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10 Great Essay Writing Tips
Knowing how to write a college essay is a useful skill for anyone who plans to go to college. Most colleges and universities ask you to submit a writing sample with your application. As a student, you’ll also write essays in your courses. Impress your professors with your knowledge and skill by using these great essay writing tips.
Prepare to Answer the Question
Most college essays ask you to answer a question or synthesize information you learned in class. Review notes you have from lectures, read the recommended texts and make sure you understand the topic. You should refer to these sources in your essay.
Plan Your Essay
Many students see planning as a waste of time, but it actually saves you time. Take a few minutes to think about the topic and what you want to say about it. You can write an outline, draw a chart or use a graphic organizer to arrange your ideas. This gives you a chance to spot problems in your ideas before you spend time writing out the paragraphs.
Choose a Writing Method That Feels Comfortable
You might have to type your essay before turning it in, but that doesn’t mean you have to write it that way. Some people find it easy to write out their ideas by hand. Others prefer typing in a word processor where they can erase and rewrite as needed. Find the one that works best for you and stick with it.
View It as a Conversation
Writing is a form of communication, so think of your essay as a conversation between you and the reader. Think about your response to the source material and the topic. Decide what you want to tell the reader about the topic. Then, stay focused on your response as you write.
Provide the Context in the Introduction
If you look at an example of an essay introduction, you’ll see that the best essays give the reader a context. Think of how you introduce two people to each other. You share the details you think they will find most interesting. Do this in your essay by stating what it’s about and then telling readers what the issue is.
Explain What Needs to be Explained
Sometimes you have to explain concepts or define words to help the reader understand your viewpoint. You also have to explain the reasoning behind your ideas. For example, it’s not enough to write that your greatest achievement is running an ultra marathon. You might need to define ultra marathon and explain why finishing the race is such an accomplishment.
Answer All the Questions
After you finish writing the first draft of your essay, make sure you’ve answered all the questions you were supposed to answer. For example, essays in compare and contrast format should show the similarities and differences between ideas, objects or events. If you’re writing about a significant achievement, describe what you did and how it affected you.
Stay Focused as You Write
Writing requires concentration. Find a place where you have few distractions and give yourself time to write without interruptions. Don’t wait until the night before the essay is due to start working on it.
Read the Essay Aloud to Proofread
When you finish writing your essay, read it aloud. You can do this by yourself or ask someone to listen to you read it. You’ll notice places where the ideas don’t make sense, and your listener can give you feedback about your ideas.
Avoid Filling the Page with Words
A great essay does more than follow an essay layout. It has something to say. Sometimes students panic and write everything they know about a topic or summarize everything in the source material. Your job as a writer is to show why this information is important.
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Agriculture is an integral part of smart growth. The ability to feed one's own population is critical to the independence of any state. Ontario is blessed with resources that have facilitated the development of a worldclass agricultural industry that provides safe, nutritious, and reliable food. The ability to feed the local population from local sources should not be underestimated.
Perhaps because of its long-term presence in the study area, agriculture tends to be taken for granted. Many people expect that it will continue in perpetuity and that as it is pushed out of one area by urban expansion, it will relocate in another area that is less subject to growth pressure. This assumption is false.
Agriculture is a diverse industry with very specific locational connections. Certain crops can only be grown in specific locations where the combination of a variety of factors including soil, moisture, temperature, and topography is right. When such areas are lost to agriculture, the ability to produce the crops that require that particular combination of factors is also lost. The public needs to understand that agricultural land is a nonrenewable resource requiring appropriate management techniques. Before allowing land to go out of production, decision makers must consider the implications of that decision and evaluate it in terms of the long-term loss to Ontario.
Preserving the quality of life is perhaps the most fundamental goal of smart growth. A healthy agricultural industry close to urban areas contributes to the quality of life in ways that should not be underestimated. This contribution can be evaluated in terms of:
- the national security value of being able to provide a secure and nutritious food supply;
- the economic value of a world-class industry run by experienced and knowledgeable operators;
- the social value of providing products in response to the demands of a changing ethnic population seeking alternative foods;
- the recreational value of being able to travel to pick-your-own operations and spend time in a rural setting;
- the direct environmental value of improvements to the quality of the environment;
- indirect environmental value in the preservation of green space, habitat, and wildlife corridors;
- public health value in maintaining control over the food supply and the ability to regulate how it is grown and what techniques are used to grow it; and
- historic value, in that agriculture is part of the history of the settlement of Ontario.
Benefits such as these all need to be considered during the development of a smart growth strategy.
The challenge of the smart growth initiative will be to establish an environment that will allow the continued existence of a healthy agricultural industry. Competing demands for land will have to be balanced against the benefits of maintaining a healthy agricultural base. To date, the Ontario government has supported a policy that nominally protects agricultural land. However, when faced with demands for urban expansion, growth has usually taken precedence. This trend is eating away at the resource. Hard decisions must be made about what will be protected, where it will be protected, how it will be protected, and whether a healthy agricultural industry is a government priority.
This will not be an easy task; forecasting is never easy. The agricultural industry has advanced greatly in the past few decades. What was not possible 20 years ago is now routine. Crops that were unheard-of are now common, growing seasons can be extended, land that had little value 20 years ago is now some of the most profitable land in production.
Agricultural policies must be flexible enough to accommodate further changes. The basic building blocks, including land and work force, must be preserved and allowed to respond to advances in technology. When an opportunity arises, the land and personnel must be there to seize on it.
For the agricultural community, uncertainty is a major issue. Farmers are used to dealing with uncertainty related to weather, they expect it and are prepared for it. What they do not expect and cannot deal with is ongoing economic uncertainty, uncertainty related to the legislative context within which they must work, uncertainty about land use controls or environmental regulations. The pervasive pessimism among even the most successful farmers needs to be addressed. The average age of farmers is rising and the pessimistic attitude discourages the younger generation from entering the sector.
Regulation of this sector is often rigid. Traditionally, issues have been compartmentalized and dealt with individually. This is the antithesis of what a successful farm operation requires, where issues are inter-related and need to be considered together. Rigid regulations that are slow to change preclude the flexibility the industry needs to be successful. To preserve agriculture, it is not enough to preserve the land; society must also preserve the farmer. For this to happen, farmers must operate in an environment where they are certain of the rules and can respond quickly to changing local, national, and international markets.
The Smart Growth panel has a difficult job. To respond to the mandate of "steering growth pressures away from significant agricultural lands", a strategy that is both rigorous and flexible is required. Rigour will be required to withstand the considerable pressures on agricultural land and the agricultural community. Flexibility is needed to provide an environment in which farmers can operate successfully.
Essay on Agriculture in English for Children and Students
Essay on Agriculture in English for Children and Students: Agriculture is known to be one of the most significant economic activities. It involves the production of plants, livestock, fiber, fuel and more by utilizing natural resources such as water and land. The term agriculture is broader than it is commonly anticipated to be. It includes forestry, fishery, livestock and most importantly crop production. Agriculture sector is also one of the largest employers across the world, mainly in developing and under developed nations. Millions of people around the world, directly or indirectly depend on agriculture sector for their livelihood. It is an activity which provides our everyday requirement of food, vegetables, fruits, spices etc.
