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Criminal Justice System
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Home — Essay Samples — Law, Crime & Punishment — Criminal Justice — The Criminal Justice System in the UK
The Criminal Justice System in The UK
- Subject: Law, Crime & Punishment
- Category: Crime Prevention & Criminal Justice , Crime
- Essay Topic: Criminal Justice , Organized Crime
- Words: 2783
- Published: 26 October 2018
- Downloads: 169
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Flaws of The British Criminal Justice System Essay
The bearing of race and ethnicity in the criminal justice system.
There has been an ongoing debate as to whether or not race and ethnicity have a bearing on an individual’s treatment in the criminal justice system for many years. I will be arguing that race and ethnicity do in fact, have a bearing on one’s treatment in the criminal justice system. I will be backing up my position on this topic by providing evidence from five scholarly articles.
Black and Minority Ethic Groups and the Justice System Essay
- 22 Works Cited
This essay will explore whether there is equality in the criminal justice system. It aims to look at statistics, legislation and studies from the past 30-40 years to get a thorough analysis of the processes and experiences different races in particular black and ethnic minority youths have been through within the criminal justice system.
Flaws In The Criminal Justice System Essay
Everyday 2,220,300 inmates live their lives in prisons throughout the United. That’s about 0.91% of the adult population, or 1 in 110 (BJS 2013). What if you were next? The thought would scare anyone and the flaws in the system pose a threat to low income individuals and minorities. The sole purpose of the Criminal System is to deliver justice for all, by only convicting and sentencing the guilty, while preventing offenders from reoffending. The system was designed to protect the innocent. What if that was not the case? What if individuals were arrested solely because of the fact that they are poor or of a certain
Injustice And Social Injustices
Double-discrimination and its effects are not only seen in academe. Social injustice occurs in any situation where people are treated unequally and includes discrimination and racism. For much of the twentieth century, crime and punishment have provided some of the most powerful symbols of racial divide in America (Rosich, 2007). Generally tried in a white-dominated legal system, black victims often face harsher punishment, longer sentences, and unfair trials. Rosich’s research indicates that white Americans widely believe that people of
Pros And Cons Of Disparity In The Criminal Justice System
The criminal justice system is a set of organizations and procedures set up by governments to control wrongdoing and force punishments on the individuals who disregard the laws. The main frameworks are state and federal. The state criminal justice systems handle wrongdoings perpetrated inside their state limits and government, the federal criminal system handles violations carried out on federal property or in more than one state. This system is supposed to be equal yet the nature of offenses, differential policing policies and practices, sentencing laws and biases are possible contributors to disparities in the system. The severity of the offense, prior record, age and education level are also taking into account when a decision is being made. Our prison system today varies immensely with ascending numbers of minority groups jailed within the system. Racial and ethnic imbalances continue in the United States and no disparity is more evident than that found in the criminal justice system. Disparity usually refers to a difference that is unfair, disparity in the criminal justice system stems from racial disparity which concludes that the proportion of a racial ethnic group within the control of the system is greater than the population of that group outside that control.
The Conflict Theory Of Economic Inequality In Modern Society
The conflict perspective highlights the notion that society consists of individuals of different social classes and status groups that are of conflicting self- interests. As
Essay about Racial Discrimination in the U.S. Justice System
- 16 Works Cited
In modern-day America the issue of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system is controversial because there is substantial evidence confirming both individual and systemic biases. While there is reason to believe that there are discriminatory elements at every step of the judicial process, this treatment will investigate and attempt to elucidate such elements in two of the most critical judicial junctures, criminal apprehension and prosecution.
Racial Disparities of the Criminal Justice System
Justice is a concept that takes into account the inalienable rights of all individuals to equal protection before and under the law regardless of race, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, age, disability or income. The justice system of the United States was founded on the principles that everyone has the right to receive a fair trial with equal representation. Racial disparity exist whenever there is a vast disparity between the proportion of a group represented in the overall population and the proportion of the same group at any given point within a system. Structural inequality affects an entire class of people by granting them special access to assistance as a result of their race, ethnicity, gender, class or wealth. Racial disparity is an ever growing problem within the criminal justice system partly
Criminal Justice System In England
This essay will argue that the Criminal Justice System (CJS) in England and Wales doesn’t provide justice for all. In particular, the institutionally racist nature of the police and courts towards Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME) will be addressed. The ‘Lammy Review’ has been instrumental in outlining the disproportionate representation of BAME groups within the CJS. In a letter addressed to the Prime minister, David Lammy reports the findings from his review. 51% of UK-born individuals from BAME backgrounds believe that the CJS discriminates against certain groups and individuals (Lammy,2016). In comparison, only 35% of the white population born in the UK believe the same statement (Lammy, 2016). Thus, choosing to focus on the
Race And Class : The American Criminal Justice System
In the article “Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System” by David Cole the inequality within the United State 's Criminal Justice System is summarized. David Cole is a graduate from Yale University where he has received his law and bachelor’s degree. He specializes in many different fields of Criminal Justice, and is a fairly well known writer regarding legal affairs and political actions like civil liberties and national security. David Cole writes the article “Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System” based on his views that the justice system to this current day, continues acts of inequality in every criminal case.
The Perception Of The Australian Criminal Justice System Essay
The perception of the Australian criminal justice system’s legitimacy is determined by the actions of three institutions, and the manner in which they address issues of justice within society. For the criminal justice system to be seen with integrity and valued for its role, it is vital that all members of the community see the appropriate rectification of injustices through the police, courts and corrections. However, particular groups within society encounter the illegitimacy and social inequity embedded within these institutions, diminishing the effectiveness to which they fulfill their role. For women in particular, the institutions of the criminal justice system are notably unethical in their treatment of both victims and perpetrators of crime. Despite many reforms and recommendations for change, the criminal justice system ultimately fails in achieving justice for women, with the courts demonstrating the most significant attempt to eliminate social inequality and victimisation.
The Criminal Justice System Essay
- 5 Works Cited
The criminal justice system is composed of three parts – Police, Courts and Corrections – and all three work together to protect an individual’s rights and the rights of society to live without fear of being a victim of crime. According to merriam-webster.com, crime is defined as “an act that is forbidden or omission of a duty that is commanded by public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law.” When all the three parts work together, it makes the criminal justice system function like a well tuned machine.
