal that men now perform double their traditional family obligations within the household. This implies that men now have more responsibility in taking care of children, maintaining the house, and other domestic duties. Men however, have not been as impacted by this transition towards dual-earners within the family (Pleck, npg). This is because as both members of the family work, they also increase…
In the final analysis it is evident that women still have a disproportionately high percentage of domestic responsibilities. However, due to the increase in their working hours, men have assumed more responsibility than in the traditional family system. It evident that the transition to dual-earners has changed the role of family members, but the change is not nearly as profound as many would believe.
Liazos, Alex. "Childcare and time to be parents: Parenting, childcare, and work." Humanity & Society 15, 3 (1991): 291-303.
Pleck, Joseph. Working Wives / Working Husbands. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1985.
Families in a Global Context
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149) A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
Family Social Policy What Are the Different
Family Social Policy hat are the different ideological approaches to family social policy…how are they different? Canada has traditionally taken the position that the responsibility for keeping a family intact is a private issue, not a public / governmental issue, according to Module 9. In terms of the ideological approach to families, the Module 9 explains four strategies. Familialism is the approach taken in Canada for heterosexual family values; this approach supports women staying home to raise children and men getting jobs outside the home. Any struggles the family may have (money, marriage difficulties) are to be kept within the family. Liberal Feminism differs from Familialism in that men and women have an equal basis for respect, both in the workplace and at home, but especially in the workplace. This ideology does not suggest that women should be raising children, staying home, and being homemakers. That typical role for a…
McDaniel, Susan A. (2007). Families, Feminism, and the State. In Power and Resistance.
Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.
Module 9. Family and child Welfare Policy.
Family Ecology the Family Is
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays. Socialization Process The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other. Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Family How the Family Really
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.
Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Family Relation Dynamics
Family elations esearch The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as complex socioeconomic issues that will be discussed in detail. A textbook, Public and Private Families, written by Andrew Cherlina share a lot of concepts of the film will be brought in to the discussion as well. The various relationships that exist between Marxist theory, sociological perspectives, structural functionalism, as well as the family and early feminist theory are examined throughout the program. It examines the rapid decline in marriage over the last few decades as well as the great increase in couples choosing cohabitation. Divorce is increasing and the fertility rate is on the decline in the U.K. All of these factors have combined to affect the traditional family in Britain and has created new challenges for them in how everyday…
The Sociology of Families and Households. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.educationaltrainingvideos.com/The-Sociology-of-Families-and-Households.html
Cherlin, A. (2013). Public and Private Families: An Introduction (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Sociology of the Family. (2013). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://www.academicroom.com/topics/sociology-family
Parker, S. (2013, October 25). Why family issues are economic issues. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.wnd.com/2013/10/why-family-issues-are-economic-issues/
Family Therapies Structural Family Approach Major Contributors
Family Therapies Structural family approach Major contributors of Structural family approach Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008() History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.22.214.171.124840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Family Independence Across Cultures Independence
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580). The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
Family Decision Making During the
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother, a 51 years old father and an adopted 15 years old son. The mother is a clinical psychologist and the father is currently an out of work electrician. In this particular case: big ticket purchases are generally decided by the mother, since she is the sole provider of the family; the father is charged with the family vacations food and toiletries are purchased on individual preference basically because the mother does not have enough time to cook group decisions are made in regard to the places where to dine out or electronic appliances to be purchased for the home the child's power of influence is revealed by his capability to research certain products and provide his mother with the required information…
Mann, a., Consumer Behavior - Family Purchasing Decisions Making Process, Ezine Articles, Retrieved at http://ezinearticles.com/?Consumer-Behavior-Family-Purchasing-Decisions-Making-Process&id=307532on February 8, 2008
Business Standard, 2004, Marketing with Precision, Rediff, Retrieved at http://imdownloads.rediff.com/money/2004/oct/28guest2.htm . On February 8, 2008
Chamberlain, B., Types of Families, Retrieved at http://www.hhs.wash.k12.ut.us/department/health/masters/ch5l1/type.htm. On February 8, 2008
Perner, L., PhD., Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing, Consumer Psychologist, Retrieved at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/on February 8, 2008
Families Delinquency & Crime What
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard. Module 4 Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households. Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
Family Institutions That Oversee the Bearing and Raising of Children
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…
Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,
University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.
Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration
of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml
Family Crisis Stephanie Cootz Asserts
Perhaps one of the most important findings of ootz is that there's the feeling that married couples today just aren't as happy as they were in the golden age of the 1950's. Here, she doesn't do a great job of refuting this supposed myth. She did find data that more couples reported their marriages to be happy in the late 1970s than did so in 1957. but, the use of data this old simply shows that ootz lacks appropriate evidence to support her argument. At least she does admit that between the late 1970s and late 1980s, marital happiness did decline in the United States. When dealing the higher deaths rates of our present generation, ootz does a poor job of putting these numbers in an unbiased contextual perspective. ootz explains how many marriages in the past were terminated by the death of a partner rather than divorce which she…
Cootz concludes with her own solution for the modern-day family,
The problem is not to berate people for abandoning past family values, nor to exhort them to adopt better values in the future -- the problem is to build the institutions and social support networks that allow people to act on their best values rather than on their worst ones. We need to get past abstract nostalgia for traditional family values and develop a clearer sense of how past families actually worked and what the different consequences of various family behaviors and values have been." (22)
Ironically, Cootz had just spent time arguing that the modern-day family still has great support networks and erosion from the 1950's is a myth. This is just one more example of logical flaws that exist throughout Cootz's chapter. Still, Cootz does a good job of making the reader think about the historical and environmental contexts of the family and to question supposed facts that are likely to be mere myths.
Family Theory According to Bowen Theory and Its Eight Concepts
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs. The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…
"Bowenian Family Therapy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/bowen.html
Vermont Center for Family Studies (n.d). What are the eight interlocking concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory? Retrieved online: http://www.vermontcenterforfamilystudies.org/about_vcfs/the_eight_concepts_of_bowen_theory/
New Forms of Family
Family The author of this report is asked to answer to several questions relating to family. These answers include what the main functions of a family are including the answer to the question from a functionalist perspective. How someone's family influences his or her cultural identity shall be answered to including item such as gender, race and identity. Finally, it shall be explained how family life has changed over the last thirty years. While the forms of family have changed over the last generation or two, the core functions of the family have not changed much at all. The main functions of a family have not entirely changed over the year but they have shifted a bit. Traditionally, the main focus of family has centered around marriage and having children. However, the definitions of marriage and what makes an "acceptable one" over the years has changed and many families are…
Jayson, S. (2010, November 25). What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/yourlife/sex-relationships/marriage/2010-11-18-pew18_ST_N.htm
Levin, J. (2004, August 24). Functionalism. Stanford University. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
Perspective on the Family
Family Theoretical Perspective The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason why it attracts a lot of attention and consequent research. The topic of this paper is family and the chosen article is, "Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds." The structures of family forms vary just as their definitions. There is no single form of true family. In earlier years the nuclear family that comprises of a single set of biological parents and their children was prevalent. However, there has been a trend towards multiple generations of the same family living and working together in the same household. Today, there are many types of family forms that can be seen and they are due to the evolution of the family that started off as a result of a…
Vem, B. (2014). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds.
