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Students express understanding and viewpoints about climate change

S tudent essays about climate change offer unique perspectives on the problem, potential solutions, and their thoughts about short and long-term consequences.

group photo of students who participate in climate change essay challenge

Back row: Jacob Onorado,  Mashael Khuda Karam, Courtney Turbaczewski, Tamaria Jones, Jolene Smock. Front row: Alyssa Cranston, Nadieshka Perez, and Keyasia Duck

Jolene Smock, a science teacher at Charter School of Excellence in Erie, PA recently engaged her 11th grade science class to think about science and climate change a little differently. Their challenge: to choose a focus of interest from a list of 29 climate change related topics, research it, and write an essay. Their essays were to describe the issue at hand, offer ideas to solve the problem, consider the types of careers that could help solve the problem, and to express themselves and their opinions.

Smock, who is a second-year participant in Sea Grant’s Center for Great Lakes Literacy (CGLL) teacher training program, says she was trying to find a new way to translate climate change studies to her students. After talking with PA Sea Grant’s senior education specialist, Marti Martz, she decided to engage her students in doing their own research about a topic they found interesting, and to write about it.  “My students didn’t realize how much impact climate change has on things like our food, health, and energy. I’m glad I made the choice to do something a little different, because they really excelled at this assignment.”

Marti Martz thought it would be an interesting opportunity to showcase the students as spokespeople on the topic of climate change, and to share what they had learned this year. “I think these essays do a great job of demonstrating how Jolene’s efforts have brought the issue of climate change home to her students,” Martz said. “It’s a great opportunity to hear the voices and opinions of young students instead of hearing our adult voices all the time.”

"Disclaimer: the following essays are the expressions and opinions of the individual student authors, and are not to be construed as statement of fact, nor the opinion of Pennsylvania Sea Grant. This content is being shared to encourage student engagement and participation in environmental issues, and to validate the importance of learning and the processes involved in better understanding complex scientific issues, such as climate change."

alyssa cranston

Climate Change and the Artic By Alyssa Cranston

Climate change is an important, current and ongoing issue. This is especially true in the Arctic region. If you are unaware of what climate change is, it is a global or regional change in weather patterns that lasts for a long period of time. Climate change is greatly caused by the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide which is produced by the use of fossil fuels, such as exhaust from cars and trucks, burning trash, and factory emissions. These are also contributing to global warming which is, a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the Earth's atmosphere. Some effects of global warming in the Arctic are rising temperatures in the air and in the water surrounding the Arctic. Another is the loss of sea ice and melting of ice sheets which is caused by the increased temperatures. This also greatly impacts the Arctic plants and animals, they are rapidly dying, decreasing in numbers, possibly leading to their extinction. The melting ice sheets are destroying the wildlife population and increasing the sea level.

Humans play a huge role in climate change and global warming on Earth.

Human activities are the leading cause of climate change in the Arctic.  Humans using fossil fuels is one of the biggest causes of climate change, fossil fuel combustion releases harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, negatively affecting it, leading to problems in the atmosphere such as, the hole in the ozone layer (created by CFCs). Pollution is also a huge factor of climate change, air pollutants affect the amount of sunlight coming into the atmosphere, some pollutants warm the Earth, while others cool it down, the most common pollutants are methane, black carbon, ground-level ozone, and sulfate aerosols. Deforestation is another huge leading cause to climate change by reversing the effects of carbon sequestration and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, deforestation is also responsible for about 18% of all global greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, even more than from transportation. Building houses and other structures affects the environment because it produces a ton of waste and harmful chemicals, which pollutes the land and air. The transportation needed to move supplies and the waste from the building site also has a very negative impact on the environment. As you can see, climate change is a huge issue that needs taken care of.

We started to realize and correct the problem in the late 1970s. The event that lead up to this point was in 1800-1870, when people noticed the level of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere was increasing after the industrial revolution. Humans are causing the problem by polluting the air and water and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, increasing the temperatures, causing global warming in the Arctic region. There are some environmental laws/treaties that were passed to help stop the problem. These laws/treaties are, The Polar Code, The Barents Sea fisheries agreement, and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Most people now realize that climate change is a huge problem and needs to be fixed.

There are solutions to this problem, as long as we actually use and perform them. We can save gas and reduce its emission into the air by walking and biking more. We could also use electric cars, instead of using vehicles that emit gas and other chemicals into the air. Planting more trees and plants can help because they take in the carbon dioxide, removing it from the air and replacing it with oxygen, which is healthy for us and the Earth/atmosphere. We should plant as many or more trees than we are cutting down, because we’re cutting down a ton of trees without replacing them and we need trees, they are essential for life and the air on Earth, without trees we wouldn’t have oxygen and our atmosphere wouldn’t be the same. We can eat more locally grown food that will reduce gas emissions from transporting food to us from out of town. Using less heat and air conditioning can also help, just lowering your house temperature two degrees in the winter and keeping it two degrees higher in the summer can make a pretty big difference. Saving electricity by turning off all lights, computers, TVs, and other electrical devices when you are not using them can also help. Also, if we use less hot water by lowering the temperature on your hot water tank, using low flow shower heads, washing clothes with cold water, and using the energy saving mode on dishwashers can also be very helpful. You could also use the reduce, reuse, recycle model. There are some technological advancements that could help with climate change in the Arctic. One that could really help is building giant walls around glaciers that can prevent warm ocean water from eroding the glaciers’ edges, by doing this, you can block the flow of warm water, shielding the glacier from warm water and reducing the melting rate significantly. Another technological advancement that could greatly help is creating cooling tunnels in the ice by drilling holes in glaciers, creating tunnels in the bedrock and pouring cold brine into them, which would freeze some of the water underneath the glacier, and slow the moving ice, and give the glacier more time to solidify once the brine starts flowing through the glaciers.  Implementing new and improved navigation and communications satellites because the current ones are inaccurate and unreliable at higher heights can also help.  You can educate others and raise awareness about this problem by testing and training oil companies to clean up possible oil spills, donating time and money, posting about it on social media, putting it in the news, writing news articles or blogs about it, signing petitions, and using and attending different programs and training courses relating to it. It is possible to solve this issue, but the majority of us, humans have to be willing to work together and perform different actions to help stop climate change.   There are many different careers and people that help to stop and limit climate change. Some people who work to reduce climate change are Environmental Engineers, Environmental Scientists, and Public Relations Specialists. Environmental Engineers work to figure out ways to protect or fix and correct environmental damages. Environmental Scientists mainly focus on forming and devising ways to prevent or reduce pollution and improve the health of Earth and its dwellers. Public Relations Specialists work in media and communications to spread information to the public, they aim to get the public to support environmental causes, inform them, and increase their understanding of issues such as climate change. People who really care about the detrimental effects of climate change on the environment and want to help stop it, can get a job in this field or just doing some of the things mentioned can also help stop climate change.