Long and Short Essay on Agriculture in English
Here are essay on agriculture in English of varying lengths to help you with the topic in the exam.
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These Agriculture Essays will let you understand the meaning of “agriculture” and the significant role it plays in the overall economic growth and prosperity of a nation.
After going through the following Agriculture essay you will be able to understand the advantages of agriculture.
These essays will be helpful during several of your school assignments. You can select any agriculture essay as per your need and interest.
Agriculture Essay 1 (200 words)
Agriculture is basically the cultivation of plants for the production of food, fuel, fiber, medicines and many other things that have become a necessity for the mankind. Agriculture also involves the breeding of animals. The development of agriculture turned to be a boon for the human civilization as it also gave way to their development.
Agriculture is said to be an art, science and commerce all at the same time as it suffices the factors involved in all three.
It is said to be an art as it involves the growth, development and management of crop and animal husbandry. It requires patience and dedication to yield good results in this field and only someone who possesses this art can achieve it.
The knowledge of breeding and genetics is employed to come up with new improved methods of agriculture. Several inventions and explorations are being made in the field. It is ever evolving and thus qualifies as science.
Agriculture supports the economy like no other sector and thus undoubtedly falls in this category too.
With around two-third of the Indian population dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture, it is considered to be the basis of the country’s economic development. It is not just known to be a source of livelihood in India but a way of life.
Agriculture Essay 2 (300 words)
The term agriculture comes from the Latin word ager which means field and cultura that means cultivation. Agriculture basically involves the cultivation and production of crops and livestock products.
History of Agriculture
The history of agriculture dates back several centuries. It began in different parts of the world independently about 105,000 years back mostly by the collection of wild grains for the purpose of eating. Here is how different countries were involved in this activity:
- In Mesopotamia, pigs domesticated around 15,000 years ago. They began domesticating sheep around 2000 years later.
- In China, rice cultivated around 13,500 years ago. They eventually began cultivating soy, azuki beans and mung.
- In Turkey, cattle domesticated around 10,500 years ago.
- Beans, potato, coca, llamas and alpacas domesticated around 10,000 years ago.
- Sugarcane and certain root vegetables were cultivated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago.
- Cotton was domesticated in Peru around 5,600 years ago.
Similarly, the domestication of various plants and animals is being done in many other parts of the country since thousands of years.
Impact of Modern Technology on Agriculture
The development in the field of science and technology led to the use of modern techniques in agriculture. While it has contributed a great deal to the development of the agriculture sector, the modern technology has also had certain negative repercussions on the sector. Here is the kind of impact it has had:
- The use of fertilizers and pesticides as well as the use of technologically advanced equipments for the cultivation of crops has increased the yields drastically however it has also been the cause of ecological damage and impacted the human health negatively.
- Selective breeding and the use of other modern practices in the rearing of animals has increased the supply of meat however it has raised the concern about animal welfare.
Like every other sector, the agricultural sector has also evolved over the centuries and its development has brought about certain positive and negative repercussions to the society.
Agriculture Essay 3 (400 words)
Agriculture is a vast subject. It encompasses the production of crops, animal husbandry, soil science, horticulture, dairy science, extension education, entomology, agriculture chemistry, agri engineering, agri economics, plant pathology and botany. These subjects taught in various universities across the world to train people in the field.
Different Kinds of Farming
Here is a look at how the agricultural field has broadly categorized in our country:
One of the most widely practiced technique of farming in India. Under this type of farming, the farmers grow grains for themselves as well as for the purpose of sale.
This type of agriculture focuses on high yield with the aim to export it to other countries to generate profit. Some of the commonly grown commercial crops in the country include cotton, wheat and sugarcane.
This type of farming majorly practiced by tribal groups to grow root crops. They mostly clear the forested area and grow crops there.
This is more common in the developed countries. However, it also practiced in certain parts of India. It focuses on the use of machinery to grow and raise crops.
This a common practice in densely populated areas of the country. It focused on generating maximizing output of the land by employing different techniques. A good amount of investment in terms of money and huge labour force required for this.
This type of agriculture involves the cultivation of crops that require a good amount of time and space for growing. Some of these crops include tea, rubber, coffee, cocoa, coconut, fruits and spices. This is mostly practiced in the states of Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala.
The areas that receive heavy rainfall well irrigated and these are apt for the farming of crops such as jute, rice and sugarcane.
Dry Land Farming
It practiced in desert-like areas such as the central and northwest India. Some of the crops grown in such areas are bajra, jowar and gram. This is because these crops require less water for growth.
With the advancement in technology, agriculture has come a long way. It not limited to just growing crops and rearing of cattle. It includes a whole lot of other subjects and someone who interested in getting into the agricultural field can choose to specialize in one.
Agriculture Essay 4 (500 words)
Agriculture basically involves the cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals for the purpose of generating food and other things necessary for the mankind. While it practiced since centuries, it evolved over the time and has become one of the major factors in the development of our country’s economy.
Significance of Agriculture
Here is a look at the significance of agriculture:
Major Source of Food
It goes without saying that the food we eat is a gift of the agricultural activities that take place in the country. The country seen times of acute food shortage before independence however the problem resolved with the advent of the green revolution in agriculture in the year 1969.
Major Contributor to National Income
Statistics reveal that, the national income from primary agricultural activities was about 59% in the year 1950-51. While it has come down eventually and reached around 24% about a decade back, the agricultural sector in India is still one of the major contributors to the national income.
Development of the Industrial Sector
Agriculture plays a major role in the development of the industrial sector by providing the raw material. Industries such as the cotton textiles, sugar, jute, oil, rubber and tobacco are majorly dependent on the agricultural sector.
The agricultural sector offers numerous employment opportunities as a large labour force required for the smooth functioning of various agricultural activities. It does not only open a vast arena of direct employment opportunities but indirect as well. For instance, the agricultural products need to transported from one place to another and hence it supports the transport sector.
Boost in Foreign Trade
Foreign trade relies majorly on the agricultural sector. Agricultural exports form a good 70% of the total exports. India is an exporter of tea, tobacco, cotton textiles, jute products, sugar, spices and many other agricultural products.
Generation of Government Revenue
Excise duty on agro-based goods, land revenue and taxes on the sale of agricultural machinery make for a good source of government revenue.
Formation of Capital
The surplus income generated from agricultural activities can very well invested in banks for capital formation.
Agriculture: A hazardous Industry
While agricultural sector is of great importance to the country, we cannot deny the fact that is a hazardous industry. Farmers across the globe have a high risk of work related injuries. One of the common causes of agricultural injuries is tractor rollovers and other motor and machinery related accidents. Due to the nature of their job they are also prone to skin diseases, lung infections, noise-induced hearing problems, sun strokes as well as certain types of cancers. Those exposed to pesticides may have serious illnesses and might even have kids with birth defects.