Analyzing Family Relation and Substance Use Disorders
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed. In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles? Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…
Marcia .C. (2011). Culture and Family Dynamics. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/2010/11/culture-and-family-dynamics/
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/evidence-based-approaches-to-treating-adolescent-substance-use-disorders/family-based-approaches
Novella .R. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from
American Families and Health
Families progress and grow as time continues. People may be at one stage and then move on to another. My family is a nuclear family and as my parents age, I wonder about how their health will get worse over time. The United States in general, has poor food quality and limited economic opportunity. There are political struggles, job struggles that contribute to chronic stress and a potential obesity epidemic. I guess that my family as well as other American families will have problems concerning chronic health conditions that can be attributed to weight and food quality. Many Americans have nutrient deficiencies that can lead to chronic health problems like heart disease and diabetes. Although the American government attempts to educate people on healthy eating, the cheapest food available is usually heavily processed or laden with chemicals and pesticides. Things like avocados and apples, some of the foods that help…
Family on Family An Interview With Uncle
Family on Family: An Interview With Uncle Simon The idea of the family as a social subsystem is a very useful one in the academic world and in sociological and therapeutic practice, but it is not necessarily one that individual laypeople ascribe to when they think about their own family (Lesser & Pope, 2007). Though certain aspects of most people's conceptions of the family unit can be seen to mirror larger social structures in some ways, most people's views are much more individual and personalized (Carter & McGoldrick, 1998). The following interview, conducted with the interviewees uncle, demonstrates the personalized yet somewhat standardized view of family that can and does ultimately emerge when people think about their family. The interviewee, Simon, had not previously though very much about the definition of "family" or how this definition was and is influenced by other social trends, though upon reflection he acknowledged that…
Carter, B. & McGoldrick, M. (1998). The Expanded Family Life Cycle. New York: Lavoisier.
Lesser, J. & Pope, D. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment. New York: Pearson.
Walsh, F. (2011). Normal Family Processes. New York: Guilford.
Family Age Students With Learning Disabilities The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
Nuclear History This Is a
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling. Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant of exactly what might have taken place that day. Her account of the accident holds the reader's attention, and, at the same time, seems purely objective. Since the pilots of the 52 survived the disaster, along with the 52 navigator and spare pilot, her telling of the story comes first-hand -- at least the 52 crew's version since all aboard the KC-135 were killed. And, despite the vast differences between what the pilots told her and the results of the investigation board after the accident, Moran holds to an unbiased account of both. She draws no conclusions other than repeating what the investigative board ruled. While the pilots described only a sudden explosion occurring at the rear of the 52 causing…
Moran, B. The day we lost the h-bomb: Cold war, hot nukes, and the worst nuclear weapons disaster in history. New York: Random House, 2009.
Marriage and Family Types
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008) The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family
Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.
Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"
Marriage & Family Marriage and
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations. Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press. Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327. Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript. Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…
Beutell, N. & Wittig-Berman, U. (2008). Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850.
Carlson, J. (2009). Family therapy techniques: integrating and tailoring treatment. Florence, KY: Brunner-Routledge.
Chen, F. & Li, T. (2007). Marital enqing: an examination of its relationship to spousal
Sociology of Families Making Families
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows: Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed Constructivist epistemology) Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
Sociology and the Family Specific
If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from censure to even loss of careers. In addition, the altering of values inside the family may pave the way for sociological change in the family members in the future. As sociologist Noble states, "Today most people continue to spend most of their lifetime in nuclear family relationships though they undergo continuing changes in their aspirations and expectations as the structural and demographic circumstances of their lives change" (Noble, 1998). Thus, the two young children in the family may create families of their own that differ from the makeup of their own family, and recognize the diversity of society and family members. The sociological implications of the problem are many, and the family will have to weather them to stay together and…
Dentler, R.A. (2002). Practicing sociology: Selected fields. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Eatwell, R. (2003). Then theories of the extreme right. Retrieved from the University of Bath staff Web site: http://staff.bath.ac.uk/mlsre/MerklandWeinberg.htm20 Dec. 2006. (note, this is not an "edu" Web site, but it is a university web site for staff members of the university.
Folsom, J.K. (1934). The family: Its sociology and social psychiatry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kearl, M.C. (2006). Sociology of the family. Retrieved from the Trinity University Web site: http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/family.html20 Dec. 2006.
Marriage & Family Myths Critique
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial evolution. In fact, any so-called "modern" shift to a more egalitarian sharing of family responsibilities represents more of a return to the more natural state of families than any "radical" or "new" approach. Branden (1999) agrees, again tying in excessive adherence to typical male and female roles as a potential source of unnecessary strain, especially where marital partners may be better suited to a different arrangement or sharing of responsibilities. Likewise, oberts (2007) also acknowledges the damage caused to marriage by dissatisfaction, especially among wives, as to the roles prescribed to them by society. Myth # 4 - the Unstable African-American Family: In their criticism of the notion that the African-American community reflects a lower level of marital and family stability…
Branden, N. (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Roberts, S. (2007) the Shelf Life of Bliss. The New York Times, July 1, 2007.
Schwartz, M.A., Scott, B.M. (2000) "Debunking Myths about Marriage and Families" in Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change.
Lilo and Stich Family
Extended Family in Finding Nemo and Lilo & Stitch In the American society, the concept of the family can be interpreted in various ways, due to the flexibility in which the term is used by Americans. More often, family does not only mean the nuclear family composed of the father, mother, and child/children, but it also includes relatives and friends who are close to the individual. Indeed, through the years, society has evolved to make its family institution bigger, more flexible, and wider, yet deeper, in scope. The concept of the "family" is an important theme discussed in the animated films, Finding Nemo by Pixar and Lilo & Stitch by Walt Disney. These films centered its theme on how a family is constructed and what are the dynamics (or relationships) that develop from within upon its creation. This paper discusses and analyzes how these two films depict the concept of…
Traditional American Family Is a
We can assume that by the twentieth century, times would have changed. The typical family in 2075 will look radically different than it does today. Families will be looked upon units rather than families and their significance will be greatly diminished due to logic, reason, and the absence of bonding. The family will be more like a contribution to society - a cog in the wheel, if you will - and its only significance will be what it can contribute to society as a whole. The paternal bonds we are ware of today will be complete fiction. People will read about how the traditional family used to be and they will wonder at how parents and children interacted because this form of interaction has given way to productivity and the common good. Coontz prepares us for this type of future when she writes that as early as the eighteenth century…
Marriage & Family -- Research
esearch Method esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82). esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…
City University of Hong Kong Website. (n.d.) Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
Retrieved from http://www.is.cityu.edu.hk/staff/isrobert/phd/ch3.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Kroelinger, M. (2002). The Research Problem. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/the%20Research%20Problem.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Nachmias C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
Albertis Family the Family and
Though this schema works for many, however, there are also downsides to these societal changes that are not often discussed as they are rather unpopular. With greater individual freedom comes greater individual and collective risk. This is not to suggest that women should be controlled by men, or indeed that any segment of society should be controlled by another, but as families become less structured and more permissive entities, responsibility for the production of socially connected citizens becomes more difficult to place, and the concept of social responsibility itself even comes into question. The answer to this predicament is that the family as a whole becomes responsible, though the individual roles are more freely and equally divided. Some of these changes can even be observed during the Renaissance period that took place from the fourteenth through the seventeenth centuries throughout Europe. Though coming to England somewhat later than many mainland…
Decline in the American Family
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family) These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family. Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…
Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3020821.html
Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542
The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:aCtD_N20o7QJ:www.norc.org/online/emerge.pdf+Decline+in+the+American+Family+Values&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=6
The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.afa.net/about.asp
Changing Family Form American Family
ather than lamenting the loss of a family structure from an admittedly anomalous decade, Stacy (1993) argues that social reforms are necessary to ensure that children are cared for. In Beck-Gernsheim's (2002:85) assessment, the focus should not be on "the black-and-white alternative 'end of the family' or 'family as the future'" but on "the many grey areas or better, the many different shades in the niches inside and outside the traditional family network." According to Beck-Gernsheim (2002) traditional definitions of family exclude many groups such as single people, the childless and single-parent families who have never married. They also ignore the potential conflict that occurs within traditional families. Beck-Gernsheim (2002) explains that changes in families, which have been occurring since industrialization, are the result of individualization. In pre-industrial times, family structure was centered on work and economics, which each family member having a role to support the family farm or…
Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth. 2002. Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences, edited by Ulrich Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. London: Sage Publications.