Functionalism, Conflict Theory, And Symbolic Interaction
Conflict theory is “A major sociological perspective that sees society as a set of groups in constant competition over wealth, power, and prestige. (Larkin, 2015)” Conflict theory is a more view primarily stating
Conflict theory is the theory that human behavior in social contexts is the result of conflicts between competing groups, as different social groups, be they class-, gender- or race-defined, have unequal power and access to power, yet all groups compete for limited resources. This inevitably gives rise to tension and conflict, albeit often of the subtle variety, as oftentimes the conflicts between groups have been institutionalized in society to such a degree that the conflicts and tensions are such an expected part of society that the conflict, and inequality, itself disappears from public sight, and consciousness. For example, an adherent of a world systems theory of conflict would point to the global competition for resources, particularly the inequality between rich and poor nations struggling to provide the basic necessities of life to their inhabitants, as evidence of global conflict. Conflict theories seek to explain the interactions of groups within society, and assert that social order is preserved involuntarily through the exercise of power one social class holds over another (Lindsey, 2010, 7). The conflict between groups is not always obvious or apparent, so it must be unraveled and examined in order to identify and establish the impact of such conflict on society as a whole, as well as individual members and social groupings.
Essay about The Criminal Justice System in USA
- 9 Works Cited
Moral issues within law enforcement, the courts and the corrections system have made it complex and difficult to navigate fairly throughout the criminal justice system. Enforcement strategies, court practices and the incarceration rates have created discrimination towards minority groups. Carelessness and unintentional actions are moral issues. The criminal justice system has failed to account for operational procedure which creates the perception of discrimination.
- United Kingdom
- Minority group
- Affirmative action
- Ethnic group
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Core of Criminal Justice System
Info: 2647 words (11 pages) Essay Published: 7th Aug 2019
Jurisdiction / Tag(s): US Law UK Law
At the core of the criminal justice system is the delivery of justice for all, by convicting and punishing the guilty and helping them to stop offending, while protecting the innocent. It is responsible for detecting crime and bringing it to justice; and carrying out the orders of the court, such as collecting fines, and supervising community and custodial punishment, therefore it involves a multitude of agencies. An ideal criminal justice system must be able to help reduce crime by bringing more offences to justice, and to raise public confidence that the system is fair and will deliver for law-abiding citizen. In short, an ideal criminal justice system must work to prevent crime from happening in the first place, to meet the wider needs of victims, and to help turn offenders away from crime. According to the academic Herbert Packer, the aims of the criminal justice system can be divided into the due process model and the crime control model. The latter places most importance on convicting the guilty, taking the risk that occasionally some innocent people will be convicted. Therefore, as stated in the question, a crime control central justice may reduce the crime rate by deterrence to the society but as a side effect miscarriage of justice is more likely to be happened.
Then we need to consider that does a crime control model necessarily reduce crime rate. Although the United Kingdom government kept emphasize on the idea of “Get rid of crime”, but the result still unsatisfactory. According to the Home Office, there were around 880,000 “Violence against the person” crimes in England and Wales in 2008-9, equivalent to 16 per thousand people in England and Wales. There were about 50,000 sexual offences during the same period, just under 1 per thousand. Other areas of crime included robbery (80,000; equivalent to around 1.5 crimes/per thousand), burglary (285,000; 5 per thousand) and vehicle theft (150,000; 3 per thousand). Based on the Government’s preferred comparison system, this marked a 7% decline in crime on the year before. However the figure is unconvinced since it includes those plead guilty before trial. Accused may want to plead guilty in return for a lesser sentence because the court will find a plea of guilty with remorse as mitigating factor (Lord Parker in R v Turner).
We should compare these circumstances with those in United State. While the crime rate had risen sharply in the late 1960s and early 1970s, bringing it to a constant all-time high during much of the 1980s, it has drastically declined ever since 1993. One possibility is the introduction of the Three Strikes Law in 1993 by state governments in the United States which require the state courts to hand down a mandatory and extended period of incarceration to persons who have been convicted of a serious criminal offense on three or more separate occasions. However, such result is not necessarily achieved by over emphasized on crime control model. As contrary, striking a balance seems to be a more justify solution. Refer back to the example in the United State, except the strict Three Strikes Law, the legalisation of abortion and increase of the due process rights (since it reduces the possibility of miscarriage of justice) also contribute to the drop in crime rate.
A crime control centred criminal justice system will necessarily deprive the accused rights. Since the police authorities are responsible for crime detection and apprehension of the wrongdoer, they should not be given inappropriate power. Section 1 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) provides the police power to search a person or vehicle in public for stolen or prohibited articles where he has reasonable grounds for suspecting that stolen or prohibited articles could be found. The Criminal Justice Act 2003 extended the power to stop and search to cover searches for articles intended to cause criminal damage. The requirement of reasonable suspicion is intended to protect individuals from being subject to stop and search on a random basis, or on grounds that the law rightly finds unacceptable, such as age or racial background. However, various statutes give specific stop and search powers regarding particular offences. For instance, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, section 23, allows police to stop and search anyone who is suspected on reasonable grounds to be in unlawful possession of a controlled drug. Under section 44 of the Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001, the Home Secretary can secretly authorise the police to carry out random stop and searches in the fight against terrorism without the requirement of reasonable suspicion. The power given to the police seems to be too wide since they had used the power extensively and controversially.
Powers of arrest allow people to be detained against their will. Such detention is only lawful if the arrest is carried out in accordance with the law. Under section 1 of the Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980, the police may lay written information on oath before a magistrate that he has reasonable grounds for suspecting a person had committed an offence or likely to commit an offence. This enables the magistrate to issue an arrest warrant. The police may enter and search premises to carry out the arrest by using reasonable force (section 117 PACE). As stated by Lord Woolf in Castorina v Chief Constable of Surrey, the test for “reasonable ground” is objective. It was enough if the police could show that the existence of facts or information would satisfy an objective observer that the person concerned may have committed the offence (Fox, Campbell and Hartley v United Kingdom). The requirement of a warrant and the test laid down seems to be the safeguards of the suspect’s rights.
However, one can argue that it will be very difficult to challenge the police for wrongful arrest under this objective test. This was shown in Holgate-Mohammed v Duke which stated that the decision of the police can only be challenged if he acted improperly by taking something irrelevant into account (Wednesbury principles). Obviously, this is a low threshold test and there is a danger it will be abused by officers. Furthermore, where there is a breach of the peace or where a person is about to commit a breach of the peace, a police officer can make an arrest without warrant. These powers were increased by the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 which simplified the police powers of arrest, but at the same time they have given the police more powers than they need, and are open to abuse. For example, it will be necessary to carry out an arrest if the person will not give their name and address, or the police officer reasonably suspects that the name or address given is false.