Climate change is a very real and important problem that we need to pay more attention to and do more to reduce and limit climate change.

The Arctic sea is important because its ice keeps the Polar Regions cool and helps moderate global climate. With climate change on the rise, the temperature of the sea is increasing and the ice is melting, which is very bad. If the temperature increases too much, the ice will melt, destroying habitats for wildlife, but will also raise the sea levels, causing flooding to coastal cities. As the temperature rises and the ice melts, Arctic animals and plants will die and their numbers will decrease, even possibly becoming extinct eventually. Some ways to bring more attention to this problem are, to inform more and more people about it, show more of it in the news and media, post more on social media, promote it more, sign petitions, and donate time & money to the issue. We can help ease this problem by reducing the amount of pollution in the air and water and decreasing the use of fossil fuels, so greenhouse gases do not rise into the atmosphere, heating up the Arctic air and sea temperatures. Figuring out another way to power cars without using dangerous fossil fuels, to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere could also help. Also, using less electricity and more solar energy would be helpful.  In conclusion, we, humans really need to pay more attention to the climate change in the Arctic and work together to help minimize the dangerous effects of global warming in the Arctic region.

Resources: GuJune, Katt. “The Arctic is not doomed: 8 Easy Ways You Can Stop the Arctic Ice from Melting.” BetterWorldInternational.org, https://www.betterworldinternational.org/planet/8-easy-ways-stop-arctic-... Cox, David. “Two audacious plans for saving the world's ice sheets.” NBCnews.com, https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/can-these-bold-plans-keep-world-s-i... Rascoe, Ayesha and Shalal, Andrea. “U.S. Needs to Invest in Arctic Ships, Technology to Prepare for Climate Change.” Scientific American, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/u-s-needs-to-invest-in-arctic... Sheng Hu, Feng. “Effects Of Human Activities And Climate Change.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/tundra/Effects-of-human-activities-an...

keyeshia duck

Climate Change & Extreme Weather Conditions By Keyasia Duck

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change can be caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, & volcanic eruptions. Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere in the amounts of greenhouse gases, aerosols, (small particles), and cloudiness. The largest known contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere.

It is very important people become aware of this because it causes more extreme weather.

We discovered Climate Change & Extreme Weather existed when we burn fossil fuels, such as coal & gas and we release carbon and it builds up in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases and aerosols affect climate by altering incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared (thermal) radiation that are part of Earth’s energy balance. River floods worldwide shows that 21 million people worldwide are affected by river floods each year on average. This number could increase to 54 million in 2030 due to climate change and socio-economic development. The following laws have been passed to help with increased flooding. The national Flood Insurance Act of 1968, The Flood Insurance Protection Act of 1937, & The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994.

Some solutions to fix this problem is we can take sensible steps towards protecting our environment and human health. We can also take actions to prepare our communities for present and future effects of climate change. We can also reduce the release of heat trapping gases like carbon can help protect our health and well being by decreasing impacts on our climate system. We can educate people and raise awareness by making posters about it or the reporters can talk about it around the world to spread it around.

Solving this problem is very important because it can prevent a lot of things from happening or even beginning like houses and buildings being damaged by flooding from extreme weather. It can also be important because it can save people's lives.

Resources: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/floods/...

tamaria jones

Climate Change and Asthma By Tamaria Jones

Climate change is associated with rising temperatures, changes in worldwide weather patterns, airborne pollution levels, and duration. Climate changes have also been observed to impact human health, including that of allergic individuals. When we burn carbon-based materials, carbon dioxide is emitted from what we burn and therefore, emits C02 into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide absorbs heat, and increases in atmospheric C02 levels suggest that the increase is coming from burning fossil fuels.

The warming of the earth is correlated to, and follows rising C02 emissions, which can influence climate. It can affect sun and ocean cycles, which can impact experiments relating to natural versus human influenced simulations of changes to the Earth. Increased water temperatures from climate change causes flowers to bloom earlier and increase the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. The changes in temperatures cause an increase in the concentration of pollen in the air. This increases the strength of airborne allergens and causes an increase in allergy symptoms.

People need to know this because allergies can be deadly. Everyone has different allergies and different reactions. The severity of allergies varies from person to person and can range from minor irritation to anaphylaxis, a potentially life threatening emergency. While most allergies can´t be cured, treatments can help relieve your allergy symptoms.

I think if people know how much climate change hurt them and someone with allergies they would help stop things that pollute the air and cause climate change.

In 1984 corticosteroids were first used to treat asthma and allergic reactions. They worked by reducing the inflammation that would be caused by the allergens. The discovery of most cells in 1953 helped to identify what caused allergies to set off the immune response of the body. Maybe standoff with laws that were passed to slow climate change.

An Environmental law was passed and signed in March 2017 at the environment protection agency headquarters. This act saw the dismantling of the clean power plan of 2015. under the clean air act, the plan set state by targets for carbon emissions reductions and aimed to lower national electricity sector emissions overall by 32% below 2005 levels by 2050.