However, that said, agriculture does play a significant part in the development of the human civilization as a whole. As Booker T. Washington said, “No race can prosper till it learns there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem”, agriculture sector is an integral part of the country.
Agriculture Essay 5 (600 words)
Agriculture is one sector that has been in place since thousands of years. It has developed over the years with the use of new equipments and techniques of farming and domestication. This is one sector that has not only seen immense growth but has also been the reason for growth of various other sectors.
The Growth and Development of Agricultural Sector
India is one such country which is largely dependent on the agricultural sector. Agriculture in India is not just a means of livelihood but a way of life. The government is continually making efforts to develop this sector. Let us learn how this sector has evolved with time.
Though agriculture is being practiced since centuries in India, it remained under developed for a pretty long time. We were unable to produce sufficient food for our people and foreign export was simply out of question. On the contrary, we had to purchase food grains from other countries. This was because agriculture in India depended on the monsoon.
In case, enough rain, the crops fertilized properly, when there wasn’t enough rain the crops just failed and most parts of the country were hit by famine. However, things changed with time. After independence, the government planned to bring about improvement in this sector.
With the use of technologically advanced equipment, good irrigation facilities and with specialized knowledge about the field things began improving. We soon started producing much more than we required and subsequently started exporting food grains and different agricultural products. Our agricultural sector is now stronger than that of many countries. India stands first in the production of groundnuts and tea and ranks second in the production of sugarcane, rice, jute and oil seeds across the globe.
However, we still have a long way to go and the government is making efforts in this direction.
Negative Repercussions of Agriculture on Environment
As much as it has helped in the development of the human civilization and the growth of the country’s economy, agriculture has also had certain negative repercussions on the people involved in this sector as well as the environment as a whole. Here are the negative repercussions of agriculture on environment:
- Agriculture has led to deforestation. Many forests cut to turn them into fields to cultivate crops. The negative impacts of deforestation and the need to control hidden from none.
- Not many of you may be aware that the building of watersheds and draining of water from the rivers for irrigation of fields leads to drier natural habitats.
- The runoff from the fields into the rivers and other water bodies results in that water getting poisoned owing to the use of excessive nutrients and insecticides.
- Topsoil depletion and groundwater contamination are some of the other issues that the agricultural activities have given way to.
Agriculture has thus impacted the soil and water resources negatively and this has had a major impact on the environment.
Agriculture also considered to be a hazardous occupation. Those involved in farming constantly exposed to different chemical based fertilizers and pesticides and the continual use of these can lead to several health hazards such as skin diseases, lung infections and certain other serious illnesses.
While agriculture given so much to our society, it comes with its own set of cons that cannot overlooked. While the government is doing so much to bring about growth and development in this field, it should also take measures to tackle the negative impact it is creating on the environment and those involved in the field.
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Essay on Agriculture
500+ words essay on agriculture.
In India, agriculture is considered a primary livelihood for most of the population, which can never be underestimated. Agriculture has existed for thousands of years in our country and has developed with new technologies and equipment that replaced traditional farming methods. In India, few farmers still use the traditional farming method because they lack the resources to use modern techniques. Agriculture is the only sector that contributes to itself and other country sectors. India is the second-largest wheat, rice, cotton, fruit, vegetables, and tea producer. It is also a global powerhouse of agricultural production. It is the world’s largest producer of spices, milk, wheat, rice and cotton.
Role of Agricultural in Economic Development
The population of India largely depends on agriculture, and it is not only just a means of livelihood but a way of living. The Government of India is continuously developing the agricultural sector by framing new laws, implementing modern technology, etc. In India, the entire nation depends on agriculture for food. In earlier times, agriculture was mainly dependent on the monsoon, but dams, canals, pump sets, and tube wells are now being constructed.
Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economic development of India as 3/4th of the population is based on agriculture. It is one of the largest sources of livelihood for the country. The country was dependent on agriculture for a thousand years.
The agricultural sector also benefits the industries in getting their raw materials, which clearly states that a large part of the economy will freeze without a flourishing agriculture sector. It leads to the expansion of the industrial sector. Indian agriculture provides employment opportunities to most people, and 70% of the population, especially in rural areas, earn their livelihood from cultivation.
In India, agriculture plays an imperative role in enhancing foreign exchange. To other nations, India exports commodities such as coffee, spices, tea, vegetables, tobacco, etc. Agriculture contributes to Indian exports. With the invention of organic farming, exports have also increased in the last few decades.
Negative Impact of Agriculture for the Environment
Agriculture contributes to numerous environmental issues that cause environmental degradation, including deforestation, dead zones, irrigation problems, soil degradation, pollutants, and waste.
One of the significant negative aspects of agriculture is deforestation. Many forest lands are converted into agricultural land, which leads to cutting down the trees. Extensive water use from small rivers and ponds for irrigation leads to destroying natural habitats as it dries off the ponds and rivers.
Moreover, the chemicals and fertilisers used for agricultural purposes contaminate the land and water bodies, leading to topsoil depletion and groundwater contamination.
Agriculture is one of the primary sectors of contribution towards the Indian economy. Still, its negative impacts are harmful to the environment and the people involved in this sector.
Agriculture is the Indian economy’s most important sector, and India’s farm sector is the largest industry. With constant changes and developments happening and introduced policies, it will only go upwards. It will always remain a significant factor in the nation’s economic growth.
An essay on Agriculture is crucial that can be asked during the exam. Students can also access CBSE Essays from our BYJU’S website.
Frequently asked Questions on agriculture Essay
Where was agriculture originally developed.
Agriculture was developed in the modern day Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, parts of Turkey and Iran which was also known as the Fertile Crescent.
What are the main types of agriculture?
The four main types of agricultural activities include livestock production, crop production, agricultural economics and agricultural engineering
What are agricultural methods which are famous in India?
The majority of Indian farmers practice subsistence farming which involves cultivation of crops on small pieces of lands.
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Essay on Sustainable Agriculture
Introduction: what is sustainable agriculture, importance of sustainable agriculture, population growth, per capita food consumption, sustainable agriculture and technology, green politics, conclusion of sustainable agriculture.
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Sustainable agriculture has dominated the sociological understanding of the rural world largely. Following the enthusiasm around the concept as a means of eradication of poverty and turning the economy to a “resource-efficient, low carbon Green Economy” 1 . Global population, and consequently consumption has increased. However, technology development has matched the demand for food in terms of food production, but the distribution of food is not evenly distributed. This has brought forth the question of the possibility of supplying adequate food to the ever-growing global population. Further, the challenges posed by depleting non-renewable sources of energy, rising costs, and climate change has brought the issue related to sustainability of food production and the related social and economic impact of the food production into forefront. This paper outlines the meaning and technology related to sustainable agriculture and tries to gauge its impact as a possible solution to the impending food crisis.