Next, we need to consider the issue of police interrogation. The usual reason for detaining a suspect is so that the police can question them, in the hope of securing a confession. However, instances of miscarriages show that confession can be tampered with or falsified by the police. The suspects may also be threatened or physically abused into confessing even when they are in fact innocent. Fortunately, PACE provides important safeguard to refuse to admit evidence which has been improperly obtained. Under s76, confession evidence is inadmissible if it was obtained through oppression. But this depends on the discretion of the court whether to exclude the confession as unreliable evidence. However, is this safeguard sufficient?
Section 76(2) PACE requires the prosecution to prove beyond reasonable doubt that a confession was not obtained by oppression (which defined in section 76(8) as torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or the use or threat of violence), or otherwise in circumstances likely to render the confession unreliable. These requirements seem adequate to protect the defendant, but the interpretation of the court may render the protection ineffective. For example, the Court of Appeal in R v Fulling ruled that unless the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, harsh or wrongful manner; unjust or cruel treatment of subjects, inferiors; et cetera; the imposition of unreasonable or unjust burdens, the court is unlikely to exclude the evidence. However this threshold seems to be too high for the accused to prove. This can be seen from R v Paris, Abdullahi and Miller, only the repeat shouting to the defendants about what they have to say despite the fact that they had denied involvement over 300 times can be held to be unreliable. Is this always the case? Sometimes single act may sufficient enough to force the defendant to make an incorrect confession.
Since the main propose of the crime control centred criminal system is to convict the guilty, it is understandable that improperly obtained evidence may be used to achieve their aims. Section 76 (confession cannot be obtained by oppression) and section 78 (refuse evidence of any kind if it appears that the admission would have an adverse effect on the fairness of the proceedings that the court ought not to admit it) of PACE expressly provide the court the right to exclude admissibility of evidence improperly obtained by the police. But, since there is no absolute requirement to exclude illegality obtained evidence, has the court strike an appropriate balance? In fact, the court refused to accept evidence of interviews which were not contemporaneously written up because the breach is flagrant, deliberate and cynical. However the court took a very narrow approach to section 78 in R v Latif and Shahzad. The House of Lords allowed the evidence to be admitted although it was obtained by an undercover police by trickery and deception. This seems to be unfair to the defendant since his crime may not be succeed without the help of the police. To date the decision of the court may be different since the enactment of Human Rights Act 1998. Admitting of improperly obtained evidence may result in breach of the Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights: Right to fair trial (Khan v United Kingdom).
The abolition of the right of silence under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 certainly take the balance in favour of the police and the state. Now the jury can draw adverse inferences where a suspect refuse to answer police’s question or fail to account for objects or substances on their clothing when asked to do so. An adverse inference may also be given when the suspect chooses not to give evidence without good cause during the trial itself. There is no conviction based wholly on silence. Where inferences may be drawn from silence, the court must direct the jury as to the limits to the inferences which may properly be drawn from silence. This does not apply to investigations by the Serious Fraud Office, where there is no right to silence. Under Section 49 and Section 53 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA), it is an offence to fail to disclose when requested the key to encrypted data (with a penalty of two years in prison). However, we should consider the effect of the European Court of Human Rights which restrict the impact of these abrogations of the right to silence in domestic law. Although there is no express right to silence on the face of Article 6, the court found such a right to be embodied in the article 6 rights to a fair trial. European Court of Human Rights held in Murray v United Kingdom that drawing inferences from silence is a matter to be determined in the light of all the circumstances of the case. The inroads into the so-called right to silence remain controversial especially given the continuing concern over the effectiveness of safeguards for suspects at the police station and the lack of research data to support police claims that the exercise of the right to silence in a significant number of cases seriously impedes the investigation of offences.
Does it mean higher incident of miscarriages of justice is inevitable due to the lessening of the protections of the accused? Someone may argue that miscarriages of justice is a necessary evil that has to be put up with if the crime control centred criminal justice system maintains. In the high profiled case of the Birmingham Six, the appeal was only succeeded in their third attempt in 1991 because of new evidence of police fabrication and suppression of evidence, the discrediting of both the confessions and the 1975 forensic evidence. It took 16 years for the Six to get their convictions quashed. The Runciman Commission was set up following this case to look into the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and make recommendations for the reform. The Commission recommended that judge may stop any case if the prosecution evidence is demonstrably unsafe or unsatisfactory or too weak to be allowed to go to the jury. The other recommendation was made that wherever a confession has allegedly been made to the police outside the police station, whether tape-recorded or not, it should be put to the suspect at the beginning of the first tape-recorded interview at the station.
The report also led to the creation of the Criminal Cases Review Commission introduced by the Criminal Appeal Act 1995. This Commission can refer possible cases of miscarriages of justice to the attention of the Court of Appeal to prevent the possibility of miscarriages of justice that had occurred in cases like the Birmingham Six and the Tottenham Three. However, the Criminal Cases Review Commission does not have main power to carry out investigation and instead they rely on the police for this purpose; this is doubtful whether the commission is fully effective. The other problem need to be addressed is the racist attitude of the police force which led to more stop and search is conducted on ethnic minorities as reported in the Macpherson Report.
As a conclusion, it is obvious that the criminal justice system should not over emphasize on the crime control model. Instead, we must also take into account of other aims of the system such as rehabilitation and protection of the accused due process rights. A criminal justice system that balances different objectives has a higher chance of producing a model acceptable to society as a whole. However, striking for a hundred percent balance between the two controversial models could be impossible. But since the Human Rights Act 1998 came into the picture, the system should be further reformed to be compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights. For instance, in Caballero v United Kingdom, the Government accepted that the law on bail breached Article 5 of the Convention and the domestic law was reformed as a result.
- Bailey,S.H. and others, Smith, Bailey & Gunn On The Modern English Legal System (5th edition, Sweet & Maxwell, 2007)
- Elliot, Catherrine and Quinn, Frances, English Legal System (8th edition, Pearson Education, 2007)
- Martin, Jacqueline, The English Legal System (5th edition, Hodder Headline, 2007)
- Gearey, Adam and others, The Politics of The Common Law (1st edition, Routledge-Cavendish, 2009)
- Morrison, W.J. and Gearey, A., Common Law Reasoning and Institutions (2007, University of London Press)
- Associated Content, Analysis of the Crime Control and Due Process Models, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/14223/analysis_of_the_crime_control_and_due.html?cat=37
- Crimes Stoppers, Latest Crime Statistics, http://www.crimestoppers-uk.org/crime-prevention/latest-crime-statistics
- Criminal Cases Review Commission, About Us, http://www.ccrc.gov.uk/about/about_28.htm
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Restorative Justice As A Component Of The Criminal Justice System In England And Wales
- Topics: Justice
- Words: 2717
- This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.