Eating healthy, can help people with allergies if you eat lots of fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts, grapes, apples, oranges, and tomatoes you will have fewer allergy symptoms. A nasal rinse tube that cleans your nose also reduces symptoms.

You can bring awareness to climate change and how it affects allergies by going more into depth with about climate change and explaining it to people all around the world.

Immunologists and doctors work with patients of all ages with allergic problems. Doctors can help you find some type of cure to stop it at the moment or reduce it. Stopping climate change is important for people who have allergies because in a way it helps them with their allergies. We need to talk about it more and bring more attention to the topic by seeing a doctor or immunologists or using technological tools to help.

Resources used:   www.aaaai.org;  www.webmd.com

Student essay writer Mashael Khudakaram

Climate Change and Food By Mashael Khuda Karam

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Human activities that cause climate change are: Human burning fuel and coal which release too much greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere like carbon dioxide that traps the heat in the atmosphere which, leads to a faster climate change. People and companies started to cut down forests by cutting a huge amount of trees each year from 3.5 to 7 billion trees each year and then they sell the timber to other countries in order to make furniture. Smaller trees are used for the production of charcoal, and human agriculture by replacing large trees with smaller plants that absorbs fewer amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Which is another reason why the rate of carbon dioxide keeps increasing.

Human activities have increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Scientists notices changes in average temperatures, rainfall, pests, diseases; atmospheric carbon dioxide, ground-level ozone concentrations, and changes in the nutritional quality of some foods. Causes to all of these problems are human activities that lead to increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

Some of the laws or treaties that have been passed to slow or stop the problem of climate change are: The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations, itś long-term goal is to keep the increase in global temperatures down since this would substantially reduce the risks and effects of climate change. Presidents signing treaties with other countries to help the environment and slow or stop climate change will encourage other governments or countries to get involved in the treaty too; which will allow for better collaboration and better solutions.

It is important to solve climate change because the impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk.

One of the dangerous effects are drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Some possible solutions are: reducing food waste by storing food in the right place, saving leftovers, keeping track of what is being thrown away, work on preserving food, keeping the fridge clutter-free, eat the skins of the fruits and vegetables, and shop smart. Encourage tropical forest restoration by starting organizations, groups, or associations, or even school groups that can save seeds, plant some trees, and work on planting native trees that belong to the area that is being restored. We should also limit power plant pollution by preventing about 90% of the mercury in the coal burned in power plants from being emitted to the air. This would reduce 88% of acid gas emissions, and reduce 41% of sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. Having companies go beyond the reductions expected from the cross-state air pollution rule would help reduce climate change even more.

There are some technological advancements to help deal with the problem of climate change. Some of them are: sensors that help farmers reduce the number of chemicals in their fields. Smart boats which can help the fishermen manage their catch effectively, increasing profits and fish in the sea. Google cars mapping air pollution and its health effects. Wearable bracelets that track your daily chemical exposure.

There are different ways to educate or raise awareness by persuading others to collaborate toward a possible solution that is easy for everyone in the group. It can be a solution that can be done in a reasonable amount of time. You can encourage family and friends to spread the word, and join organizations such as the UNESCO association, and work with different schools and Universities. Another way to tell others about the impacts of climate change like drought, the rise in temperature, rise in sea level, fire danger in forests, and severe storms is by encouraging others to care about this climate change and collaborate to find a solution that will help our planet, the organisms, and our health.

There are careers where people work on ways to stop the problem. They are: Atmospheric Scientists/Meteorologists, environment Scientists, and Specialists, and Environmental Engineers. Atmospheric Scientists and Meteorologists are commonly associated with producing weather forecasts, and they are concerned with understanding climate and some specialize in understanding how Earth’s climate is changing while others concentrate on determining the long-term impacts of climate change.

Environmental Scientists and Specialists specifically focus on developing ways to reduce or prevent pollution and improve the health of the planet and its inhabitants. Some specialize in their field and work as climate change analysts and are responsible for conducting research specifically related to the impact climate change is having on the world. Environmental Engineers are professionals who work to find ways to correct or prevent environmental damage, and their duties can involve researching climate change and developing ways to protect the environment, different scientists and people are working in careers related to the environment and the atmosphere. They are working hard to slow climate change and the impact of its occurrence.

It is important to solve climate change because the long-term impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk. One of the effects is drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Ways to bring more attention to climate change and its impact on food are by making posters to describe the problem, ways to solve it and show others that is something that needs to be solved. Posts on social media about the dangers on the food supply from changing the weather like: climate change increasing the risk of foodborne illness, lowering the nutritional value of the food. Climate change can also lead to chemical contaminants in the food chain, and extreme weather limits access to safe foods. Lastly, you can attract people to join environmental organizations that talk about the environment and the impacts of climate change on it, so they have a better understanding of the problems and know what should be done. There are plenty of ways to attract people’s attention to climate change, but we need to find the best way.

References used: United states environmental protection agency. “Causes of Climate Change.”  EPA, https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-clim... Unesco. “Climate Change Education and Awareness.” Unesco organization, https://en.unesco.org/themes/addressing-climate-change/climate-change-ed... David Suzuki. “Food and climate change.” David Suzuki foundation, https://davidsuzuki.org/queen-of-green/food-climate-change/; Nanyang Technological University. “How can human activities cause climate change?” EarthObservatory, https://earthobservatory.sg/faq-on-earth-sciences/how-can-human-activiti...

student Jacob Onorato

Climate Change and Strength of Hurricanes - Mostly Just Climate Change Cus It’s Hard To Just Focus On Hurricanes Alone... By Jacob Onorado

Climate change is the gradual change in average global weather activities caused by multiple factors, including the average temperature of the Earth (Known as global warming) due to excess greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, as-well-as others. Climate change contains many effects prevalent in the atmosphere, from increased overall temperatures to rising sea levels, to stronger storm and hurricane strength, to heatwaves, droughts, and floods, as-well-as other notable effects.