Lareau, Annette. 2002. "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." American Sociological Review 67:747-776.
Popenoe, David. 1993. "American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):527-542.
Stacey, Judith. 1993. "Good Riddance to 'The Family' A Response to David Popenoe." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):545-547.
Sociology Families Are the Basic
People read the world differently and that explains why they respond to the world differently. For instance my mother is very tidy and neat whereas my father is the exact opposite. When my family is looked at from the social interaction perspective then it can be clearly concluded that symbolic interaction definitely can explain the divorce (Farley, 2012). The conflict theory looks at how people within a family struggle for power; how they disagree and how they compete for resources. Wealth and prestige form the basis for most of the competitions. When my family is looked at from the conflict theory it can be said that our family underwent conflicts and disharmony. This was due to the fact that there are different dynamics and roles played by my family members. First traditionally the father are seen as the head of the family and it should come naturally. However this was…
Farley, a. (2012).What is the Symbolic Interaction Perspective in Divorce? Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_10017957_symbolic-interaction-perspective-divorce.html
Ray, L. (2010).Conflict theory and the family. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/345499-conflict-theory-the-family/
Naveed, K. (2009).Family in Sociological Perspective. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.slideshare.net/naveedtaji/family-in-sociology-perspective
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family the
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family The main components of structural therapy Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012). The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Toulmin Argument on American Families Up to 30 years ago, divorces were difficult to obtain and were very rare in American society. However, in 1969, the advent of no-fault divorce laws caused a spike in divorce rates. Qualifier follows- This paper argues that if the United States wants to preserve the traditional ideals of the American family, (claim follows) -- the no fault divorce laws must be repealed. Support #1 follows -- The no-fault divorce laws have caused an alarming spike in the divorce rate. In a statistical study, researchers found an estimated.8 point average increase in the divorce rate after the no fault divorce laws were enacted. The 1970s saw a "divorce boom," when the divorce rate more than doubled. In fact, the divorce rates in the states that have adopted no fault divorce laws were much lower than their no-fault counterparts (Nakonezny, Shull, and Rodgers). The ease of…
Connelly, Erin. "Like a stone is tossed in water, there's a ripple effect." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Goldberg, David. "Haunted by divorce." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 15, 2000. Proquest Database.
Miller, Toby. "30-year-old still feels 7-year-old's anguish." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Nakonezny, P.A., Shull, R.D., & Rodgers, J.L. "The effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1995: 57. Proquest Database.
Social and Family Change in Modern Society
Family Roles The family unit certainly serves as mechanism to ensure the survival of the human species, just as "family" units in the animal world function primarily to ensure that the young offspring reach an age when they can survive on their own. Interestingly -- and expanding the analogy -- the concept of "surviving on their own" does not mean surviving in isolation, except for those few animal species for which a solo existence in the norm. Indeed, for some animal species, a solo existence is dictated by the demand of territory with large expanses of wilderness or prairie required for their subsistence. But for human's surviving on one's own is taken to mean primarily an emotional maturity -- achieving an adult capacity -- with a strong economic overlay. As society becomes more diverse, examples of how families support this independent living that is nested within social groups that are…
Work and Family
Saroj Parasuraman's book, Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World, examines the modern conflict between work and family from a number of perspectives. The author delves into the specific types of work and family conflicts, and the impact that they have on a number of actors, and argues that these conflicts stem from changes in work and family during this century. Personally, Integrating Work and Family provided a new perspective on the responsibility for work/family conflict, and the potential damage that can arise from clinging to old stereotypes of the nuclear family. In Integrating Work and Family, Parasuraman attempts to examine the conflict between family and work from a variety of those impacted, including individuals, employers, consultants, and counselors. The book notes that while there has been a great deal of discussion about family/work conflicts, such conflicts remain a serious problem. Writes Parasuraman, "The problem of…
Parasuraman, Saroj, and Greenhaus, Jeffrey H. (1999). Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Social Changes for the American Family Today
Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation (Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001). Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years Clearly the economic…
Ali, A.J., & Wisniesk, J.M. (2010). Consumerism and ethical attitudes: An empirical study. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 3(1), 36-46.
Milot, L. (2001). Restitching the american marital quilt: Untangling marriage from the nuclear family. Virginia Law Review, 87(4), 701-728.
Perrone, K.M., & Worthington, Everett L.,,Jr. (2001). Factors influencing ratings of marital quality by individuals within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 3-9.
American Families and the Nostalgia
Families these days are "in crisis" because all of us have lost a lot of values that used to keep a family together (Kim, 2000). In addition, Coontz very analytically eliminated all the myths about what families used to be, how & what they are in the current time, and what they should be (Kim, 2000). However, as a reader one might notice just little discrepancy in her dispute and statistics, which may remind that all of these socio-cultural examinations have been basically constructions that tell the story in a better way or worse than each other, but not flawless (Kim, 2000). Thus, this is just too big an issue to get the whole thing completely balanced and organized. However, her logic has been well-developed and with given facts and statistics, it derived some very outstanding conclusions. For example, in the last two chapters, she tied up the analysis and…
Sheri & Bob Stritof. "Your Guide to Marriage: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap" http://www.marriage.about.com/
Kim Allen. "Review: The Way We Never Were by Stephanie Coontz." 2000
Amazon.com. "The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap: by Stephanie Coontz" http://www.amazon.com/
Changing Family Forms
Judith Stacy is a professor as well as author of cultural and social analysis. She focused mainly on studies of gender, queer relationships, and sexuality. She explores the typical pattern of relationships that deviate the basic western marriages idea in her article. In 1968 Stacey got her bachelor degree from university of Michigan. In 1968 she received degree of Maters in history from university of Illinois and from Brandeis she received her PhD in sociology degree in 1969. She stayed in the faculty of university of California in 1979-1997 and then she appointed as Streisand professor of gender studies and PRF of sociology in southern California. Judith Stacy, an expert on the family is very well-known for her challenging research on conventional issues. She seems to be very impatient with the increasing war situation of same sex marriages, divorce, fatherlessness, marital fidelity and the like. She unveils many profiles around…
Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western
China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.
The Changing Meaning of the Family
sociological perspectives (e.g., social functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction) be used to conceptually understand the family? What fundamental changes to the family have been made over the last 40 years? What is the "family"? Use the 3 sociological perspectives to explain. Social functionalism views institutions like the family as necessary to preserve society. This perspective views the integrative components that make up society as greater than the sum of their individual parts and holds the family to be one of the fundamental building blocks that provide stability and coherence to people's lives. Preserving the family as a social institution is thus vital to reduce crime and to improve society as a whole. "Through kinship networks, people cooperate so that they can acquire the basic necessities of life, including food and shelter. Kinship systems can also serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed,…
Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in our times. (10th ed). Cengage.