Sustainable agriculture is a process of farming using eco-friendly methods understanding and maintaining the relationship between the organisms and environment. In this process of agriculture and animal husbandry are combined to form a simultaneous process and practice. In other words, sustainable agriculture is an amalgamation of three main elements viz. ecological health, profitability, and propagating equality. The concept of sustainability rests on the principle of not wasting any resources that may become useful to the future generation. Therefore, the main idea of sustainability rests on stewardship of individual and natural resources. Before understanding the technology involved in sustainable agriculture, it is important to know why we need it in the first place.
The rise in population growth and urbanization of people has led to a dietary change of the world population, which now rests more on animal protein 2 . Therefore understanding the demographic changes in the world population has become an important parameter to judge the future demand for food. As population growth rate is the key variable that affects the demand for food, therefore understanding the number of people increasing worldwide is important. According to the UNDP results, the annual population growth rate had declined from 2.2% in 1962 to 1.1% in 2010, however, this increase to indicate an increase of 75 million people 3 . However, this increase in population is not equitably distributed as some areas such as Africa, Latin America, and Asia face a growth rate of 2% while others such as the erstwhile Soviet bloc countries have a negative rate. According to the UNDP predictions, population worldwide is expected to increase to 9 billion in 2050 from the present 7 billion 4 . Therefore, the uncertain growth in population is expected to affect food demand and therefore food production.
Undernourishment is a prevalent problem in the developing world, wherein almost 20% of the developing world that is more than 5 billion people is undernourished. Further, in emerging economies, food consumption is increasing with increased preference for animal protein such as meat, dairy products, and egg. Therefore, the growth of consumption of animal protein has increased the necessity of grazing of livestock, therefore, increasing further pressure on the food supply. It is believed that the increase in the demand for food due to the increase in global population and change in dietary habit of the population. In the past, the demand for food and the rate of production has remained at par, but the unequal distribution of food has led to the major problem in food supply and starvation in various parts of the world. Another problem that food production in the future faces is the constraint of non-renewable natural resources. The most critical resources, which are becoming scant for the future generations are –
- Land : Availability of land globally to cultivate food has grown marginally due to the increase in global population. The availability of land available per person to grow food has declined from 1.30 hectares in 1967 to 0.72 hectares in 2007 5 . Therefore, a clear dearth in agricultural land is a deterrent to future agriculture.
- Water : The world comprises of 70% freshwater resources, available from river and groundwater. Deficiency of freshwater has been growing as usage of water has increased more than twice the rate of population growth 6 . As water is required for irrigation purposes, water availability to is not equally distributed around the world. Therefore, reduced water supply would limit the per capita production of food.
- Energy : Globally, the scarcity of the non-renewable resources of energy is another concern. The global demand for energy is expected to double by 2050, consequently increasing energy prices 7 . Therefore, food production for the future will have to devise a technology based on renewable sources of energy.
The question of sustainability in agriculture arose due to some pressing issues that have limited the utilization of erstwhile processes and technologies for food production. However, it should be noted that sustainable agriculture does not prescribe any set rule or technology for the production process, rather shows a way towards sustainability 8 .
Sustainable agriculture uses best management practice by adhering to target-oriented cultivation. The agriculture process looks at disease-oriented hybrid, pest control through use of biological insecticides and low usage of chemical pesticide and fertilizer. Usually, insect-specific pest control is used, which is biological in nature. Water given to the crops is through micro-sprinklers which help is directly watering the roots of the plants, and not flooding the field completely. The idea is to manage the agricultural land for both plants and animal husbandry. For instance, in many southwestern parts of Florida’s citrus orchards, areas meant for water retention and forest areas become a natural habitat for birds and other animals 9 . The process uses integrated pest management that helps in reducing the amount of pesticide used in cultivation. Sustainable agriculture adopts green technology as a means of reducing wastage of non-renewable energy and increase production. In this respect, the sustainable agricultural technology is linked to the overall developmental objective of the nation and is directly related to solving socio-economic problems of the nation 10 . The UN report states, “The productivity increases in possible through environment-friendly and profitable technologies.” 11 In order to understand the technology better, one must realize that the soil’s health is crucial for cultivation of crops. Soil is not just another ingredient for cultivation like pesticides or fertilizers; rather, it is a complex and fragile medium that must be nurtured to ensure higher productivity 12 . Therefore, the health of the soil can be maintained using eco-friendly methods: Healthy soil, essential to agriculture, is a complex, living medium. The loose but coherent structure of good soil holds moisture and invites airflow. Ants (a) and earthworms (b) mix the soil naturally. Rhizobium bacteria (c) living in the root nodules of legumes (such as soybeans) create fixed nitrogen, an essential plant nutrient. Other soil microorganisms, including fungi (d), actinomycetes (e) and bacteria (f), decompose organic matter, thereby releasing more nutrients. Microorganisms also produce substances that help soil particles adhere to one another. To remain healthy, soil must be fed organic materials such as various manures and crop residues. 13 This is nothing but a broader term to denote environment-friendly solutions to agricultural production. Therefore, the technology-related issue of sustainable agriculture is that it should use such technology that allows usage of renewable sources of energy and is not deterrent to the overall environment.
The politics around sustainable agriculture lies in the usage of the renewable sources of energy and disciplining of the current consumption rates 14 . The politics related to the sustainable agriculture is also related to the politics of sustainable consumption. Though there is a growing concern over depleting food for the future and other resources, there is hardly any measure imposed by the governments of developed and emerging economies to sustain the consumption pattern of the population 15 . The advocates of green politics believe that a radical change of the conventional agricultural process is required for bringing forth sustainable agriculture 16 . Green politics lobbies for an integrated farming system that can be the only way to usher in sustainable agricultural program 17 .
Sustainable agriculture is the way to maintain a parity between the increasing pressure of food demand and food production in the future. As population growth, change in income demographics, and food preference changes, there are changes in the demand of food of the future population. Further, changes in climate and increasing concern regarding the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy has forced policymakers and scientists to device another way to sustain the available resources as well as continue meeting the increased demand of food. Sustainable agriculture is the method through which these problems can be overlooked, bringing forth a new integrated form of agriculture that looks at food production in a holistic way.
Batie, S. S., ‘Sustainable Development: Challenges to Profession of Agricultural Economics’, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 71, no. 5, 1989: 1083-1101. Dobson, A., The Politics of Nature: Explorations in Green Political Theory, Psychology Press, London, 1993. Leaver, J. D., ‘Global food supply: a challenge for sustainable agriculture’, Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 36 , 2011: 416-421. Martens, S., & G. Spaargaren, ‘The politics of sustainable consumption: the case of the Netherlands’, Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, vol.1 no. 1, 2005: 29-42. Morris, C., & M. Winter, ‘Integrated farming systems: the third way for European agriculture?’, Land Use Policy, vol. 16, no. 4, 1999: 193–205. Reganold, J. P., R. I. Papendick, & J. F. Parr, ‘Sustainable Agriculture’, Scientific American , 1990: 112-120. Townsend, C., ‘ Technology for Sustainable Agriculture. ‘ Florida Gulf Coast University, 1998. Web. United Nations, ‘ Green technology for sustainable agriculture development ‘, United Nations Asian And Pacific Centre For Agricultural Engineering And Machinery, 2010. Web. —, ‘ Sustainable agriculture key to green growth, poverty reduction – UN officials ‘, United Nations, 2011. Web.