Although there are many causes of climate change, especially those caused by humans, the most notable/obvious human-related causes of climate change include that of global warming, in the form of an increase in greenhouse gas emissions from sources such as the burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, and other areas of activity.

There are many problems that climate change and global warming bring, and we’re just making them worse. We need to change how we do things, and we need to work on how to fix the problems we’re causing, as-well-as fixing the causes.

The average amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is approximately 400 ppm (parts per million). That’s 100 ppm higher than the previous highest carbon dioxide density in our atmosphere for the last Million years! This is undoubtedly causing problems in our atmosphere. Over the course of human history, we have witnessed natural events caused by climate change and global warming, such as storms, hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves. We’ve been able to see the correlation of the change in the strength and amount of these events with the change in the average global temperature of Earth. Now, of course, it is good to note that correlation does not necessarily equal causation, although based on the evidence, it’s very hard to argue that climate change hasn't had an effect.

Although there are some who believe otherwise, the main cause of Climate Change, and Global Warming, is humans. We release so much pollution and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, that we’re changing an entire planet. From cars to power plants to agriculture, and more.

As the knowledge of global warming, climate change, and pollution, and their consequences, such as the increasing power and frequency of ocean storms has been increasing over the years, more and more laws and regulations have been proposed and passed in order to cope. Such laws as the Clean Air Act of 1963 or the Paris Climate Agreement are notable examples.

We know that we’re causing a problem, and many of us are trying to fix it, and so the main problem lies not in that we are causing a problem, but that there are those who disbelieve in the evidence and try and turn back the progress we’ve made in trying to fix it.

We’re slowly killing an entire planet, but not just any old rock in space, but our home. If we don’t fix what we’re breaking, we won’t have a home to live in. Our successors that we try our best to make a good future for, won’t have a future in the first place.

But what can we do to fix this? • Increasing awareness of climate change and the consequences • Doing our best to reduce our use of greenhouse gas emitting sources, such as fossil fuels from cars, or power plants, to finding better food production techniques. • Finding better ways to accomplish the same things we use greenhouse gas producing sources for, such as heat, transportation, food production, electricity, and more.

We’ve made many technological advancements that are very promising, such as renewable energy. These technologies allow us to replace the main use of fossil fuels, and decrease a large portion of our greenhouse gas emissions. There are also advancements made in agriculture that allow us to be much more efficient.

In regards to the effects of climate change, such as increased extreme weather conditions (droughts, heatwaves, storms, hurricanes, etcetera) certain advancements such as better transportation, storage of goods, and early warning systems, have helped us deal with the largest portion of problems.

The best way to deal with these issues, though, is to raise awareness of them.

We need to make these issues widely known and talked about. The more people know of these issues and the problems they cause, the more push there will be to change policies and laws to prevent and fix them. There are organizations and websites that allow people to gain information and research the problems that are being caused by Climate Change, and make their voices heard. If you believe Climate Change is an issue, I urge you to go to these websites, learn as much as you can about the problems being made, and make your voice heard.

There are many people who work to reverse climate change. Activists that help raise awareness of the issues that we have to deal with. Scientists study the climate and the effects of its changes. Engineers advance technologies to allow us to use more efficient and eco-friendly sources and products. These people help to change our world for the better, and hopefully, their efforts work.

Climate Change is not natural, at least not how we’re seeing it. What we’re seeing is caused by humans, we’ve exploited our planet too much, and we’re seeing the effects of it. We’re experiencing not only small weather problems, but big ones, and we’re seeing more of them too. Heat waves, droughts, storms, hurricanes: All of these used to be rare issues, or at the very least they used to be less of a common issue. The thing is though, we already have solutions to these problems! The only thing we need to do now raise awareness of these problems, and enact these solutions by replacing all our problematic technologies with less problematic, and more efficient ones!

Resources: C2es.org https://www.c2es.org/content/international-emissions/;  Climate.Gov https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-chan... https://www.wikipedia.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Air_Act_ (United_States)


The Greenhouse Effect By Nadieshka Perez

Climate change is the changes that occur in the Earth's climate system, resulting in new weather that lasts for a few decades or millions of years. A few human activities that cause climate change are the burning of fossil fuels (such as oil and coal), deforestation, and agriculture. Those three things emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Though some of the things that release greenhouse gases occur naturally, the concentration of CO2 did not rise above 300 parts per million (ppm) in the past. Today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is about 400 parts per million.

The greenhouse effect is the trapping of the Sun's warmth in the planet's lower atmosphere. The combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, fertilizer usage (which increases the nitrous oxide emissions), and the transporting, extracting, processing, and distributing of fossil fuels all release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. There have been many attempts to slow down greenhouse gas emissions by making laws. Examples include  a law introduced by Senator Chuck Grassley, who added the renewable energy production tax credit to the energy policy. Another example would be June 2009, when the House passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 by a vote of 219 to 212.

It's important to find a solution to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Increases in greenhouse gases can result in climate change and temperatures getting out of control. Some simple solutions to the problem could be ‘reducing, reusing, and recycling’, driving less and walking or riding a bike instead, or using less electricity. A way of releasing less greenhouse gases could be using the heater and air conditioning less.

There's quite a few jobs that attempt to prevent climate change and slowing down the greenhouse effect. There are environmental scientists, environmental engineers, environmental protection specialist, etc. There's also greenhouse gas verifiers and greenhouse gas program managers. Greenhouse gas verifiers collect data and audits as well as develop verification reports and sampling plans. Greenhouse gas program managers are responsible for defining and executing greenhouse gas compliance strategies for North America and other places.

Climate change is any specific long term change in the pattern of average weather of a region over a significant amount of time. Some ways of bringing more attention to the greenhouse effect and its causes in climate change are talking about it with others who are interested in reducing their greenhouse gas thus slowing climate change.