Devel Family Cycle Theory Successful Completion of Developmental
Devel/Family Cycle Theory Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following: Leaving home: single young adults The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
Rising Cost of Housing Cost and Its Effect on the Nuclear and Extended Family
prohibitively rising cost of housing in Rhode Island has affected both the nuclear and extended family. Rising housing costs may force family members to move to less expensive areas, causing a breakdown in both extended and nuclear family structure. However, this may be balanced by the increased tendency of young adults, who cannot afford the high housing costs in Rhode Island, to live at home. Certainly, data outlined below indicate that the housing crisis in Rhode Island is very real and immediate. Individuals across Rhode Island society are beginning to feel the constraints of the difficult housing market, and low-income individuals are feeling the greatest strain. Given that federal and private agencies are unable to keep up with the increasing demand for housing assistance for low-income residents, the housing crisis will only continue to grow. As a result, the pressures of the nuclear and extended family are not expected to…
Arditi, Lynn. House prices in R.I. soar in 2nd quarter. Low mortgage rates and a sluggish stock market promote heavy interest in real estate.
07/30/2002. The Providence Journal (projo.com). 30 October 2002. http://www.projo.com/news/content/projo_20020730_rhouse30.24270.html
Economic Research Service. County-level population data for Rhode Island. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/Population/PopList.asp?ST=RI&LongName=Rhode%20Island
Economic Research Service. Rhode Island State Fact Sheet from USDA/ERS. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/RI.htm
Changes in Family Portrayals Over the Years in American Sitcoms
Television's depiction of families is crucial, as it is a means to understanding family; it displays families' appearance, the ideal family, the way spouses must behave, the manner of resolution of problems within, and by, a family, and the manner in which parents must behave towards their children. A majority of studies on the matter have concentrated on depicting vivid family structure descriptions, the existence of diverse representations of family, and kinds of interpersonal interactions in television facilities. As global programs have been dominated and influenced by products in American media, a majority of family depiction studies have revolved around American televised soaps/dramas. Program type determines how family is depicted. Family dramas, soap operas and sitcoms usually deal with family as the central theme, and most assessments of family portrayals use these as their subject. Action, adventure and other such genres of programs do not usually employ family as their…
Alexander, A., & Kim, Y. (2003). Television and Family. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406900427.html
Alston, J. (2012, October 24). How The Cosby Show spoke to race and class in '80s America. Retrieved from A.V. Club: http://www.avclub.com/article/how-emthe-cosby-showem-spoke-to-race-and-class-in -- 87848
Bryant, J., And Bryant, J. A., Eds. (2001). Television and the American family, 2nd edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cadet, D. (2012, August 25). 'The Jeffersons': How Sherman Hemsley And The Sitcom Changed The Landscape Of American Television. Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/25/the-jeffersons-show-legacy_n_1701026.html
The Dynamics of Family Functions in the US
Marriage, Divorce and Family Functions Define the Institute of Marriage and identify the important cultural functions Marriage encompasses a broad definition of the interpersonal unions established between partners granting them familial bond based on legal, social, and religious grounds. Further, marriage grants partners mutual conjugal rights. The family as a social unit functions to ensure the cooperation of its members based on aspects of child rearing and managing reproduction. Cultures endeavor to dictate the marriage patterns among other aspects. Cultures define the types of marriages such as monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry. On the economical aspect, cultures dictate dowry, bride wealth, and service. Limitations Different societies have set different limitations on marriage. For example, some societies practice polygamy, especially African cultures whereas Westerners shun it and prefer monogamy. In the U.S., partners cannot enter into a new marriage arrangement without coming to a close on the previous one. Love and marriage…
Brown, S. & Lin, I. (2012).The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990-2010 The Journals of Gerontology doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs089
Kennedy, S. & Ruggles, S. (2014). Breaking Up Is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980-2010. Demography. 51:587-598. DOI 10.1007/s13524-013-0270-9
Tach, M. L. & Eads, A. (2015). Trends in the Economic Consequences of Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution in the United States. Demography. 52:401-432. DOI 10.1007/s13524-015-0374-5
Vespa, J. & Painter II, A. (2011). Cohabitation History, Marriage, and Wealth Accumulation. Demography. 48:983-1004. DOI 10.1007/s13524-011-0043-2
Calgary Family Assessment Model
Genogram Project The author of this report has been charged with doing a family assessment project. The largest part of this report shall be the genogram and ecogram. The personal version of these two diagrams as authored and put together by the author of this report are shown in the appendix. There will be some additional supporting and complementary information as well. This will include the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) and the Calgary Family Intervention Model. Both of those models will be discussed and reviewed in this report. Also worthy of mention will be the stages of the family life cycle. The rest of the report will be important information about the family members identified in the genogram. This information will include three generations of information, each family member being identified, the family relationship involved, the current age of the person (or age at death), the martial/relationship status of…
Konradsdottir, E. & Svavarsdottir, E. (2011). How effective is a short-term educational and support intervention for families of an adolescent with type 1 diabetes?. Journal For Specialists In Pediatric Nursing, 16(4), 295-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00297.x
Sveinbjarnardottir, E., Svavarsdottir, E., & Wright, L. (2013). What are the benefits of a short therapeutic conversation intervention with acute psychiatric patients and their families? A controlled before and after study. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 593-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.10.009
West, C., Bell, J., Woodgate, R., & Moules, N. (2015). Waiting to Return to Normal: An Exploration of Family Systems Intervention in Childhood Cancer. Journal Of Family Nursing, 21(2), 261-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074840715576795
Wright, L. & Leahey, M. (2012). Nurses and families.
Family Be Defined in Such
Globalization has therefore transformed not just the role of nation-states, but also of families' abilities to maintain and protect their members. Families are compelled to be more self-reliant in an environment where they may have fewer options available to them. (Trask 2011) In spite of the changes brought about by globalization on the family, one thing is clear though that this basic unit of the society remain intact albeit sometimes the members thereto are in disparate locations in the world. There is still that strong "familial" bond and kinship that distance and time could never break and at the end of it all, it is always the family that a person will go back to and identify with because the family is the foundation of that person. Circumstances may have changed the way families live together but the bond will never be severed. For members of the family needing to…
Carrington, Victoria. "Globalization, Family and Nation State: Reframing 'Family' in New Times." Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 22. 2 (2001): 185-196. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Falk, Audrey Faye. "Imbuing the Study of Family Resource Management with a Global Perspective." Family Science Review 16.1 (2011): 84-93. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Trask, Bahira Sherif. Globalization and Families: Meeting the Family Policy Challenge. 27 May 2011. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Nuclear Submarine Establish the Need
Pieces must first be cut down to the sizes and specifications listed on the plans you have selected, and shaped into the various different parts for both the siding and the interior of the submarine. This shaping and cutting can require some heavy-duty laser and cutting-edge equipment -- again, keep those friends close, unless you happen to have enough funds to acquire several dozen different pieces of heavy machinery. The heavy equipment needs continue with the next step, which is joining the individual pieces called for in the design through heavy-duty welding, utilizing electric arcs. A watertight craft able to withstand the pressures of deep-sea dives is of course essential to your happiness in your new sub, so make sure those welds are complete. Once the craft is built, you will need some fissionable material -- enriched uranium is most typically used -- to power the vessel (and, if you're…
Nuclear Ores and Its Life Cycle
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
Family I grew up in China, the oldest of two daughters. My family unit, my gender, and my culture all had strong impacts on the way I have lived my life and on the way I live my life now. Who I am now is a direct reflection of my childhood and family of origin. Both my parents were senior electrical engineers. They are strong and hardworking people with positive attitudes. Our household was democratic in its structure. The children were treated with dignity and respect, and in return we gave a lot of respect to our parents. My mom and dad motivated and encouraged both my sister and me. As a result of the mutual love and respect in the household, my childhood was a happy one. I had enough structure in my life, from school and other activities, to develop a sense of self-discipline. My parents encouraged us…
Nontraditional families in America have seen a remarkable increase in numbers over the past twenty years. The traditional family unit depicted in sitcoms on television and spoken about in the literature still dominates the social scene but in actual numbers it exists in only about twenty-five percent of the nation's households. Strangely, discussions regarding this magical unit still occupy the thoughts and arguments of politicians, preachers and conservative activists as they talk about the merits of "family values." Yet, what truly is the impact of the nontraditional family on today's society? How do children raised in such families fare in the social make-up such as school performance and their social interaction and, finally, why are the remaining prejudices against such families not logically justified? The rapid increase in the number of nontraditional family is a social phenomenon. Such families, few in number, existed in near anonymity until the past twenty…
Cherlin, A. (1999). Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science. Demography, 421-428.