1 United Nations, Sustainable agriculture key to green growth, poverty reduction – UN officials, UN News Centre, 2011. 2 J. D. Leaver, ‘Global food supply: a challenge for sustainable agriculture’, Nutrition Bulletin , vol. 36, 2011, pp. 416-421. 3 Leaver, p. 417. 4 ibid. 5 Leaver, p. 418. 6 Ibid. 7 Leaver, p. 419 8 J. N. Pretty, ‘Participatory learning for sustainable agriculture’, World Development , vol. 23, no. 8, 1995, pp. 1247-1263. 9 Chet Townsend, ‘Technology for Sustainable Agriculture’, Florida Gulf Coast University , 1998. 10 United Nations, ‘Green technology for sustainable agriculture development’, United Nations Asian And Pacific Centre For Agricultural Engineering And Machinery , 2010. 11 United Nations, p. 17. 12 J. P. Reganold, R. I. Papendick, & J. F. Parr, ‘Sustainable Agriculture’, Scientific American , 1990, pp. 112-120. 13 Regnold et al., p. 112. 14 S. S. Batie, ‘Sustainable Development: Challenges to Profession of Agricultural Economics’, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 71, no. 5, 1989, pp. 1083-1101. 15 S. Martens & G. Spaargaren, ‘The politics of sustainable consumption: the case of the Netherlands’, Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy , vol.1 no. 1, 2005, pp. 29-42. 16 A. Dobson, The Politics of Nature: Explorations in Green Political Theory , Psychology Press, London, 1993, p. 82 17 C .Morris & M. Winter, ‘Integrated farming systems: the third way for European agriculture?’, Land Use Policy , vol. 16, no. 4, 1999, pp. 193–205.
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Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another. Start of Agriculture Over centuries, the growth of agriculture contributed to the rise of civilizations. Before agriculture became widespread, people spent most of their lives searching for food—hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. About 11,500 years ago, people gradually learned how to grow cereal and root crops, and settled down to a life based on farming. By 2,000 years ago, much of Earth’s population had become dependent on agriculture. Scholars are not sure why this shift to farming took place, but it may have occurred because of climate change. When people began growing crops, they also began herding and breeding wild animals. Adapting wild plants and animals for people to use is called domestication . The first domesticated plant was probably rice or corn. Chinese farmers were cultivating rice as early as 7500 B.C.E. The first domesticated animals were dogs ( Canis familiaris ), which were used for hunting. Sheep and goats were probably domesticated next. People also domesticated cattle ( Bos taurus ) and pigs ( Sus domesticus ). Most of these animals had once been hunted for hides and meat. Now many of them are also sources of milk, cheese, and butter. Eventually, people used domesticated animals such as oxen for plowing, pulling, and transportation. Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages. These became linked through trade. New economies were so successful in some areas that cities grew and civilizations developed. The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Kemet (ancient Egypt). Improved Technology For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire. Native Americans used fire to control the growth of berry-producing plants, which they knew grew quickly after a wildfire. Farmers cultivated small plots of land by hand, using axes to clear away trees and digging sticks to break up and till the soil. Over time, improved farming tools of bone, stone, bronze, and iron were developed. New methods of storage evolved. People began stockpiling foods in jars and clay-lined pits for use in times of scarcity . They also began making clay pots and other vessels for carrying and cooking food. Around 5500 B.C.E., farmers in Mesopotamia developed simple irrigation systems. By channeling water from streams onto their fields, farmers were able to settle in areas once thought to be unsuited to agriculture. In Mesopotamia, and later in Kemet and China, people organized themselves and worked together to build and maintain better irrigation systems. Early farmers also developed improved varieties of plants. For example, around 6000 B.C.E., a new variety of wheat arose in South Asia and Kemet. It was stronger than previous cereal grains; its hulls were easier to remove and it could be made into bread. As the Romans expanded their empire, they adapted the best agricultural methods of the people they conquered. They wrote manuals about the farming techniques they observed in Africa and Asia, and adapted them to land in Europe. The Chinese also adapted farming tools and methods from nearby empires. A variety of rice from Vietnam ripened quickly and allowed farmers to harvest several crops during a single growing season. This rice quickly became popular throughout China. Many medieval European farmers used an open-field system of planting. One field would be planted in spring, another in autumn, and one would be left unplanted, or fallow . This system preserved nutrients in the soil, increasing crop production. The leaders of the Islamic Golden Age (which reached its height around 1000) in North Africa and the Middle East made agriculture into a science. Islamic Golden Age farmers learned crop rotation . In the 15th and 16th centuries, explorers introduced new varieties of plants and agricultural products into Europe. From Asia, they carried home coffee, tea, and indigo ( Indigofera tinctoria ), a plant used to make blue dye. From the Americas, they took plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn (maize), beans, peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea ), and tobacco. Some of these became staples and expanded people’s diets. Machinery A period of important agricultural development began in the early 1700s for Great Britain and the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, which lie below sea level). New agricultural inventions dramatically increased food production in Europe and European colonies, particularly the United States and Canada. One of the most important of these developments was an improved horse-drawn seed drill invented by Jethro Tull in England. Until that time, farmers sowed seeds by hand. Tull’s drill made rows of holes for the seeds. By the end of the 18th century, seed drilling was widely practiced in Europe. Many machines were developed in the United States. The cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1794, reduced the time needed to separate cotton fiber from seed. In the 1830s, Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper helped modernize the grain-cutting process. At about the same time, John and Hiram Pitts introduced a horse-powered thresher that shortened the process of separating grain and seed from chaff and straw. John Deere’s steel plow, introduced in 1837, made it possible to work the tough prairie soil with much less horsepower. Along with new machines, there were several important advances in farming methods. By selectively breeding animals (breeding those with desirable traits), farmers increased the size and productivity of their livestock. Cultures have been breeding animals for centuries—evidence suggests Mongolian nomads were selectively breeding horses in the Bronze Age. Europeans began to practice selective breeding on a large scale beginning in the 18th century. An early example of this is the Leicester sheep, an animal selectively bred in England for its quality meat and long, coarse wool. Plants could also be selectively bred for certain qualities. In 1866, Gregor Mendel’s studies in heredity were published in Austria. In experiments with pea plants, Mendel learned how traits were passed from one generation to the next. His work paved the way for improving crops through genetics . New crop rotation methods also evolved during this time. Many of these were adopted over the next century or so throughout Europe. For example, the Norfolk four-field system, developed in England, proved quite successful. It involved the yearly rotation of several crops, including wheat, turnips ( Brassica rapa rapa) , barley ( Hordeum vulgare ), clover, and ryegrass. This added nutrients to the soil, enabling farmers to grow enough to sell some of their harvest without having to leave any land unplanted. Most of the world was not affected by these developments, however. Farmers in Asia, Australia, Africa, and South America continued to use old ways of agriculture. Agricultural Science In the early 1900s, an average farmer in the U.S. produced