The Criminal Justice System (CJS) in England and Wales is the major public service set up with the aim to deliver justice to all those that have been effect by crime, to achieve this effectively the CJS consist of multiple government agencies that have been tasked to “ deliver justice for all by convicting and punishing the guilty and helping them to stop reoffending, while protecting the innocent”, (Gardside,2008), other gaols of the CJS include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and to provide moral support for victims.
The CJS consists of several interdependent components and is comprised in three main parts Law enforcement in the form of the police, Courts including the prosecution and defence and Agencies for detaining and supervising offenders such as prisons and probation agencies. Nevertheless, some of the services that are offered by the Criminal Justice System are available from a range of voluntary groups including victim support and Restorative Justice (RJ), (CPS, 2010).
Restorative Justice (RJ) is an approach to justice in which it brings victims, offenders and the community affected by a crime together in a meeting in an attempt to deal with the after effects of a crime or conflict and try to find a way forward and attempt to repair the harm caused, (Crown Prosecution Service, 2017 and Gov.UK, 2015).
Restorative Justice sees crimes as something more than just breaking the law and the crime causes harm to people, relationships and the community and the use of Restorative Justice is a way for the harm to be repaired by all parties involved, (Centre for Justice and Reconciliation 2020).
Restorative Justice is an approach to criminal justice that emphasises on restoring the victim and the community rather than just punishing the offender/s the principles Restorative Justice use are to work with all that are personally involved most importantly are the victim and the offender but this does also include the family’s and the wider community. The use of this process helps reduce crime, violence and bullying it improves human behaviour, strengthen civil society, provide effective leadership restore relationships and repair the harm caused by the crime.
Restorative Justice brings those harmed by crime and those responsible for causing the harm together in a controlled meeting that has been arranged and a trained mediator has worked with both parties in advance, to communicate thus allowing all involved to be part of the of the repairing of the harm caused and to find a positive way forward for all parties involved with the aim to reduce future reoffending,(Wachtel, 2013). The process of Restorative Justice is increasingly being used in Schools, Children services, Workplaces, Hospitals, Communities and the Criminal Justice System, (Gov, UK, 2015). However The use of Restorative Justice can be an extremely challenging for the offender/s as it allows them to see the impact of their crimes and the effect this has had on their victim/s, nevertheless this process can provide the victim with the vital information they need to be able to move forward as Restorative Justice empowers the victim to communicate with their offender/s in order to achieve this potential life changing opportunity.
The Criminal Justice system has the overwhelming task of dealing with the constant and ever growing challenges of lowering the crime rates while enduring to uphold and maintain the public’s confidence in the criminal system (Brooks, 2017,). Restorative Justice could just be the answer the system is looking for as Brooks (2017) states that Restorative justice can lower offender rates by up to 25 percent. However, although this process is popular with the political process in Britain, it comes with its disadvantages as it is primarily only directed at the less serious crimes and youth offenders. On other hand, Marshall (1999) suggests that by using Restorative Justice with the more serious crimes there can be a lot of advantages in terms of the victim benefits, this process should only be used hand in hand with the criminal justice system and not as a substitute.
For many of the victims of crime seeing the offender held answerable for their offences by the use of the judicial system providing the victims with a level of closure thus allowing them to be able to move on from the crimes they have been a victim of is often enough. However, this is not the case with all victims of crime and the judicial process is not enough by itself, (Wright 2012). Restorative Justice is a process that provides the victims a voice that the Criminal Justice system often denies them, (Robb,2012).
Restorative Justice is a process by way of offering victims the opportunity to have their say in the outcome of the offence/s and to have an input into the punishment of the offender providing ways to improve and transform the way the victim’s needs are met, this process also allows the offender to face up to the consequences of their actions and the impact these have had on others, (Ministry of Justice, 2012).
Restorative Justice is a process set up to address some of the failings including the limits and failures of the criminal justice system, (Zehr, 1990).
“Crime is a violation of people and relationships. It creates obligations to make things right. Justice involves the victim, the offender, and the community in a search for solutions which promote repair, reconciliation and reassurance. (Zehr, 1990: 118).
Victim satisfaction plays a critical and substantial part in police-victim encounters and this can play a primary and essential role in the willingness of victims to co-operate. With this in mind the victim’s willingness plays an extremely significant part of the process that allows Restorative Justice to continue to work successfully on behalf of the victim/s, (Aihio, 2017). It was suggested by Camp and Wemmers, (2013) that victimology studies have revealed that procedural justice such as Restorative Justice does continue to make a difference to the victims of crime in the terms of how the criminal justice system deals with the cases as they go through the system.
For the purpose of this research project the definition of satisfaction that will be used is “the Fulfilment of one’s wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure” (English Oxford Living Dictionary’s, 2019). The Restorative Justice movement is a societal programme that is looking to work with and alongside the current punitive measures that are used by the Criminal Justice system, (Johnstone and Van Ness, 2007).
Restorative Justice (RJ) is as defined by the Ministry of Justice is “The process that brings those harmed by crime, and those responsible for the harm, into communication, enabling everyone affected by a particular incident to play part in repairing the harm and finding a positive way forward” (Ministry of Justice, 2014 p3). However, the term Restorative Justice has been used as a way to reference the fact Restorative Justice has a large range of approaches and not one single practice (Brooks, 2017). Although a jointly recognised and concise definition of the term has yet to be established T, F Marshall’s (1996) definition appears to encompass the main principles of Restorative Justice and is perhaps one of the most used, “Restorative justice is a process whereby all parties with a stake in a particular offence come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future” (p. 37; cf Braithwaite, 1999, p. 5). However, this quote suggests that the topic possibly becomes problematic to debate due to the large range and variety restorative Justice has to offer, (Brooks, 2017). For the purpose of this dissertation this is the definition for Restorative Justice that will be used.
Restorative Justice was a fairly fresh idea in the field of criminology in the 1980’s nevertheless it was also a recent, new concept that has not been seen and used in the United Kingdom (Daniels, 2013). Crawford and Newburn (2002) likewise states that Restorative Justice has been renowned as maybe one of the most extremely influential developments in crime control in today’s society. Restorative Justice is a process that was introduced to concentre mainly on the victim and the process of the Criminal Justice System as Christie (1977) states that the objective of Restorative Justice is for the offence to belong to the victim just as equally as it does to the offender Christie, (1977), cited that, “Not only has he or she suffered, lost materially or become hurt, physically or otherwise …but above all he has lost participation in his own case. It is the Crown that comes into the spotlight, not the victim. It is the Crown that describes the losses, not the victim. It is the Crown that gets the chance to talk to the offender, and neither the Crown nor the offender is particularly interested in carrying on that conversation. The prosecutor is fed up long since. The victim would not have been. He might have been scared to death, panic-stricken, or furious. But he would not have been involved. It would have been one of the most important days in his life. Something that belonged to him has been taken away from the victim. (1977: p7-8).