Dush, C. & . (2009). Marriage and Family: Perspectives and Complexities. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Gennetian, L. (2005). One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family on Structure on Young Children's Achievement. Journal of Population Economics, 415-436.
Howe, E. (1988). Social Aspects of Physical Planning. The Practice of Local Government Planning .
Popular Entertainment Venues Family Obligations Are Often
Popular Entertainment Venues Family obligations are often at the heart of individual drive and guilt. They can drive a person to succeed and they can drive a person to do things that go against their very nature. In the film Alice Adams, the play Buried Child and the television series Everybody Loves Raymond the concepts of family obligation are the underlying motive to plot and action. The thing that is the same about these three programs on the thought of family obligation is that all of the characters do things for each other in the name of family obligation that they really don't believe to be the best thing for the individual they are trying to help. In Alice Adams, Alice's not so glamorous family must make attempts to put on a show for her when she tries to improve her social status, not because they think there is a…
Japan Abolishes Current Nuclear Plant Fukushima Crisis
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants. As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010). On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
Case Study of Family With Family Management
Family Management Styles Framework (FMSF) was originally developed to help families caring for a child with a chronic illness or chronic condition (Knafl, et al., 2016). However, the Family Management Styles Framework can be extended to address family functioning in other situations. Applied to my own family, the FMSF offers insight into how we might handle an unforeseen situation in which a family member were to be unexpectedly diagnosed with a chronic condition. In fact, the FMSF can offer a family like ours, which typically does not suffer from crises, a means by which to prevent and plan for unforeseen circumstances. Therefore, the FMSF can help families build resiliency. We are a close-knit and happy family consisting of me, my husband, his parents, and our two children aged 6 and 8 years old. The Family Management Styles Framework can help my husband and me, and also my in-laws, in developing…
Knafl, K., et al. (2013). Patterns of family management of childhood chronic conditions and their relationship to child and family functioning. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 28(6): 523-535.
Knafl, K., et al. (2016). Family management measure. UNC School of Nursing. Retrieved online: http://nursing.unc.edu/research/office-of-research-support-consultation/resources/family-management-measure-famm/
U S Based Company Concerned Earthquake Tsunami Nuclear
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers. At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…
1. Efrati, Amir (2013). In Online Ads, There's Google -- and Then Everybody Else. Wall Street Journal.
2. Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January 2008.
3. Graham, Jefferson, (2012). Talking Tech: Customers clog Panera's free Wi-Fi. USA Today
4. Dampier, Phillip, (2012). Panera Bread Stores Overloaded With Wi-Fi Users Who Won't Leave. On the Internet at http://stopthecap.com/2012/05/17/panera-bread-stores-overloaded-with-wi-fi-users-who-wont-leave/ . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
Two Parent Families the Importance
While the same-sex parent is important in a child's life, the opposite-sex parent is also tremendously important. For the 90% of the population that are heterosexual, the opposite sex parent is the person who teaches them how to have romantic relationships. There is a reason that little girls love their daddies and that little boys are mama's boys, which has nothing to do with incest or actual sexual behavior. Instead, healthy opposite sex parents allow children to practice flirting and inter-gender behavior in a safe environment, free from sexual pressure. In fact, it is when children are deprived of interactions with their opposite-sex parent that they tend to seek adult attention elsewhere, becoming vulnerable to molesters and other predators. The opposite-sex parent is also important in the life of homosexual children, because they help teach children how to relate to people of different genders. There are recognized behavioral differences between…
Parent Trap 1 And 2
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment. Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…
Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique
Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
Family and Marriage
Nuclear Family Arrangement: The nuclear family is simple and consists of heterosexual married couple and their children. The nuclear family arrangement is one of the oldest family structure and…
" All in all, this article points to the obvious advantages the nuclear family has over a blended family. O'Leary, Daniel K., Heyman, Richard E., and Jongsma, Arthur E.…
Web Search for "Nuclear Family Arrangement" Using the search engine Google, the term "nuclear family arrangement" results in a variety of different websites from wikis and scholarly articles, to…
Freewriting allows the writer to crystallize thoughts in preparation for a final paper or oral debate. Another strategy is engaging in dialogue with others. As Goshgarian et al. point…
They worked longer hours in the workplace, but men had not made commensurate efforts in the home" (Pleck, npg). t is evident that while the role of women in…
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature…
Family Social Policy hat are the different ideological approaches to family social policy…how are they different? Canada has traditionally taken the position that the responsibility for keeping a family…
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds…
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are…
Family elations esearch The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as…
Family Therapies Structural family approach Major contributors of Structural family approach Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the…
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent…
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother,…
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in…
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution…
Perhaps one of the most important findings of ootz is that there's the feeling that married couples today just aren't as happy as they were in the golden age…
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with…
Family The author of this report is asked to answer to several questions relating to family. These answers include what the main functions of a family are including the…
Family Theoretical Perspective The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason…
Health - Nursing
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs…
Families progress and grow as time continues. People may be at one stage and then move on to another. My family is a nuclear family and as my parents…
Family on Family: An Interview With Uncle Simon The idea of the family as a social subsystem is a very useful one in the academic world and in sociological…
Family Age Students With Learning Disabilities The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success…
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling. Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant…
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family…
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations. Ferree, M. (1984). The view from…
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows: Constructivism views all of…
If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from…
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial…
Extended Family in Finding Nemo and Lilo & Stitch In the American society, the concept of the family can be interpreted in various ways, due to the flexibility in…
We can assume that by the twentieth century, times would have changed. The typical family in 2075 will look radically different than it does today. Families will be looked…
esearch Method esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182…
Though this schema works for many, however, there are also downsides to these societal changes that are not often discussed as they are rather unpopular. With greater individual freedom…
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and…
ather than lamenting the loss of a family structure from an admittedly anomalous decade, Stacy (1993) argues that social reforms are necessary to ensure that children are cared for.…
People read the world differently and that explains why they respond to the world differently. For instance my mother is very tidy and neat whereas my father is the…
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family The main components of structural therapy Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component…
Toulmin Argument on American Families Up to 30 years ago, divorces were difficult to obtain and were very rare in American society. However, in 1969, the advent of no-fault…
Family Roles The family unit certainly serves as mechanism to ensure the survival of the human species, just as "family" units in the animal world function primarily to ensure…
Saroj Parasuraman's book, Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World, examines the modern conflict between work and family from a number of perspectives. The author…
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A Study of the Nuclear Family
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Nuclear family consists of husband, wife and their children. The concept of joint family where all the family members like aunt, uncle, cousins and grandparents live together contradicts with the concept of nuclear family. There are many countries where you would find many joint families but at same time the concept of nuclear families is catching up there too. There are many advantages and disadvantages of the nuclear family. Some of them are listed below:
Advantages Of The Nuclear Family
While discussing about the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear family, the first and foremost point pops up in the mind of a person is privacy of life.