You could talk about it on social media, or make a video or blog about the subject and posting it since many people are online a lot.

It's important to find a way to slow the greenhouse effect before temperatures get out of control.

Resources: “How human activities produce greenhouse gases” -United Nations Environment Program    https://unfccc.int/cop3/fccc/climate/fact22.htm;   “Discovery of the greenhouse effect” - J.M.K.C. Donev et al. (2019). Energy Education https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Discovery_of_the_greenhouse_effe... “ Congress Climate History” - Center For Climate And Energy Solutions https://www.c2es.org/content/congress-climate-history/;  “Ten Ways To Reduce Greenhouse gases” http://www.eastgwillimbury.ca/services/Environment/Ten_ways_to_Reduce_Gr... “Innovating Energy Solutions: Research and Development highlights” https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/Research-and-innovation/Research-and...


Climate Change in the Arctic By Courtney Turbaczewski

About half of the light reaching Earth's atmosphere passes through the air and clouds to the surface, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward in the form of infrared heat. About 90 percent of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases and radiated back toward the surface, which is warmed to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius).

Scientists agree that today’s warming is primarily caused by humans putting too much carbon in the atmosphere, like when we choose to extract and burn coal, oil, and gas, or cut down and burn forests.

Many Places like India and china (places that are overpopulated) are much more a main part of why this is happening.

My project is on climate change in the arctic. The arctic region is warmer than it used to be and it continues to get warmer. Over the past 30 years it has warmed more than any other region on Earth. Most scientists agree that Arctic weather changes and climate change, generally, are a result of human activity. Because, the Arctic is warming the sea ice, snow cover, ice caps and the permafrost are all changing and not in a good way. Arctic sea ice cover has declined by 30 percent in the past 30 years. Studies also show that overall snow in the Arctic has also decreased.

Changes in the Arctic climate are important because the Arctic acts as a refrigerator for the rest of the world. The arctic region gives off more heat to space than it absorbs from outside, which helps cool the planet.

Changes in the Arctic climate could affect the climate in the rest of the world.

I do think solving this problem is important because after it keeps happening for a while it could be dangerous, the Earth could overheat and humans could die.

Flooding could also occur due to an increased amount of water in the ocean. This will cause some low lying areas to be covered in water.

To solve this problem we would probably have to find different sources for things we use that cause climate change. 

Sources: Callery, Susan.” How’s our planet doing.” https://climate.nasa.gov/; No author. “The Arctic and Global warming” https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/arctic/issues/global-warming/


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Main Office: Tom Ridge Environmental Center 301 Peninsula Dr., Suite 3 Erie, PA 16505 814-217-9011

Modern Environmental Issues: Climate Change

Climate change is one of the major issues of the modern world, which poses a threat to the globe as a whole. Although there is a wide range of debates and arguments revolving around the given problem, it is evident that some alterations from normal, natural values are taking place. Human influence due to the activities might be the key catalyzer of the initiation of these processes.

In order to understand the source of climate change, one needs to distinguish it from global warming. It is stated: “global warming is one symptom of the much larger problem of human-caused climate change” (Kennedy and Lindsey par. 1). In other words, climate change had taken place before humans evolved, but the issue lies in the one, which is caused by direct human intervention (Kennedy and Lindsey par. 2). Therefore, such activities cause a rise in global temperature, which manifest in a wide range of undesirable consequences, such as droughts or floods. For example, the forest disturbances, such as abiotic or biotic imbalances, is mostly caused by sudden climatic variations (Seidl et al. 395). The fact of global climate change is confirmed by scientific observations and is not disputed by most scientists.

Moreover, climate change directly affects global water distributions through rains. It is stated: “lack of rain stresses vegetation and supplemental water reserves, and when their frequency increases, those reserves are less likely to recover before the next dry spell” (Gray par. 3). For example, in the United States alone, there were clear changes in occurrence and volume rate of heavy rainfall events, where northeastern states experienced a major increase (Gray par. 5). Therefore, it is essential to develop strong infrastructure for vulnerable communities in order to protect them from incidents of droughts and floods. The water distribution change also highly influences lakes and nearby groups of people (“Building Resilience in the Great Lakes” par. 1). The plausible solution can only be derived through the cooperation of all parties, including public officials, engineers, and the local population. It is stated: “active community participation ensures the evaluation and management of risk and monitoring and evaluation of adaptation options” (“Building Resilience in the Great Lakes” par. 2). In other words, the community itself is a key determinant of success in adapting to the climatic shifts.

Climate systems change both as a result of natural internal processes and in response to external influences, both anthropogenic and natural. Among the main external influences are changes in the Earth’s orbit, solar activity, the greenhouse effect and volcanic emissions. Climatologists agree that the temperature on Earth has increased recently, but the reason for this increase is debatable (Crate and Nuttall 61). Climate model estimates suggest that the average temperature of the Earth could rise by a significant amount. It is highly likely that this will lead to other climatic changes, including rising sea levels and changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation. The result will be an increase in natural disasters, such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, possibly lower yields and the disappearance of many species. However, it is difficult to unambiguously link any specific event to global warming.

The concern is that in addition to the natural causes of climate change, which have always been, another factor is added – anthropogenic. This is the result of human activity, whose influence on climate change is becoming stronger every year. The sun is the main driving force behind the climate. For example, uneven heating of the earth’s surface is one of the main causes of winds and ocean currents (Crate and Nuttall 109). Periods of increased solar activity are accompanied by warming and magnetic storms. In addition, the climate is influenced by changes in the Earth’s orbit, its magnetic field, the size of continents and oceans, and volcanic eruptions. These are all natural causes of climate change because until recently, they determined climate change. This involves the beginning and end of long-term climatic cycles such as ice ages. Solar and volcanic activity can explain half of the temperature changes, where solar activity increases the temperature, and volcanic activity decreases it.