Christie (1977) states that the victim is the one that constantly misses out twice once as the victim of the original offence but then furthermore as a victim of the Criminal Justice System as there is an extremely improbable chance of being paid compensation for their loss. Furthermore, they play a very small role in whatever legal proceedings that follow nevertheless the use of Restorative Justice hands back this right and power back to the victims of crime.
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Restorative Justice was originally introduced during the 1970s to manage low level crimes including burglary and other property crimes, however there was a confusion by the victims that Restorative Justice was about forgiveness, (Zehr, 2014). Zehr, (2014) also suggests that some victims do not have any understanding or belief in Restorative Justice as they are of the opinion that the fundamental destination of this process was to encourage or to persuade them to forgive their offenders.
Restorative Justice practices does in large rely on voluntary cooperation of all parties involved this limits the options available as if one or all parties involved are unwilling to take part than the matter must be dealt with by the formalities of the Criminal Justice system. Restorative Justice is largely centred around the restoration of both the victim/s and offender/s of crime this is achieved by returning the offender back in the community as a law abiding citizen and for the victim providing them with the closure they need to move on with their life after the crime, and to help the wider community as a whole, (Marshall,1999).
Newburn (2017) states that Restorative Justice measures are primarily aimed at just the youth offender/s rather than the adult offender/s also that Restorative Justice is only primarily used for the less severe crimes. Notwithstanding there are cases of successful Restorative Justice outcomes in relation to the more severe crimes, conversely if this is the case why is Restorative Justice not being offered on a larger scale and across all levels of crime. However, the reason for holding back Restorative Justice is solely put done to just two types of crime these are corporate crime and Domestic Violence, it is considered that these crimes are inappropriate to work with Restorative Justice.
The definition of Domestic Violence as stated by Victim Support is ‘Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, verbal, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners, or intimately related within a family or domestic setting, regardless of gender or sexuality. Domestic violence involves abuse of power and control by one person over another and typically escalates in frequency and severity over time”, (Victim Support 2003, p.2).
Liebmann (2007) p. 268 states that nevertheless, many victims of domestic violence end up not taking the matter further and returning to their abusive situations, so prosecution does not deliver a resolution for everyone. However, Collins (2017) points out that the primary concern for domestic violence cases and the use of Restorative Justice is intimate partner violence this is a crime in which violence is caused by a partner against their current or former partner.
Despite these concerns raised by Collins (2017), the Restorative Justice Council states that Restorative Justice can have many major benefits for victims that have been affected by all crime types in certain circumstances. However, the council must ensure that the victims safety is maintained throughout the criminal process if indeed this is the cases and Restorative Justices is suitable for all crime types why is it not used in more cases of all crimes that a victim/s has been affected, this is the aim of the questions put forward in this dissertation.
Restorative Justice can be accessed at any point of the Criminal Justice System there are currently five identified points where the offender/s may be referred to a Restorative Justice Programme there are as follows, Police (Pre-charge), Crown (Post-charged), Courts (pre-sentence), Corrections (post-sentence) and Parole (pre-revocation).
Victim support states that for Restorative Justice to work effectively with offenders and victims. RJ can only take place with the agreement of all those involved mainly the victim/s and the offender/s, conversely there are many things that must be taken into account before any such meeting can be held. One of the most significant considerations to take in terms of RJ is the offender must have taken responsibility for their actions and the harm they have inflicted, even if this has taken place the individual in charge of the case may feel that Restorative Justice is not safe or suitable for all stakeholders involved, and finally Restorative Justice still may go ahead even if a direct meeting is not acceptable this can take place for example by communication by letter.
Gaudreault, (2005) indicates that many studies have shown that victims would be prepared to take part in Restorative Justice programmes if they had been given the opportunity to do so as seen in Gavrielides, (2018) found in his study that amongst the victims they surveyed 85 percent had never been offered the chance to take part in any such programme.
“Restorative Justice can be a real force for good both for the person harmed and the offender”, (Rt Hon Lord Justice Fulford, Senior Presiding Judge, 2015-16). Government research indicates that Restorative Justice provides an 85 percent of victim satisfaction rate and a further 78 percent said they would recommend Restorative Justice to others in the same situation and a 14 percent reduction in reoffending rates after Restorative Justice. An advantage of Restorative Justice could lead to savings to our courts and the criminal justice system of £185 over two years, (Restorative Council, 2016).
The house of commons Justice committee states that Restorative Justice should be made available at any point of the criminal justice system, however despite the Crime and Courts Act 2013 allowing pre-sentence Restorative Justice to take place the victims commissioner found that this was not the case and it was only being offered at certain stages of the criminal justice system, (The House of Commons, 2016,).
The 14 percent in the reduction of offender rates proves beneficial as the Home Office and Ministry of Justice 2015 states that the cost of re-offending is to cost the UK taxpayer an estimated £9.5 Million to £13 billion per year.
Restorative Justice can be highly successful in servicing the needs of both the victim and the offender. Nevertheless, this is limited as such programmes are scattered and in turn are isolated from the mainstream Criminal Justice System this means that the actions of both are pulling in opposite directions, (Marshall,1999).
One limitation of victim offender mediation is the commitment on behalf of the offender to change their ways and to stop committing crime this can be seen in the lack of follow up support provided to the offender, (Marshall,1999).
Umbreit, Coates, and Kalanj, (1994), suggests however that victims and offenders who took part in Restorative Justice programs received better outcomes than those who did not participate.
Hill (2002) suggests however, that one of the main reasons for the small amount of victims taking part in Restorative Justice was that victims refused to use Restorative Justice this was mainly for two reasons one was due to a lack of interest and the other was due to misunderstanding of what the process entailed
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The Use of Social Crime Prevention Techniques in the UK Essay
Introduction, situational crime prevention (scp) technique, social crime prevention, “role of crime & disorder reduction partnerships”.