1) Privacy The couple can get their privacy in their own house in nuclear families whereas you cannot get your privacy in a joint family. People can live their own way and can do whatever they want to. There are no such boundaries set by the elders to follow.
Disadvantages Of The Nuclear Family
While thinking about the advantages and disadvantages of the nuclear family, a person should also think that it is not always good to live in a nuclear family.
Proficient in: Advantages Of Joint Family
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At certain points, you realize the value of joint family. Here are those points which will teach you the importance of joint family and disadvantages of nuclear families.
1) No care If the parents are working and children suffered from any small or big disease, then one needs to deal with it alone as they dont have elders and other family members to take care of.
You won’t be charged yet!
This is the major disadvantage of the nuclear family. One is alone and feels even sicker when he sees no one around.
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Nuclear family essay.
The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children, either natural or adopted, who reside within the same household. Because the nuclear family is based on marriage, it is also called the “conjugal family.” Nuclear families form around marriage, a legal relationship that includes economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing and childrearing, which people expect to last. Although many different types of family exist in North America, the nuclear family has long been considered the norm.
The origin of the nuclear family is connected to the economic and social changes of the industrial revolution. The nuclear family’s smaller size, in relation to the larger extended family, was considered better suited for moving closer to the occupational opportunities the industrial revolution created.
The traditional view of the nuclear family consisting of a husband and wife and their dependent children living within the same household is based on the ideal of the husband/father breadwinner and the wife/mother as the family caretaker. However, the male breadwinner/female caretaker nuclear family was only possible when men could earn enough to support their families. Throughout history, many nuclear families have had to rely on wages earned by women in order to remain economically stable.
With specific gender roles, the nuclear family becomes a distinctive group, whose function in society is to socialize the children and to provide emotional support, love, and affection for the family members. As the family members turn to each other for emotional gratification, the home is seen as a safe haven and private retreat from the larger community.
The prevailing view of the nuclear family coming about with the industrial revolution may be a myth. The examination of birth, death, and marriage records from 17th-century English and American households shows that the dominant family form was nuclear. Sociologists now believe that the concept of childhood, a period of time to train and prepare children to become adults, emerged during the 17th century. The increased importance given to the welfare of children necessitated the formation of close bonds among family members and the stability of the family unit.
The nuclear family is also seen as an isolated, independent unit that is self-reliant within society. This view assumes that the nuclear family’s association with relatives is distant and that the extended family does not play an important role in the nuclear family. However, many nuclear families do remain within the same geographic location as their relatives. Extended family members often provide services, such as child care and financial assistance. For families that are scattered across the United States, modern transportation and communication help families maintain their bonds.
Today, many feel that the stability of the nuclear family is being threatened by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and gay and lesbian couples. It is feared that the breakdown of the nuclear family will lead to the breakdown of society. Despite these “threats” to the nuclear family, most people still want to be a part of this family structure. The nuclear family will likely remain a foundation of U.S. society for some time to come.
- Adams, Bert A. 1995. The Family: A Sociological Interpretation. 5th ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
- Coontz, Stephanie. 2000. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books.
- Hutter, Mark. 1998. The Changing Family. 3rd ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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The Importance Of The Nuclear Family
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Recent changes within society have caused an increase in different formations of families that have been described as ‘families in flux’ (Giddens, 1992). A family is a group of people who are related by kinship ties, such as, relations of blood, marriage, adoption or a cohabiting couple (Allan and Crow, 2001). However, due to the ongoing changes within families and society, there are conflicting opinions of the best way to reflect the diverse forms that this human social grouping can take (McKie and Callan, 2012). This essay will discuss the recent changes that have occurred in relation to families, exploring gender and feminist theories to explain the extent to which people are choosing not to conform to traditional norms of family life (Allan …show more content…
In this essay, the author
- Explains that recent changes within society have caused an increase in different formations of families that have been described as ‘families in flux’.
- Explains the decline in the dominant family structure defined by functionalists during the 1950s, the nuclear family, which consisted of two heterosexual parents and their children.
- Explains that feminist theories can help explain the decline in the nuclear family, which is based on the notion of patriarchy.
- Explains that divorce rates can be interpreted by looking at several factors, such as the decline of traditional family values and the growth in secularization.
- Argues that feminist theories would explain the rise in divorce rates by exploring how marriage is an unequal partnership based on the gendered division of labour and how it reinforces male power and female oppression.
- Explains that cohabiting couples are the fastest growing type of family across western countries.
- Argues that feminist theories would explain the rise in cohabiting couple families as women moving away from the patriarchal and oppressive nature of the family.
- Concludes that there have been significant changes in relation to the family in recent years. however, the institution is still the socially approved place for the ongoing domination of women by men.
Feminist theories explain that family life is generally based on the notion of patriarchy, with women being oppressed and denied values and rights (McKie and Callan, 2012). Feminist sociologists refer to ‘dominant ideologies’ as a way of describing those in authority or more powerful positions, within society, that can produce a set of ideas that are adopted by those in less powerful positions (Steel, Kidd and brown, 2012). This is evident in how the nuclear family is structured, as the societal norm, people strive to meet this pattern of family life (McKie and Callan, 2012). Feminist theories explain the nuclear family is based on male power and reinforcing female oppression, as the family is seen as the core institution in exercising gender inequality through primary socialisation (Steel, Kidd and Brown, 2012). Therefore, feminist theories would explain the decline in the nuclear family as women fighting against the patriarchal order not only within the family, but within society as a whole (Allan and Crow, 2001). Women are no longer standing for the oppression within marriages and due to the increase in women’s rights and more women in the workplace, many women choose not to marry or will look for options such as divorce or cohabiting before settling for marriage (Chambers,
- Analyzes how kimmel and holler define the nuclear family in terms of the 1950s gender norms reflected in popular television shows such as leave it to beaver.
- Argues that the nuclear family is socially constructed instead of being biologically determined, and society produces a diversity of family forms.
- Argues that the sociology of gender reveals the social structures and institutions that shape gender identities and roles.
- Analyzes how the nuclear family must be understood in historical context. kimmel and holler state that the modern family was built upon a wide foundation of economic and political supports.
- Explains that the modern family was characterized by a specific form of property ownership where males had ownership over females. the gendered division of labour positioned women in the home where they served as primary caregivers performing domestic work.
- Argues that the nuclear family was a social construction that existed in an industrial society based on private property and the capitalist division of labor, but at the expense of women.
- Analyzes how the linkages between gender and work can be observed in the historical changes within industrial society.
- Analyzes how the introduction of capitalist industrialization increased women's subordination. the separation of work from the home made men less dependent on women for industrial production.
- Explains that in the united states, the gendered division of labor within rural families was more rigid than it was in england. however, as capitalism continued to develop, there were changes in work and corresponding gender roles and expectations.
- Argues that in order to understand the gender roles of chinese women, it is important to study the consequences of capitalism in south-east china, which forced many women to seek work in other countries.
- Explains that the sociology of gender helps to clarify how the gender and role norms of the nuclear family can cause domestic violence.
- Analyzes how the film transforming families shows the negative perceptions of trans-people as parents. violence against transparents exists in the form of social stigma against them.
- Analyzes how the nuclear family is both socially constructed and functions to social construct the gender identities of males and females.
- Explains that family is a group of two or more people who reside together and are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.
- Analyzes how john demos' "a little commonwealth" discusses the old colonial family household compared to the modern day family unit.
- Argues that women were not recognized as their own individual selves when married. demos gives the reader the example of colonial wives being able to have property rights.