Recently, one more factor has been added to natural elements, which is anthropogenic or caused by human activity. The main anthropogenic impact is the intensification of the greenhouse effect, the effect of which on climate change is higher than the influence of changes in solar activity. The greenhouse effect is the delay by the Earth’s atmosphere of the planet’s thermal radiation. Solar energy, passing through the atmosphere, heats the surface of the Earth, but the thermal energy emitted by the Earth cannot escape back into space, since the Earth’s atmosphere traps it. It transmits short wavelengths of light from the Sun to the Earth and traps long heatwaves emitted from the Earth’s surface. The greenhouse effect arises from the presence in the Earth’s atmosphere of gases that have the ability to trap long waves, and they are called greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases have been present in small quantities in the atmosphere since its formation. For example, polar bears, seals and penguins will be forced to change their habitats as the polar ice disappears (Crate and Nuttall 54). Many species of animals and plants will also disappear, not having time to adapt to the rapidly changing habitat. In the 19th century, the reason for such cooling was the eruption of volcanoes, and, in the current century, the reason is the desalination of the world ocean as a result of the melting of glaciers (Crate and Nuttall 152). In the short term, there may be a shortage of drinking water, an increase in the number of infectious diseases, and problems in agriculture due to droughts. In addition, there may be an increase in deaths from floods, hurricanes, heatwaves and droughts. The poorest countries, which are least responsible for exacerbating the problem and least prepared for climate change, could be hit hardest (Crate and Nuttall 87). Warming and rising temperatures, in the end, can reverse everything that has been achieved by the work of previous generations. The destruction of established and habitual farming systems under the influence of droughts, irregular rainfall can put the population on the brink of starvation.

In conclusion, after a rapid breakthrough into space and amazing discoveries made there, humanity again turns its focus to its common planet Earth. Earth problems should occupy an important place among fundamental knowledge. The future of the civilization and the general outlook that determines the prospects for the further development of society largely depends on their solution. One should be aware that the international scientific community now bears a colossal responsibility. The correct determination of climate change trends in the future and the directions of the main consequences of this change will save humanity from immeasurable disasters.

Works Cited

“Building Resilience in the Great Lakes.” U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit , 2019, Web.

Crate, Susan A., and Mark Nuttall. Anthropology and Climate Change: From Encounters to Actions . Routledge, 2016.

Gray, Ellen. “ Earth’s Freshwater Future: Extremes of Flood and Drought .” Global Climate Change , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2019, Web.

Kennedy, Caitlyn, and Rebecca Lindsey. “ What’s The Difference Between Global Warming and Climate Change? ” Climate.gov , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2015, Web.

Seidl, Rupert, et al. “Forest Disturbances Under Climate Change.” Nature Climate Change , vol. 7, 2017, pp. 395-402.

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environmental issues and climate change essay

Environment and Climate Change

Essay 1: Climate change #Draft1 By definition, climate change refers to all variations of the statistical average in weather conditions over an extended period ranging from decades or longer. Over the 4 billion years of existence, the Earth’s climate has changed many times caused by natural factors; However during the last century, human activity has been the principal cause of climate change. In other words, according to scientists’ researches climate change is a natural phenomenon that has occurred in the past as well as an event made worse by recent human activity. There are many natural causes of climate change, the more common are continental drift, volcanic eruptions, and the melting of the glaciers. In addition to these causes, climate change has also many man-made causes such as the emission of greenhouse gases, deforestation, pollution, use of chemical fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels. All these causes have almost the same consequences that are the increase of the earth ’s temperature, extreme weather , and the rise of the sea level. According to scientist Alfred Wegener, it was a time when all the Earth’s continents have been joined together into one continent. This phenomenon occurred 250 million years ago and it is named Pangaea. Since that time, they have been drifting apart to become the continents we know today. This drift had an effect on the Earth’s climate and even continues today; in fact, it changed the flow of the winds and oceans’ currents and it also enhanced the tectonic activity and increased the level of carbon dioxide released on the atmospher... ... middle of paper ... ... Some of the man- made causes are the emission of greenhouse gases, deforestation, pollution, use of chemical fertilizers, the burning of fossil fuels. They have almost the same consequences linked one to another; for example thee increase of the earth’s temperature is the cause of the melting of the glaciers which is the cause of the rise of the sea level and may cause the extinction of species in a few decades. And continental drift and changes in volcanic activity are also causes of the extreme weather condition. Nevertheless, the climate is changing and will keep changing if humans don’t make some changes in the way they live now. Indeed, the consequences that are expecting by scientists could lead to the destruction of life on earth in a few decades. This phenomenon threatens everyone and all countries must work together to avoid this threat.

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Causes and Effects of Climate Change Essay

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Climate Change Essay

500+ words essay on climate change.

Climate change is the shift of weather patterns and conditions. We are experiencing rapid change in the climate due to various factors. Needless to say, our earth is experiencing rising global temperatures. Do you think it is a matter of concern? Well yes, you might have heard about the melting glaciers which is resulting in rising sea levels. There has been a drastic change in the climate due to hazardous factors such as pollution, burning coals, industrial waste disposal in the air, etc. All this will result in affecting the environment and its resources. To overcome the issue of climate change, you need to bring social awareness along with stringent measures to protect and preserve the environment. In this climate change essay, we are going to discuss the factors and how to prevent climate change. 

What is Climate Change? 

Climate change is the change in the average weather conditions. We can say that climate change is responsible for change in the normal climatic conditions. These changes result in heavy storms, heat waves, floods, melting glaciers, etc. Our earth is going through a lot of changes with respect to climate, which is impacting the livelihood of people and other living things. Global warming is one aspect of climate change. Due to these factors, carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases are released in the atmosphere. Check out the following causes of climate change given below. 