enough food to feed a family of five. Many of today’s farmers can feed that family and a hundred other people. How did this great leap in productivity come about? It happened largely because of scientific advances and the development of new sources of power. By the late 1950s, most farmers in the U.S. and Europe were using both gasoline and electricity to power machinery. Tractors had replaced draft animals and steam-powered machinery. Farmers were using machines in almost every stage of cultivation and livestock management. Electricity first became a power source on farms in Japan and Germany in the early 1900s. By 1960, most farms in the U.S. and other heavily industrialized countries were electrified. Electricity lit farm buildings and powered such machinery as water pumps, milking machines, and feeding equipment. Today, electricity controls entire environments in livestock barns and poultry houses. Traditionally, farmers have used a variety of methods to protect their crops from pests and diseases. They have put herb-based poisons on crops, handpicked insects off plants, bred strong varieties of crops, and rotated crops to control insects. Now, almost all farmers, especially in largely industrialized nations, rely on chemicals to control pests. The definition of “pest” ranges from insects to animals such as rabbits and mice, as well as weeds and disease-causing organisms—bacteria, viruses, and fungi. With the use of chemicals, crop losses and prices have declined dramatically. For thousands of years, farmers relied on natural fertilizer —materials such as manure, wood ash, ground bones, fish or fish parts, and bird and bat waste, called guano—to replenish or increase nutrients in the soil. In the early 1800s, scientists discovered which elements were most essential to plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Later, fertilizer containing these elements was manufactured in the U.S. and in Europe. Now, many farmers use chemical fertilizers with nitrates and phosphates because they greatly increase crop yields. However, pesticides and fertilizers have come with another set of problems. The heavy reliance on chemicals has disturbed the environment, often destroying helpful species of animals along with harmful ones. Chemical use may also pose a health hazard to people, especially through contaminated water supplies. Agricultural scientists are looking for safer chemicals to use as fertilizers and pesticides. Some farmers use natural controls and rely less on chemicals. Farming in Water Agriculture includes such forms of cultivation as hydroponics and aquaculture . Both involve farming in water. Hydroponics is the science of growing plants in nutrient solutions. Just one acre of nutrient solution can yield more than 50 times the amount of lettuce grown on the same amount of soil. Aquaculture—primarily the cultivation of fish and shellfish—was practiced in China, India, and Kemet thousands of years ago. It is now used in lakes, ponds, the ocean, and other bodies of water throughout the world. Some forms of aquaculture, such as shrimp farming, have become important industries in many Asian and Latin American countries. Climate change and improved technology are altering the way freshwater and ocean fisheries operate. Global warming has pushed warm-water species toward the poles and reduced the habitats of cold-water species. Traditional fishing communities in both developed and developing countries find the number of fish dwindling. Bottom trawling has affected ocean ecosystems. In bottom trawling, enormous nets are strung from fishing boats and dragged at the bottom of the ocean. The nets catch halibut and squid, but also stir up sediment at the bottom of the ocean. This disturbs the marine life (plankton and algae) that forms the basis of the food chain. Genetic Modification For centuries, people have bred new types of plants and animals by random experimentation. During the 1950s and 1960s, scientists developed new strains of high-yield wheat and rice. They introduced them into Mexico and parts of Asia. As a result, production of grain soared in these areas. This bold experiment in agriculture has been called the " Green Revolution ." With the successes of the Green Revolution came problems. To produce high yields, the new strains required chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. In partially or moderately industrlaized countries, independent farmers cannot afford the new technology and big business has taken over agriculture. The new, high-production crops also put stress on native plants and animals. Later, scientists and farmers understood why the new strains developed. This gave rise to a new green revolution: genetic modification of food. Inside every cell are genes, material that determines many of the characteristics of an organism. Genetics is the study of what characteristics organisms inherit and how these traits are transmitted. With a greater knowledge of genetics, people can scientifically select characteristics they want to reproduce. New technology has revolutionized the selective breeding process in both plants and animals. Beginning in the 1970s, scientists found that they could rearrange genes and add new ones to promote disease resistance, productivity, and other desired characteristics in crops and livestock. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs or GM foods) are now common throughout the nations in the heavily industrialized nations. Biotechnology allows scientists to alter the DNA of microbes, plants, and animals. GMOs that have genetic material, or DNA, from other species are called transgenic organisms. A gene from an Arctic plant, for example, could be added (spliced) into the DNA of a strawberry plant to increase the strawberry’s resistance to cold and thus extend its growing season. The strawberry would be a transgenic plant. Businesses sell farmers genetically modified seeds that resist certain pesticides and herbicides produced by the company. (Herbicides kill weeds and other plants that threaten the crop.) With these seeds, farmers can use toxic chemicals without harming the crop. Biotechnology has brought advances in animal husbandry (ranching, or the raising of domestic animals). Today’s farm animals are larger and grow faster than their ancestors. Cattle, for example, are grazing animals. Their digestive system has evolved to process grasses and other crops. Corn and other grains cause a cow’s digestive system to become acidic. That makes it easier for dangerous bacteria (such as E.coli ) to develop. Bacterial infections can be harmful to the cow, and can also infect their milk and meat consumed by people. Antibiotics are spliced into the DNA of feed corn to prevent such infection. Antibiotics have been used since the 1950s to stimulate cattle growth. Over time, this practice has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in cattle and people. Many cattle are also given anabolic steroids, or growth hormones, to make them get bigger, faster. The controversies surrounding GM foods are enormous. Farmers who grow GM foods increase production with less labor and less land. Many consumers favor GM foods. Vegetables and fruits last longer and are less likely to bruise. Meats are fattier—more tender and salty. Critics argue that GM foods have less nutritional value and decrease biodiversity . The organic and "free-range" food industries have grown in opposition to " factory farming ." Most of the world’s farmers live in sparesely industrialized countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Many of them cultivate land as their ancestors did hundreds or even thousands of years ago. They do not use industrial agricultural technology involving expensive chemicals or production methods. These people are subsistence farmers. They use the bulk of the food they produce for themselves and their families, unlike commercial farmers, who mainly grow crops to sell. Methods of Cultivation Agricultural methods often vary widely around the world, depending on climate, terrain , traditions, and available technology. Low-technology farming involves permanent crops: food grown on land that is not replanted after each harvest. Citrus trees and coffee plants are examples of permanent crops. Higher-technology farming involves crop rotation, which requires knowledge of farmable land. Scholars and engineers not only use crop rotation and irrigation, but plant crops according to the season, type of soil, and amount of water needed. In coastal West Africa, farmers, usually women, plant corn soon after