- Explains that women were expected to just bear the children, stay in the home and work, and care for themselves. they are now financially independent to make their own decisions.
- Analyzes how e. anthony rotundo's "marriage" argues that marriage is an idealized, romanticized place of love and affection.
- Analyzes how stephanie coontz's "the way we wish we were: defining the family crisis" discusses the issue that the traditional family never existed.
- Analyzes the changes in the institution of family over time. the argument that marriage was seen as a contract of survival, the privatization of marriage, and the idea that traditional families never existed.
- Explains the concept of intersectionality in dorothy allison's two or three things i know for sure.
- Analyzes the concept of intersectionality in dorothy allison's "two or three things i know for sure".
- Analyzes dorothy allison's portrayal of intersectionality in two or three things i know for sure. growing up, she felt like she was despised, but found a way to love herself through self-love.
- Opines that dorothy had to move onward and upward, reclaim her life and sex, and get in tune with herself before she could love or give herself to someone else.
- Explains that the nuclear family has changed to multiple types of kinship relations in the last third of the twentieth century. the changes in family behavior in recent decades have been impressive.
- Opines that american families have always adopted a nuclear form, but it sounds hollow in the ears of those who feared that the nuclear family was isolating the kinship network and the wider community.
- Argues that the nuclear family contributed to the growing problem of crime, premarital sex, and school dropout among youth in the late 1960s and seventies.
- Explains that the nuclear family of the 1950s was about to become the postmodern.
- Explains that marriage is no longer the event axis that articulates sex, procreation, leaving home, or even the formation of a home. behavioral patterns define bonding rituals, reproduction and breeding.
- Analyzes how walsh (2011) argues that the family as sacred and protected institution is a relatively recent cultural invention. the nationalization of these models is given only to the mid-twentieth century.
- Explains that the era of intense domesticity was brief, and its fall was dizzying. marriage became less accessible and solvable for a growing number of americans.
- Argues that family therapy encounters these problems in the form of ideological conflict and generational and gender values within the same families.
- Explains that the ideal small family unit, grounded on a solid and enduring marriage, became increasingly difficult to achieve as the division of labor based on gender was quickly displaced by an integrated family system of two contributors.
- Analyzes how the meaning of marriage has changed with the transformation of gender roles caused by the entry of women into the labor market in particular married women with children.
- Concludes that there is greater diversity in the kinship system in comparison with the situation in mid-century. the absence of standardized patterns could be a destabilizing factor.
- Argues that changes in the family that produced weaker conjugal systems and undermined the ideal of the nuclear family were not strictly a result of cultural preferences but the confluence of several trends.
- Proposes to enhance qualitative research, not only as a precedent for the quantitative, but as an instrument in itself that will bring us closer to understanding our customers and their resources.
- Explains that the wrongful idea of a "normal" family has existed throughout western society for generations. the wrong valuing of some families over another based off certain identity markers has been imbedded into our society's institutions and systems.
- Analyzes how hooks and owens recognize family as a means of belonging and acceptance, which is still necessary in this day and age.
- Analyzes how owens emphasizes queer families and how they vary far from the heteronormative ideal family through many ways, such as sexuality and impacts on gender roles.
- Analyzes how hooks and owens realize the unjustified placement of different values associated with certain families depending on their identity markers such as race and sexuality.
- Analyzes how owens and hooks both recognize differences in value that society has placed on people and families through its negative effects.
- Analyzes how hooks demonstrates how families who were abused by society refused to waver or succumb to the outside world, despite the pressure from heteronormative ideals of the family.
- Concludes that owens and hooks recognize family as a place of belonging and contestation through awareness of the discrimination that exists in society.
- Explains that ontario has a complex property regime with relatively little property.
- Quotes mcilroy's poll, "most in poll want gay marriages legalized: 53% support idea despite mp’s vote to uphold status
- Explains that the supreme court in m v. h. accepted that individuals in same-sex relationships are not "less worthy of recognition."
- Argues that the constitutional complexity of enacting rdp legislation may be an argument in favour of not pursing this alternative.
- Opines that a legislative response would be preferable in terms of consistency, fairness, and expense. charter litigation and the advocacy of gays and lesbians is forcing canadian lawmakers to deal with issues related to domestic relationships.
- Identifies and comments on some issues that lawmakers need to address as they consider alternatives and respond to the challenge posed by m v h to extend the concept of "spouse."
- Argues that there are strong equity and social policy based arguments in favour of giving same sex partners the same right as other canadians have to marry.
- Opines that the charter does not require the federal government to enact legislation that gives same sex partners the legal right to enter into matrimony.
- Explains canada's division of constitutional responsibility between the federal and provincial governments creates a peculiarly canadian set of legal problems with registered domestic partnerships and "same sex marriage." both levels of government have some responsibility within their respective areas of jurisdiction.
- Explains that the federal government has responsibility for marriage and divorce under s.91(26) of the constitution act, 1867. the provinces have jurisdiction over "solemnization of marriage" and "property and civil rights."
- Argues that it would be ultra vires s. 91(26) for the federal government to enact legislation that would fundamentally alter and expand the very nature of "marriage."
- Argues that under s. 91 (26) of the constitution act, the federal government can change the legal rules about "capacity" to marry and could enact legislation amending the common law.
- Argues that the federal government could enact legislation that allows partners of the same sex to "marry" if it wished to do so.
- Explains that the provinces have jurisdiction over "property and civil rights" under s. 92(13) of the constitution act for creating "near-marital" rights and obligations for those in a rdp.
- Opines that there are complex jurisdictional issues to address in establishing a near-marital rdp scheme.
- Explains that the may 1999 supreme court decision in m v. h may increase pressure to act, though federal and provincial governments are responding narrowly to the immediate issue presented by that decision.
- Argues that ontario legislation adds the new concept of the "same sex partner" with all the rights and obligations of an unmarried heterosexual cohabitant.
- Opines that the near- marital rdp is a compromise that may be acceptable to many canadians, at least as an interim measure on the road to eventual acceptance of the right of same sex partners to marry.
- Explains that for some intimate couples, both heterosexual and homosexual, entry into an institution other than "marriage" (with its gendered and patriarchal connotations) may be preferable.
- Argues that the supreme court decision in m v h places an onus on any government to seek to deny rights to same sex partners who enter an rdp to justify this form of inequality.
- Argues that there are strong arguments that differences in treatment of same sex couples in regard to children could not be constitutionally justified.
- Argues that the rdp is more likely to gain legislative support if it is not limited to same sex or heterosexual "conjugal" relationships.
- Argues that if individuals are prepared to undertake the "spouse-like" legal commitments of an rdp, they should be able to do so.
- Explains that canada has an increasingly broad, pluralistic and functional approach to the definition of "the family."
- Opines that non-conjugal rdps should not be precluded from having rights and responsibilities in regard to children, such as adoption, but the nature of the relationship is a legitimate "best interests" factor to consider in deciding about adoption.
- Opines that if rdp legislation is enacted, questions will arise about whether it should be possible to have more than one domestic partner at a time.
- Opines that it seems fair to limit each individual to one "formal lawful partner" at a time, given that "spousal status" imposes potential costs on third parties, especially employers.
- Opines that contracts between same sex partners to regulate their relationship were regarded as contrary to public policy, but now they are as legally enforceable as those between heterosexual partners.
- Argues that it is desirable for partners to disclose assets and liabilities, and to have independent legal advice to ensure that the parties each understand the agreement and prevent exploitation.
- Explains that heterosexual partners rarely make domestic contracts like cohabitation agreements or marriage contracts in canada.