Climate Change Factors Essay 

Nowadays, we experience extreme weather conditions whether it is cold, heat or rain. Some of the forces or factors that contribute to climate change are greenhouse gas emission, burning of coal, deforestation, air pollution, industrial gas, etc. These factors lead to major climatic change in the earth. Did you know that climate change leads to disastrous events? Yes, it affects the livelihood, health and the resources. It also impacts the water, air and the land we live in. It leads to extreme weather conditions such as droughts, heavy rain, floods, storms, heat waves, forest fires, etc. Moreover, it reduces the quality of drinking water, damages property, pollutes the air and also leads to loss of life. Additionally, it is impacting the life of flora and fauna around us. We need to take extreme measures to prevent climate change. 

Also explore: Learn more about the environment and climate change with Environment essay and Global warming Essay .

How To Prevent Climate Change Essay 

As climate change is hampering the lives and resources of our earth, we need to look out for extreme measures to prevent climate change. Now, what can we do to prevent this? Is it possible for all of us to join and preserve nature? Yes, we can if appropriate strategies are implemented to combat climate change. The different ways to reduce climate change are mentioned below:

These are the ways to reduce climate change. If not implemented, you might see an increase in the weather conditions, shortage of drinking water, agricultural yields, and impact on livelihood. Therefore, you must focus on reducing anthropogenic activities so that you can breathe fresh air and drink clean water. These are the small steps to protect the environment and its resources.

We hope this climate change essay was useful to you. Check Osmo’s essays for kids to explore more essays on a wide variety of topics. 

Frequently Asked Questions On Climate Change Essay

What is a climate change essay.

The climate change essay is information on changing weather conditions and its impact on the environment.

How to start a climate change essay?

You can start a climate change essay with an introduction, factors, and the ways to prevent climate change.

What are the main causes of climate change?

The main causes of climate change are deforestation, burning oils, chemical fertilizers, pollution and release of industrial waste in the air, etc.

To find more information, explore related articles such as technology essay and essay on internet . 


The Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay

A liberal arts education.

Carbon footprint is the total of greenhouse gases produced by an individual’s habits as well as the energy required to produce things an individual consumes.

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What is climate change? Climate change, additionally called an unnatural weather change, alludes to the ascent in normal surface temperatures on Earth. The present warming pattern is of specific essentialness on the grounds that the majority of it is likely human-incited and continuing at a rate that is exceptional in the previous 1,300 years. Earth-circling satellites and other innovative advances have empowered researchers to see the comprehensive view, gathering a wide range of sorts of data about our planet and its atmosphere on a worldwide scale. This group of information, gathered over numerous years, uncovers the signs of an evolving atmosphere. The warmth catching nature of carbon dioxide and different gasses was exhibited in the mid-nineteenth century. Their capacity to influence the exchange of infrared vitality through the environment is the logical premise of many instruments flown by NASA. There is no doubt that expanded levels of greenhouse gasses must bring about the Earth to warm accordingly. Ice centers drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain ice sheets demonstrate that the World 's atmosphere reacts to changes in greenhouse gas levels. They likewise demonstrate that before, extensive changes in atmosphere have happened rapidly, geographically: in several years, not in millions or even thousands. Environmental change can prompt to noteworthy dangers to human wellbeing, woods, farming, freshwater supplies, coastlines, environment, and

Climate Change And Global Warming Essay

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The Effects Of Climate Change On Earth Today Essay

Climate change otherwise known as global warming has been an ongoing issue for decades. Beginning in the 19th century, climate change has increasingly affected Earth and its atmosphere. Rising levels of carbon dioxide are warming the Earth’s atmosphere, causing rising sea-levels, melting snow and ice, extreme fires and droughts, and intense rainfall and floods. Climate change has and will continue to affect food production, availability of water, and can add to many health risks in humans and animals. In fact, in an article by Justin Gillis titled, “Scientists Warn of Perilous Climate Shift Within Decades, Not Centuries” he focuses on a paper written by a former NASA climate scientist, James E. Hansen, explaining the effects of climate change on Earth today. Although many believe Hansen’s theories in the paper are quite far-fetched, the author mentions, “Despite any reservations they might have about the new paper, virtually all climate scientists agree with Dr. Hansen’s group that society is not moving fast enough to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, posing grave risks” (Gillis). Gillis validates the fact that climate change has been rapidly expanding throughout Earth and society has not been able to reduce it fast enough. Many negative risks are being posed and will continue to mount if the issue of climate change is not taken seriously. Although climate change negatively affects nearly all aspects of the Earth, it poses a big threat to agriculture and food production.

Climate Change : How It Affects People And The Environment Essay

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Climate Change Essay

Everyone talks about climate change and how the Earth is slowly deteriorating, but no one seems to have specific examples. In Linnea Saukko’s “How to Poison the Earth,” she does use specific examples of what is causing climate change. She uses satire with a hint of sarcasm in her essay. She gives the reader specific examples of how to poison the Earth, but not really wanting to poison the Earth. Gretel Ehrlich writes her essay, “Chronicles of Ice,” a little differently. She uses personal experiences of visiting a glacier and the way that it is falling apart to explain climate change. She uses detailed, sensory description to explain

Essay on Global Warming: Impact of Climate Change on the Environment

Comparing with other gases carbon dioxide is more responsible for the greenhouse effect (Pidwirny. 2006). Carbon dioxide is emitted from such processes like deforestation, the burning of coal, oil, gas, and through the carbon cycle. One more important greenhouse gas is methane.

Reducing the Carbon Footprint Essay example

Because carbon footprints are such hot topics in the news these days, it's an ideal topic for this particular paper. As concerns about global warming and potential climate change have continued to evolve the term "carbon footprint" has become ingrained in many people's consciousness. Though the large Fortune 500 companies focus on reduction of their own carbon footprints, individuals can help in their own small way as well.

Fast Fashion Research Paper

In order to reduce the negative impact of clothing production we can ensure that we check labels and buy clothes that are eco friendly and are made from organic cotton and silk.