the first rains of the growing season. They often use an ancient method of clearing called slash-and-burn . First, the farmer cuts all the brush in her plot. When this vegetation dries, she sets fire to it. The heat from the fire makes the soil easy to turn, and the burned vegetation fertilizes it. The farmer then sows kernels of corn saved from the previous year’s harvest. Between rows of corn, the African farmer plants other staple crops: legumes , such as peas, or root vegetables, such as yams. This practice of growing several crops in the same plot is called intercropping. By covering most of the ground with vegetation, intercropping prevents moisture loss and soil erosion from seasonal rains. Rain supplies water for the growing plants. The farmer weeds her plot with a hoe. At harvest time, she and her family pick the corn, husk it, and spread the ears in the sun to dry. They grind the dried corn to make porridge. Traditionally, the African farmer uses the same plot for several years, until its fertility declines. Then she moves to another plot, leaving the first to lie fallow for up to 10 years. Now, an increasing population has caused fallow periods to be reduced and has made permanent cultivation more common. Agricultural methods used in the Corn Belt of the U.S. are very different. The Corn Belt is the area of the northern Midwest where most of the nation’s corn crop is grown. First of all, farmers rarely work alone—the size of American farms requires a lot of labor. Soon after they harvest the corn in autumn, farmers work leftover vegetation, or stubble, into the soil. In the spring, farmers work the soil again, using an implement with rows of sharp-edged steel discs, called a disc harrow. The discs cut into the soil, breaking it into smaller pieces and supplying it with air. Next, a tractor-pulled planter sows rows of seed. The machine makes furrows in the soil, drops in kernels of high-yield, genetically modified corn, and covers them with dirt. After the corn seeds have sprouted, another machine injects liquid fertilizer into the ground. The farmers then use chemicals to control weeds and pests, and loosen the soil with a tractor-pulled cultivator during the harvesting season. U.S. industrial farmers may plant a thousand acres of just corn. The practice of specializing in a single crop is known as monoculture . To harvest the crop, farmers use a mechanical harvester that picks the ears of corn and shells them into a bin. Little of the corn grown in the Corn Belt is for human consumption. Most of the corn grown in the U.S. is for cattle feed and industrial uses, such as corn syrup sweeteners. Livestock From alpacas ( Lama pacos ) in Peru to zebus in India, billons of domesticated animals around the world are raised and cared for in a variety of ways. In many countries, domesticated animals are an important source of food. In Nigeria, for example, the Fulani people have long been nomads. They move with their cattle herds from one grazing area to another. The cattle feed on scrub and grasses in land unsuitable for farming. The Fulani rely on cattle for milk, but rarely slaughter their animals for meat. Throughout the U.S., beef cattle are bred to grow quickly and yield large quantities of fatty meat. When they are five to 12 months old, the animals are shipped to feedlots. There, they are kept in pens and fed grain and vitamin supplements until they reach market size. Then they are slaughtered. The two ways of raising livestock are confronting each other in the developing world. In Uganda, Ankole cattle have been bred to withstand the harsh climate of Central Africa—their long, curved horns help distribute heat and their digestive systems have adapted to poor nutrition and little water. However, the market for milk has driven many Ugandan farmers to import Holstein cattle. Holsteins are native to Northern Europe. Keeping them healthy in an equatorial region requires a high amount of antibiotics, vaccines, and other chemicals. The Ankole, which produce little milk and leaner meat, may be extinct within the century. Many farmers throughout the world practice free-range poultry farming. The birds forage for food in farms or community yards, eating whatever they find: seeds, insects, household scraps, and surplus grain. In many highly industralized countries, poultry production has become a major agricultural industry. Birds are given the same sort of vaccines and hormones used for cattle. Chickens are bred for either eggs or meat. One poultry house may contain more than a million birds. Often, machines automatically provide feed and water, collect the eggs, and remove waste. Fight Against Hunger Food production must keep pace with population growth and distribution methods. This is an enormous agricultural and political challenge. The challenge is not food shortages but unequal distribution of the world’s food supply. The ratio of population to farmable land has favored some countries more than others. Some experts believe countries' government policies have hindered equal food distribution. Droughts, floods, and other disasters continue to cause local food shortages. Overpopulation also contributes to unequal distribution of food resources. Much of the population increase over the next 100 years will occur in partially and moderately industrialized countries, where hunger is sometimes a serious problem. Exporting food or agricultural technology from countries with surpluses to those with shortages will not solve the problem of world hunger. Not all nations have the money to buy all the food they need and do not want to permanently rely on other countries. Many countries also regard biodiversity as an important resource and do not want to threaten it with GMOs. Experts believe that the hunger problem will be solved in two ways. First, citizens of all countries need to have the ability to grow or purchase their own food. Second, citizens of all countries need to have responsible diets and spending habits. What about addressing the problem of overpopulation? Agricultural science will help countries adjust to healthier methods of food production. Scientists are developing new high-yield varieties of crops that require fewer fertilizers or pesticides. Such crops reduce the need for using costly chemicals and trade. The challenges of feeding the hungry cannot be met unless the world’s land and water are safeguarded. Agricultural practices have led to a severe loss of valuable topsoil, water, and other resources. Many countries need better programs for replanting forests. Overpopulation has pushed a growing number of farmers onto lands too fragile to sustain cultivation. Demand for food has led to increased irrigation worldwide. In some areas, irrigation has caused water tables to drop, rivers to run dry, and wells to go empty. Agricultural chemicals that increase production often contaminate soil and groundwater and disrupt food chains. Agriculture does not have to harm the environment. By protecting the land, water, and air, and by sharing knowledge and resources, people may yet find solutions for the problem of world hunger.
Touchdown The size of an average farm in the United States in 2007 was 449 acres, or about the size of 449 football fields.
Big Nine Half of the total value of agricultural products in the U.S. comes from nine states.
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The Importance of Agriculture in Developing Countries
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Essay on Agriculture
Agriculture is a very common word which is used almost by everyone. When we talk about agriculture than the very first thing that strikes our brain is, it must be something that is related to farming and farmers. But this thought limits the aspects of agriculture. Agriculture does not only mean the procedure of cropping instead it means much more.
Short and Long Essays on Agriculture in English
Here I have provided you with three different essays that are different in length. With the help of these essays, you will be able to know almost all the aspects of agriculture.
Agriculture Essay 10 Lines (100 - 150 Words)
1) Agriculture is the process of producing crops and rearing animals for gaining profit.
2) Agriculture provides occupation to a huge Indian population.
3) The contributor to India’s more than 15% GDP is agriculture.
4) Agriculture is the occupation that gives us crops to eat.
5) Fruits, pulses, oil, vegetables, etc things are obtained through agriculture.
6) Agriculture also provides us with leather, cotton, wool, and other animal products.