- Explains that there has been less reluctance for same sex partners than for heterosexual partners to enter into domestic contracts.
- Explains that canadian legislatures and courts have recognized the need for ascription to "spousal status" for those who have not "formalized" their conjugal relationships.
- Argues that ascription should not be extended to non-conjugal situations in which adults reside together.
- Explains that canadian courts have rejected the argument that since there was a "choice" not to marry (or contract), there should be no rights or obligations.
- Argues that ascription for informal conjugal relationships should be approached on an issue-by-issue basis, preferably by the legislature, but if necessary by courts using the charter.
- Explains the revised version of a paper presented at the domestic partnerships conference, queen's university, october 22, 1999.
- Opines that a significant number in the gay and lesbian communities want the "full equality" of marriage, with all its social, psychological and legal implications.
- Explains that layland v. ontario (1993), 14 o.r. (3d) 658 (div. ct.), is an example of an unsuccessful claim for the right to "marry."
- Cites m. buist, a prominent lesbian lawyer, who argues that this decision supports claims for all the "benefits" of marriage, but stops short of predicting or advocating that gays
- Explains that the courts recognized that with elderly couples, the inability (or unwillingness) to consummate the marriage did not invalidate it. some cases have held that there has to an ability to have "natural" heterosexual intercourse
- Explains that some definitions of "marriage" suggest that marriages were intended to be indissoluble, such as the legal union of a man and woman for life.
- Opines that the provinces would continue to have responsibility for the form of registration and celebration. while the government cannot discriminate against same sex couples, the charter of rights guarantees of freedom of religion.
- Argues that the federal parliament should enact legislation to fully recognize same sex marriage, but this legislation would have limited effect outside canada.
- Analyzes how mccarthy's post-apocalyptic novel the road displays different concepts of nuclear and non-nuclear families throughout the novel.
- Analyzes how the mother's lack of faith in the family unit surviving shows the failure of the nuclear family in different ways.
- Explains that if the mother had stayed with the boy and the man it is possible that she would have convinced her husband that suicide was better than surviving.
- Concludes that if the mother stayed with the boy and the man their family would have failed in the post-apocalyptic world.
- Analyzes how a nuclear family fails in mccarthy's post-apocalyptic world because the mother and father eat their infant child.
- Analyzes how mccarthy shows examples of non-nuclear families surviving successfully throughout the novel. the men with the diesel truck along the road show their success in mccarthy's post-apocalyptic world.
- Explains that four men and two women cannibals with a basement of people used as food sources are successful non-nuclear families.
- Analyzes how mccarthy portrays the idea of both nuclear and non-nuclear families in his novel the road. traditional families are seen failing in mccarthy’s post-apocalyptic world.
- Opines that cormac mccarthy is one of the few writers who have blown their mind away with his writing skills. the road has made them feel countless raw emotions throughout the novel.
- Analyzes how mccarthy's ability to make them attached to the boy and the man in the road changed their opinion from the beginning until the end.
- Narrates how they were hooked on the novel after the incident. the need to know if the boy and the man would survive made them finish it in less than two days.
- Analyzes how the writing style and mystery of mccarthy's post-apocalyptic world made it hard for the reader to be certain about incidents in the novel.
- Opines that they would have preferred if mccarthy had given the road a clearer ending because they prefer happy endings rather than sad ones.
- Explains that family dynamics can have many sources of tension relating to many causes, such as differences in religious beliefs, shattered relationship between mother and father, and grandmother's mental disorder.
- Explains that there are two distinctly different religions in their family. their mother's side is lutheran, and her father is latter-day saints.
- Opines that the only viable strategy that could minimize the tensions would be to not include one of them in the family celebration.
- Explains that their grandmother is a psychopath and that the only viable strategy to minimize the tensions would be to not include her in the family celebration.
- Explains their genogram and homogamy analysis showed that their family has a great deal of similarities, such as ethnicity and class, but our one big difference is religion.
- Opines that nuclear families have many benefits in today's society, such as increased income and support for each parent. they also have disadvantages like being isolated from other family members or from the wider society.
- Opines that gay and lesbian families are a type of family. they believe that children who grow up knowing about them are less likely to be bullied or made fun of at school.
- Explains that different types of family relationships have an effect both good and bad on everyone inside of that family.
- Explains that extended families can have both positive and negative effects. blended families are common in the us.
- Explains that interaction with others is a common phenomenon that takes place every day. social expectations are communicated through socialization agents such as family, media, peers, and religion.
- Explains that the microcase results show that people aged 50 and up had the highest percentile for agreeing with the statement. changes within culture tend to affect social institutions, especially the family.
- Explains microcase's results for individuals under the age of thirty, thirty to forty-nine, and fifty and up.
- Analyzes how the age cohorts relate to the results found through microcase. each age group will have a different view of the statement presented.
- Opines that surveys of public opinion about women and men's lives are good indicators of the change we have witnessed as a result of feminist movement.
- Analyzes how individuals from different age cohorts view issues differently due to the experiences and social change they experienced. the microcase data showed that those who agreed with the statement had a percentile of thirty-nine.
- Analyzes how cultural change, age cohorts, and divorce affect the way individuals view the family.
- Explains that nuclear families involve a couple and their dependant children, but in reality, family's come in all shapes and sizes.
- Explains that we are bombarded with labels based on gender roles, such as mom, dad, grandma, brother, sister, friend, boyfriend/girlfriend, and many others.
- Analyzes how society has changed their gender roles immensely since 1993 when paternity leave first came into effect.
- Analyzes how women are expected to take on simpler and less intrusive tasks during an experiment, whereas men are required to do the opposite.
Second, a nuclear family headed by two loving married parents remains the most stable and safest environment for raising children. There are, of course, still reasons for legitimate concern...
The Short, Happy Life of the Nuclear Family For a time, it all seemed to work. From 1950 to 1965, divorce rates dropped, fertility rates rose, and the American nuclear family seemed to be...
A nuclear family is usually described as a heterosexual marriage with the average of 2.5 children, became synonymous with the American dream philosophy in the mid-1940s. The nuclear family standard is rapidly on the decline in the United States. These declining number have a range of causes.
The nuclear family arrangement is one of the oldest family structure and is prevalent in almost every part and society of the world. Traditionally, role and responsibility of the father in the nuclear family is of bread earner and protector of the whole family.
Nuclear family consists of husband, wife and their children. The concept of joint family where all the family members like aunt, uncle, cousins and grandparents live together contradicts with the concept of nuclear family.
Nuclear Family Essay. The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children, either natural or adopted, who reside within the same household. Because the nuclear family is based on marriage, it is also called the “conjugal family.”. Nuclear families form around marriage, a legal relationship that includes economic cooperation ...
Many early functionalist sociologists’ perspectives on the family (Murdock, 1949; Talcott Parsons, 1960) focus heavily on the idea of the nuclear family, which consists of a married couple (male and female) and their biological offspring. There are many issues with the functionalist nuclear family model.
A nuclear family is usually described as a heterosexual marriage with the average of 2.5 children, became synonymous with the American dream philosophy in the mid-1940s. The nuclear family standard is rapidly on the decline in the United States. These declining number have a range of causes.
The nuclear family consisting of a father, mother, and children, and although it is now the popular form of family it was rare to have that type of family. now the family is varied in a different way, the new complex nuclear family structure includes single person families, gay families and co-habiting families.
In this essay, the author. Explains that recent changes within society have caused an increase in different formations of families that have been described as ‘families in flux’. Explains the decline in the dominant family structure defined by functionalists during the 1950s, the nuclear family, which consisted of two heterosexual parents ...