Essay on Climate Change: Effects on People and the Environment

“Our generation has inherited an incredibly beautiful world from our parents and they from their parents. It is in our hands whether our children and their children inherit the same world” (Richard Branson). This quote is a brief rewording of the issue we have today with global warming. For those who are not aware of what global warming is, it is when too much carbon dioxide is added into the atmosphere. Global warming can cause sever hurricanes, intense weather, and many other natural disasters. For example, the lack of protection to our species and natural resources has led to many conflicts around the world. The lack of conservation of natural resources and need for habitat protection has had a major impact on the environment also.

Climate Changes And Climate Change Essay

Climate is inherently variable. Climate changes from place to place and it varies with time. The world now faces one of the complex and important issue it has ever had to deal with: climate change. Climate change today is one of the biggest concerns of human beings on the planet and the effects of climate change are undeniable and it may cause environmental, social, and economic threats to the planet. We already know and easily can highlight several signs of climate change. They are: rising global sea level, widespread melting of snow and ice, rapidly changing ocean and global temperatures, and other signs. So, what are the causes of climate change? Is it natural or do human beings cause it? Well, in both cases we would be right. The climate change can be affected by natural factors, such as solar output, volcanic eruptions, and the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Also, climate change can be affected by human activities such as, deforestation, burning fossil fuels, causing ozone hole, and building mass destructive weapons and using them on earth that causes a huge radioactivity on earth. Currently, the threat of global climate change does not threaten some nations to the extent of others. Compare the United States with the rest of African countries. We live in prosperity and in much easier time than the rest African countries. Most African countries cannot grow anything on their lands because of climate change. At the end, climate change might affect everyone on

The Effects Of Climate Change On Earth Essay

Humans’ contribution to Climate Change are constant, not ceasing or slowing down. Most anything in the modern society has made a contribution, whether it be the technology being used or the cars being driven. Climate Change is the changing of global weather and temperatures at an abnormal rate --- that many choose to ignore, proceeding with their everyday activity. Meanwhile, on a global scale, the rate of these changes is detrimental to life on earth. NASA explicitly addresses that these fluctuations of climate are natural, but the rate in temperature changes is quicker than ever before. Prior observations show that typically the changes last about a thousand years before the next period of changes, but recently human innovations have backfired with the earth at stake. With the advancement of a more technological society, comes great responsibility.

Green Energy

Carbon footprint is a representation of the effect that the human activities are passing on to the environment and the climate in particular. These activities are considered in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from the activities. Individual carbon footprint is the direct impact that the personal lifestyle has on the environment. More often than not the term is used to refer to the amount in tones that an activity or an organization emits into the environment (Global Footprint Network, 2012).

Green Energy and the Carbon Footprint

According to Wikipedia, a carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide that a person emits during their day to day activities. It measures the quantity of resources you use and how your actions contribute to the greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are what

Global Warming And Its Effects On Climate Change Essay

It is no secret that the magnificent glaciers that cover this earth are facing negative repercussions due to climate change. Pratima Pandey verifies this statement in her article by stating that “it is the climate that is the driving force controlling the mass balance of a glacier in space and time, resulting in the recession and advancement of a glacier,” (Pandey, par. 1). The earth is getting warmer, and this means that soon, glaciers will start to disappear. While the earth naturally produces its own heat, the contribution from humans is also making the earth warmer than usual. James Balog and Extreme Ice Survey team explain that “since the Industrial Revolution, burning of fossil fuels has ratcheted up the burning of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, which traps heat in the atmosphere (Global Warming). Greenhouse gases then go to raise the already increasing temperatures, which are causing glaciers to melt. This is a sad reality for the glaciers of the earth. The melting of glaciers can cause ocean and sea levels to rise, which in turn can flood different animal habitats and displace millions of people. Also, the melting can lead to the loss of freshwater sources to those who use reservoirs as a source of drinking water, such as those around Asia near the Himalayan glaciers. Lastly, if the climate continues to melt the glaciers, various different tourist attractions, such as Glacier National Park will no longer draw in visitors to view the magnificent beauty.

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environmental issues and climate change essay

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The global environmental issues: climate change, pollution and natural resources.

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Climate change as one of the biggest global health threats in 21st century, climate change: issues and strategy to mitigate it, how global warming changed earth's environment, analysis of the causes of climate change, climate change as a serious threat, global warming and what people can do to save earth, mother nature and climate change: we must take action, policy responses to climate change, climate change as a real issue across america, climate change: a rhetorical perspective, the global problem of co2 emission and its possible solution, the crucial importance of addressing climate change, climate change: the australian fires, climate changes: emission of greenhouse gases, human & nature contribution, impact of the youth climate movement on climate change, the impact of global warming on climate change, climate change and business and government initiatives, the impact of climate change on the biodiversity and ecosystem of british columbia, the top three individual contributors to climate change, the issue of climate change in african countries, climate change: greenhouse effect, climate change as the one of the biggest threats to humanity now, worsening california's wildfires: climate change, analysis on climate change and the deterioration of the environment, greenhouse gases and climate change, investigation of the consequences of climate change, india's efforts towards mitigating climate change, detection and attribution on climate change, feeling stressed about your essay.

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Climate change is the global phenomenon of climate transformation characterized by the changes in the usual climate of the planet (regarding temperature, precipitation, and wind) that are especially caused by human activities.

Greenhouse gases, aerosols and clouds, land surface changes, solar and volcanic activity, climate change feedback.

The effects of climate change span the impacts on physical environment, ecosystems and human societies. Physical changes include extreme weather, glacier retreat, sea level rise, declines in Arctic sea ice, and changes in the timing of seasonal events. Food security and access to fresh water are also at risk due to rising temperatures. Climate change has profound impacts on human health, directly via heat stress and indirectly via the spread of infectious diseases.

Climate change can be mitigated by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and by enhancing sinks that absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. To reduce pressures on ecosystems and enhance their carbon sequestration capabilities, changes would also be necessary in agriculture and forestry, such as preventing deforestation and restoring natural ecosystems by reforestation.

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environmental issues and climate change essay


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