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In the United Kingdom, the crime prevention texture has changed significantly over time. Beginning from the year 1980, prevention of crime has shifted from “being of trivial intellectual interest to become a major concern of governments” (Bajpai, 2003, p.11). The trend that can be clearly seen is that the U.K government is making efforts to promote the policies that contribute towards the realization of the safety of the community as well as crime reduction and not “essentially launching ‘crackdown on crime’ type approach” (Bajpai, 2003, p.11). Looking at the history of the U.K’s crime prevention, a clear picture is seen of shifting agenda of main concerns on this subject (O’Malley & Hutchinson, 2007). Both the situational and social crime prevention techniques have been applied in the whole range of the crime reduction and prevention initiatives that were carried out by law enforcement agencies. This paper is going to look at how both situational and social crime prevention techniques are used within the U.K and also at how different agencies within the community safety partnerships have helped to facilitate such projects.
The SCP is typically defined as “involving the management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment” (Hough, et al, 1980, p.1). This results from a thinking pattern and taking action about the crime problem which is different from the traditional responses of criminal justice. It focuses on the offense rather than on the offender. It is based on the notion that the opportunities that promote committing crimes are built in the immediate environment within which crimes take place. The measures or techniques used in situational crime prevention are intended to pass across a message to the potential criminals that the efforts needed to carry out crime and the associated dangers have been magnified, and also that the benefits which can be realized by engaging in crime have diminished to a significant level. Situational crime prevention undertakes the application of greatly specific techniques “in the opportunity reduction for offending behavior” (Bajpai, 2003, p.20). In the U.K. various such managerial, as well as technological measures, have indicated promising results. These measures’ performance was revealed in a number of evaluation researches that were conducted in the United Kingdom. Clarke (1997) has engaged in developing a “16-techniques model” for the opportunity lessening which is being employed in all places with suitable modifications. These include; target hardening, defecting offenders, entry and exit screening, and formal surveillance among other measures. One of the best examples of measures related to SCP that has been used in the United Kingdom is CCTV. It is estimated that, in the U.K., there are more than four million cameras. Beginning from the mid-1990s, the U.K government has engaged in investing a large amount of money in the local schemes which are operated by the local authorities as well as crime prevention partnership and there is widespread utilization of CCTV in public places such as the shopping centers, hospitals and schools among other places. Having such wide usage, a conclusion can be drawn that CCTV is an effective measure for preventing crime. Those who support the use of CCTV present an argument that these cameras serve as a warning, while its ability to facilitate storing of images and “to track perpetrators of crime in real-time means that it also assists in crime detection, and gathering evidence for court cases” (Gilling, n.d, p.21). The supporters also present an argument that in an era where there is a lack of security, it plays a reassurance role, enabling people to have a complete feeling of safety in their day-to-day life. Certainly, the role played by CCTV is of great significance to a level that it is increasingly being considered as very essential for public facilities as well as residential space. The evidence for the clear success of the CCTV is very easy to come across. It is pointed out that “crime-related CCTV footage, and the resultant ‘catch’, make up a significant proportion of the ‘infotainment’ diet that currently occupies television programming schedules” (Gilling, n.d, p.21), while the news broadcasts have clearly given an illustration of the CCTV virtues in “piecing together the movements of suspects in high profile cases as the 7 July London bombings” (Gilling, n.d, p.21). Research also exists which has given an indication of, for instance, a remarkable decrease in the levels of crime as a result of bringing in the implementation of the CCTV schemes in certain areas (Welsh & Farrington, 2002).
This is a label that covers a wide range of interventions and ideas that are geared towards preventing criminality. It is referred to as “social” since its focus is on people and not on situations and on the motivating or disposing of factors for people to commit criminal activities. While prevention of crime as a distinctive policy area external to the ‘criminal justice system’ has shifted to the front, “it would be fair to say that compared to situational approach, the social approach has played much more of a back-seat role” (Gilling, n.d, p.24). However, a large number of the interventions for social crime prevention have been there for a while, as either components of social policy, instead of ‘criminal justice policy, or for the reason that “they have resonated with criminology orthodoxies that have moved in and out of political fashion” (Gilling, n.d, p.24). However, according to Gilling (2007), among the people who have engaged in promoting community safety, social crime prevention has gone through a smaller revival. It is pointed out that there is the interpreting of social crime prevention as undertaking reinforcement of social bonds as well as social controls; this implies making it possible for the social units to have self-regulation in a more effective way ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d). This contributes directly to the idea of “community-based crime prevention” that has as well been promoted in the years that have just passed ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d). The programs for crime prevention which are community-based have made attempts to involve several agencies in the U.K and they have also been trying to utilize both the situational as well as social techniques in promoting crime prevention, reducing fear and ensuring the safety of the community ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d). Certainly, efforts have been made by the U.K government to engage in stimulating this form of activity. For instance, in the year 1984, there was a circular that put emphasis on the need to employ a partnership approach between the local government and police in order to make sure that there was an all-inclusive “crime prevention strategy” to have a safe United Kingdom ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d). In the process of promoting the “community-based” crime prevention measures, the U.K government emphasized the significance of making the responsibility to be wider to a level where “preventing crime is a task for a whole community” ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d, p.58). That which was referred to as “the multi-agency approach” turned out to be the official principle “underlying a wide range of new projects” ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d, p.58). In general terms, there were targets to include both the social and situational crime prevention measures ( The growth of crime prevention, n.d).
“Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships” consist of the local authorities, police, and other businesses and organizations which have come together with an aim of developing and undertaking the implementation of strategies put in place to deal with disorder and crime at a local level (Bajpai, 2003). It is reported that, in England and wales, there exist three hundred and seventy-six partnerships (Bajpai, 2003, p.15). The “Crime and Disorder Act, 1998” puts the responsibility on the police, probation committees as well as local authorities among other relevant parties to offer cooperation in developing and also in implementing a strategy aimed at dealing with disorder and crime within their region. These parties have to put into consideration the transformed working practices, inner priorities as well partnerships they have with the larger community and with other agencies. The partnerships are undertaking their operations to bring down the level of crime and disorder within their area through various ways. One of the ways is by establishing the levels of the problems of crime and disorder within their zone and engaging in broader consultations with the local people in order to ensure the perception that the partnerships have goes in line with that of the local population and particularly the minority groups like homosexuals and ethnic minority members. Another way is by coming up with a strategy that carries with it measures that are aimed at dealing with the priority issues. The duration of the strategy is three years; however, the partnerships have to keep on reviewing it.