7) Shifting cultivation, dairy farming, grain farming, fruit farming, etc are some types of agriculture.
8) The use of pesticides in agriculture reduces soil fertility.
9) Agriculture is also a contributor to environmental pollution.
10) Agriculture can reduce starvation, poverty, and can raise employment to some extent.
Essay 1 (250 Words) - Meaning and Importance of Agriculture
Agriculture is one of the most important aspects of everyone’s life. It is something that is necessary for the survival of each and every human being. Along with being a necessity, it also helps in the economy of the country.
Agriculture has been derived from two different Latin words, ‘ager’ and ‘cultura’ where ager means ‘field’ and cultura means ‘growing or cultivation’. So the literal meaning of agriculture is the ‘cultivation of fields’.
Agriculture is the process of practicing farming including cultivation of the soil for growing crops, rearing animals, and producing other products such as wool, oil, etc.
Importance of Agriculture
Agriculture plays a vital role in living life. It is impossible for one to sustain his/her life without agriculture as it gives the most usable products of human life such as food, fruits, oil, etc.
The most important aspect of agriculture for human beings is to provide food for people. As we all know that food is the most important thing for the survival, nothing comes before food when it comes to sustaining life, and food is a very important part for everyone’s livelihood, so we can say that agriculture is particularly important because it is our main source of the food supply. It is also the backbone of our economic system. Agriculture not only provides food and raw materials but also employment opportunities to a large proportion of the population.
Agriculture plays a very vital role in our life. Without agriculture, the existence of human beings is not possible as it is the main source of our food supply to sustain on the earth and it also helps to grow our economy across the world.
Essay 2 (400 Words) – Types and Impact of Agriculture
We feel gratitude when we hear the word “agriculture”. Without agriculture, it is not possible to feed ourselves. Our farmers work so hard in the agriculture sector to feed us. They also help to prevent future attacks on us or our neighbor country for food. Our farmers stand for us in any situation by giving food to the world.
Types of Agriculture
There are many types of agriculture; here we will see all the types point-wise and in details:
- Grain Farming
Grain farming is the process of planting a variety of crops which is later harvested at the end of the season. The seeds of the crops are later refined for use. Grains are basically the seeds of the crops planted. In this farming, people from the same family can work on a small piece of land. Grain farming is done for providing food to animals and human beings.
- Shifting Cultivation
As the word shifting has been used, this cultivation is shifted from one place to another. In this cultivation, farmers use a small piece of land for a temporary time and then leave it to abandon until and unless the land gets its fertility back naturally.
- Gardening and Fruit Farming
In gardening and fruit farming, fruits and vegetables are produced on a large scale from a commercial point of view. It requires fewer resources and laborers as compared to grain farming and shifting cultivation.
- Pastoral Nomads
Here pastoral means sheep herding. This is a kind of agriculture that is based on the herding of domesticated animals.
- Dairy Farming
Dairy farming is related to the prolonged production of milk. This procedure is done for producing products like sweets, chocolates, curd, cheese, etc.
Few other types of agriculture are:
- Mediterranean agriculture
- Livestock ranching
- Plantation farming
- Mixed crop and livestock
Environmental Impact of Agriculture
Agriculture has many impacts on the environment. Even if it is very important for sustaining life, it also has some bad effects on the environment. We will see a few impacts one by one point wise:
- The pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture cause pollution.
- Waterlogging and pesticide contamination causes soil degradation.
- Deforestation is also taking place as the forests are being transformed into agricultural land.
- Poor agriculture also leads to climate change.
Agriculture is a very important aspect of each and everyone's life. It is impossible to feed human beings without the help of agriculture. There are many types of agriculture such as grain farming, shifting cultivation, dairy farming, etc. There are some bad impacts of agriculture on our environments such as manures and fertilizers cause pollution, soil loses its fertility and many more.
Essay 3 (500 - 600 Words) – Benefits and Issues Faced in Agriculture
If we generally talk about agriculture then it means that agriculture is related to harvesting and cropping. But in economics the meaning of agriculture is little different, here it does not only mean harvesting or cropping instead it also includes animal husbandry, dairy farming, poultry, fishing, and forestry.
Agriculture in India
No one can deny the fact that agriculture is the backbone of our nation. In the world, India is the second-largest producer of various agricultural products like rice, wheat, sugarcane, etc. It produces more than 280 million tonnes, which contribute more than 15% of India’s GDP [Gross Domestic Product]. Farmers play a vital role in uplifting the economy of India because agriculture forms more than 70% of India’s export capacity.
If we had our food today then we should be heartily thankful to the farmers of our nation. India’s farmers are the most dedicated peasants towards their duties. This is the reason because of which our former prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri termed a coin saying “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan”. The way soldiers of our nation protect our country from enemy attacks, in the same way; farmers of our country feed us daily.
Issues Faced in the Agriculture
Farmers have to face many problems during agriculture. Few of the major problems are discussed below:
As we know that in India, agriculture depends upon the monsoon. Being dependent on the weather condition, area, and yield, the production of crops is liable to substantial variations from year to year in this way the production becomes unstable.
- Land Ownership
In, land ownership, a piece of land is owned by a person. The owner of the land gives his piece of land to poor farmers for cultivation and they charge the cost of their land from the poor farmers.
- Subdivision and Fragmentation of Land Holding
When division takes place among the families then the pots also get divided between the family members. These scattered pieces of land increase the cost of agriculture management and make the agricultural occupation uneconomical.
- Land Tenure
In the procedure of land tenure, a large piece of land is owned by a person and that person decides who can use his land and for how long. This procedure is almost similar to land ownership.
- Grain Storage Problem
Even if there is a good production of crops, sometimes what happens is, farmers, don't get enough space to store their surplus food grains and thus grains are wasted in a large amount.
Benefits of Agriculture:
- It helps in satisfying the hunger of people.
- It uplifts the economy of our country.
- It provides employment to unemployed people.
- It helps in trade.
- It contributes to the government by paying revenue.
From the above discussion, we can conclude that India is the second-largest producer of the product of agriculture. We get benefited a lot by agriculture in many ways; however, people nowadays, are getting distracted from agriculture and moving towards cities for their butter and bread, which is not good for the country and its people.
FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions
Ans . The study of agriculture is called Agricultural science.
Ans . The green revolution is related to agricultural production.
Ans . The title of "Father of the Green Revolution in India" is given to Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.
Ans . The Methane gas is released from the paddy fields.
Ans . The agricultural sector is called the backbone of the Indian economy?
Ans . The first Agricultural University of India was established in Pantnagar that is now in Uttrakhand.
Ans . Grey Revolution is related to the production of fertilizers.
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Harshita Pandey has been a professional content writer, writing online blogs and articles for reputed websites for many years. She is a graduate in philosophy from Banaras Hindu University, BHU (third-best university of India). Writing is her passion from childhood and she loves to play with the words. She loves reading books to enhance her knowledge and also to keep people updated on several topics. She really tries hard to make her writings valuable.
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