In the U.K, there has been the use of both situational and social crime prevention techniques. Among the best example of understanding how situational crime prevention in the U.K has been carried out is by considering the use of CCTV in this country. Estimates have been made that in the U.K., there are more than four million CCTV cameras in use. It has also been found out that in the course of boosting the “community-based” crime prevention techniques, the U.K government has been stressing the significance of making the responsibility to be wider to a level where crime prevention is the responsibility of the entire community. It has also been found out that in the U.K, partnerships are working to bring down the level of crime and disorder within their area through various ways. Among these ways is by establishing the levels of the problems of crime and disorder within their zone and engaging in broader consultations with the local people with an aim of making sure that the perception that the partnerships have are in conformity with that of the local population and mostly the minority groups.
Bajpai, G.S 2003, Crime reduction through situational crime prevention: a study in the United Kingdom. Web. Clarke, R 1997, Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies , Harrow and Heston, New York. Gilling, D 2007, Crime Reduction and Community Safety: Labor and the Politics of Local Crime Control , Willan, Cullompton. Gilling, D n.d, Crime prevention. Web. Hough, M, Clarke, R, & Mayhew, P. 1980, Designing Out Crime , HMSO, London. O’Malley, P, & Hutchinson, S 2007, ‘Reinventing prevention: why did ‘crime prevention’ develop so late?’ British Journal of Criminology , Vol. 47, no.3, pp.373–89. The growth of crime prevention, n.d. Web. Welsh, B. & Farrington, D 2002, Crime Prevention Effects of Closed Circuit Television: a Systematic Review . Home Office Research Study 252 Home Office, London.
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The UK Criminal Justice System
Show More Furthermore, the United Kingdom law enforcement consists of a force with nation-wide authorities and regional units. In this format it is quite similar to the system in the United States. Still the UK police are more closely interlocked by statutory regulations, which bind the country together through exposure and deterrence of crime (Dixon, 1929, p. 178). The regional UK crime unit is composed of territorial police forces and National Law Enforcement bodies. They have a Chief Constable who resembles a U.S. sheriff and a National Crime Agency that performs the same tasks as the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the States. The largest compilation of police lies in the British Transport sector due to thousands of miles of railways in Britain. …show more content… 5). Once the juvenile is in the custody of the local police they start an investigation into the amount of evidence to prove if they are guilty. As the UK process continues the facts of the case are passed to the district lawyers from the probation office. If the petition passes then the young offender can be released on bail to the parents or a shelter until the hearing takes place. Most of the time these juveniles are released on first time offense or with a minor charge (Dunkel, 2014, p. 34). If they are charged with a crime the next part is an arraignment, which starts the cycle of adjudication. Making a plea is now an option when in the past only parents had the right to decide what was best for their child. The following route through youth court is similar to the adult procedure except there is typically no jury present. Only a judge will make the final decision. In some situations with serious delinquency the youth court might send the investigation to the Crown Court where there are more adult-like proceedings. The juvenile is soon convicted and the reports are conducted by the probation officers and various representatives to either conclude in numerous fines or the occasional youth detention center. For the latter, it depends on if the juvenile is between fifteen and eighteen years old. Over the past couple of decades Britain has focused more on diverting the youth from adjudication, while trying to legislate strategies like the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act in 1994, the Crime and Disorder Act in 1998, and the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act in 1999 (Terrill, 2010, p.
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Incarceration And The Criminal Justice System
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Why Criminals Reoffend
The topic of my EPQ is “why do criminals reoffend?” in this topic I will be looking into criminal behaviour and the criminal justice system in the UK. In my study I will look at this issue of why criminals reoffend. I will start with some statistics on reoffending then look at the theories, and then at the public and their victim of serious criminals. In the second half of this essay, I will be arguing as to whether the present system works well in the interests of society. This research will…
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Argumentative Criminal Justice Essay Topics
Published by Ellie Cross at May 18th, 2022 , Revised On December 23, 2022
Are you looking for some interesting and compelling criminology and argumentative criminal justice essay topics ?
Well, sit back and read! Because this article lists many argumentative criminal justice essay topics that are sure to inspire you. Student engagement with criminology and criminal justice has been rising in recent years.
One can observe this emerging practice in European countries, the US, and other countries worldwide. As the number of violent incidents and crimes increases, most students want to learn about criminology and criminal justice to play their part in improving their respective communities.
The term “criminal justice” refers to a combination of customs and practices to regulate social behaviour, reduce crime, and restrain those who refuse to obey the law. It is a sub-category of law. It is an area of law that many students struggle with because of the involvement of complex concepts. A criminal justice essay needs to demonstrate thorough research and knowledge of the subject. It puts you in a position where you present a solution to address a moral problem.
This blog post looks at some topics for argumentative criminal justice essays to help you write your essay on a fascinating subject and hook the readers. One well-known fact about criminal justice essays is that they need you to delve into more depth and find entities to refer to, judicial findings to rely on, and provide substantial evidence to back up your arguments.
Writing an argumentative essay begins with a topic, as with every paper you’ve ever had to write. If you have not yet decided on a topic for your criminal law essay, or if you are finding it difficult to choose an appropriate argumentative criminal justice essay topic, we have listed some very interesting topics for you. Let’s scroll down to check them out!
Many people ask whether or not the justice system is equitable and accountable since some people have faith in the justice system. In contrast, others occasionally suffer from its repercussions.
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- Understanding the categorization standards for criminals
- Felon disenfranchisement: A thorough study
- Working to reduce crime – Students have a lot of work to accomplish.
- Understanding the expertise in criminal justice
- An examination of unjust convictions in criminal justice
- Have the aims of the judicial system’s sentence been met?
- Is plea bargaining a viable option in the US legal system?
- Is it true that the insanity defence in the criminal justice system helps offenders avoid punishment?
- What can be done to avoid unjust convictions?
- In what ways does the criminal justice system contribute to inequality?
- Is it appropriate to rely on DNA technology in criminal justice?
- Is there an absolute role for evidence in the criminal justice system?
- What kind of ethical code should the legal system have?
- What is the most problematic abuse of power in the criminal justice system?
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Argumentative Criminal Justice Essay Topics about Jail and Prisons
Criminal justice essays’ most common arguable areas are prisons and detention centres. We have picked out the most controversial topics for you;
- In jails, are ethnic minorities treated fairly?
- Is it true that private prisons are intrinsically flawed?
- Are private prisons simply a means of profiting from crime?
- Is gender segregation making jails more violent?
- How can we ensure that jails do not become training and recruiting sites for criminals?
- Is restrictive housing more effective than prisons in terms of rehabilitation?
- Is solitary confinement a punishment that is cruel and unusual?
- Economics of Criminal Justice
- The prison pipeline and procedural justice
- How government funds prisons.
- How are prison women dealt with?
- What is the relationship between drug addiction and incarceration?
- What is the history of county jails in the United States?
- The criminalization of mental illness.
- There have been several prisons in the history of our country.
- What are the main characteristics of prison overcrowding?
- Procedural justice and the penitentiary system are interrelated.
- What can be done to improve health care in prisons?
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Argumentative Criminal Justice and Society Essay Topics
- What are the different laws on parental abscission?
- Social anthropology and criminal justice are interrelated.
- What is the most effective method to help abused children?
- What are our position on social cohesion and criminal justice?
- Human trafficking on the internet is of great concern.
- What are the implications of economic crimes?
- How can we prevent young people from becoming criminals?
- What role does the culture of guilt play in mind control?
- What is the difference between cyberstalking and cyberbullying?
- Criminal justice, sociology and psychology are all topics that come up.
Criminal Justice and Police related Essay Topics
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of communities opting for community policing?
- The link between police ethics and criminal justice ethics.
- What is the effectiveness of predictive policing?
- Make a list of recent incidents of police corruption.
- How to Prevent crime at home?
- In the military, police recruitment is crucial.
- The role of police in community relations is crucial.
- Make a list of cases of police violence.
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of training in crisis intervention?
- The advantages and disadvantages of funding police forces
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Miscellaneous Criminal Justice Essay Topics
- What are the different types of serial killers?
- What is the connection between lawbreakers and ethics?
- Explain the differences between distributive and criminal justice.
- What are the benefits of victim assistance?
- What is the role of the witness protection programme?
- What is the link between cognitive impairment and the criminal justice system?
- What is the escalating sentence?
- What is the relationship between enforcement and justice?
- What privileges are granted to offenders?
Argumentative Criminal Justice and Death Penalty Essay Topics
- Can the death penalty be inflicted on juvenile delinquents?
- Is the death penalty an effective means of deterring crime?
- Is it true that the death penalty in one first world country encourages its use against political opponents in other countries?
- Is it true that the death penalty is intrinsically unjust?
- Which method of carrying out the death penalty is most humane?
- What role does race play in the imposition of the death penalty?
- Is it true that the death penalty is a violation of human rights?
- Should the death penalty be compassionate or inhumane to achieve greater deterrence?
- What are the ethical problems of the death penalty?
- What are the current death penalty procedures in the world?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of the death penalty?
- What is the basis for capital punishment?
- Which offences are deserving of the death penalty?
- Is the death penalty going to be abolished in the future?
Criminal Justice and Racism Essay Topics
- A relationship exists between racism and criminology.
- The link between race and criminality
- Race-based crime stereotypes
- What is racial profiling and how does it work?
- Typical racial profiles of criminals
- In what ways is the justice system discriminatory in different countries?
- True or false: does race have an impact on criminal justice?
- Discrimination against women in the legal system
- Theory of racial discrimination
- Racial discrimination through hate crime
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Women, Crime and Criminal Justice Essay Topics
- What is the greatest way to avoid being raped on a date?
- Is there a link between drug usage and criminology in women?
- How do you feel about gender stereotypes in the criminal justice system?
- Recidivism and women’s relationship.
- What impact does law enforcement have on domestic violence?
- The relationship between women and the death penalty.
- What is the most effective way to avoid domestic violence?
- What is the relationship between feminism and criminal justice?
- What effect do sex offender rehabilitation programmers have?
- What are the pros and downsides of keeping a sex offender’s record?
Argumentative Juvenile Justice for Criminal Justice Essay Topics
- Explain The Act on Juvenile Justice for Young People.
- What role does juvenile justice play in society?
- What is the relationship between subcultures and criminal justice?
- What role do minors have in the death penalty?
- Explain what the word “youth gangs” means.
- What exactly is a juvenile court?
- Explain what the word “street gangs” means.
- What effect does the juvenile justice system have on repeat offenders?
- When it comes to minor criminals, what is the maximum sentence?
- What is the best method for preventing juvenile crime?
Criminal Justice Topics about Forensic and Criminology
- What difficulties does a criminal investigator face?
- What role does technology play in forensic science?
- What exactly do you mean when you say “forensic science”?
- Explain “plea bargaining” with criminology.
- Make a list of the latest foreign discoveries.
- What exactly do you mean by the term “Marxist criminology”?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of the work of a forensic pathologist?
- What is the connection between criminology and criminal justice?
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Justice System and Criminal Justice Essay Topics
- The role of juries in the criminal justice system?
- What is the role of a code of ethics in the legal system?
- What is the role of a criminal defence lawyer in the criminal justice system?
- The importance of criminal justice in society.
- What impact do mental illnesses have on the legal system?
- Explain how the justice system is unjust.
- What can be done to avoid wrongful convictions, and what are the consequences?
Of course, these are not all the topics for argumentative essays on criminal justice devised by our experienced writers to aid you with your challenging essay submissions. But we have strived to cover a wide range of criminal justice essay topics for our students. It is important to follow ethical guidelines while writing any law or criminal law paper. Even if you choose to write about controversial topics, always try to be courteous and civil!
Points to Remember
- Ensure that your topic is not too broad or too narrow. Pick a topic that can be argued, preferably one that interests, baffles or excites you. Draft a list of your arguments. Specifically, what is your objective? The point you are trying to prove, be it an opinion, a viewpoint or an underlying idea? Before starting to write, you ought to have a clear idea of what you want to accomplish.
- Your essay has to be written for a certain audience. So who are the readers of your essay? Are they a specific group – uninvolved bystanders, opponents of your point of view, etc.? Perhaps you are addressing your peers with your writing. Approach your lecturer to determine who your target audience should be. If you are unsure who your target audience is, address your arguments to everyone.
- Powerful essays present arguments that are supported by facts. The main arguments that support your claim or argument are called rationales. They are often answers to the question: “How do you derive this argument?” For brevity, reasons can also be referred to as “because-phrases”. Underpin your arguments with adequate facts to support your justifications and make your arguments effective.
- Like any other essay, it is recommended to revise your argumentative essay a couple of times. Remember to cover the following points in your essay; “Give plenty of facts, which are presented fairly and factually, and be responsive to your opponent’s point of view. Pay extra attention to the way your essay is structured. Make sure the format is appropriate to your topic and audience. Include appropriate segues that help the reader follow your argument and identify and correct logical errors.”
- Once you have completed a well-written draft, take off the writer’s hat and replace it with the audience. Proofread your essay attentively and rigorously. To get comments on your essay, share a draft with your friends. Carefully revise your work based on your classmates’ evaluation and feedback. Afterwards, you are all set to hand in your essay.
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