Introductory essay

Written by the educators who created Ecofying Cities, a brief look at the key facts, tough questions and big ideas in their field. Begin this TED Study with a fascinating read that gives context and clarity to the material.

Right now, our economy operates as Paul Hawken said, "by stealing the future, selling it in the present and calling it GDP." And if we have another eight billion or seven billion people, living on a planet where their cities also steal the future, we're going to run out of future really fast. But if we think differently, I think that, in fact, we can have cities that are not only zero emissions, but have unlimited possibilities as well. Alex Steffen

The urgency of urban planning today

Within a few decades' time, we can expect the planet to become more crowded, resources more precious, and innovative urban planners increasingly important. By midcentury, the global population will likely top nine billion, and more than half will live in cities. What will these cities look like? Will we have the resources to power them and comfortably provide for their residents? Will global urbanization harmonize with efforts to curb climate change and secure a sustainable future, or are these forces hurtling towards a head-on collision?

The TED speakers featured in Ecofying Cities underscore the urgency, but also suggest that some optimism's in order as they outline the issues and offer imaginative solutions.

There's no single reason for or response to the complex environmental, economic and social challenges that are part of our future in cities. They call for multiple approaches, originating from different sources — individuals, communities, governments, businesses — and deployed at different levels — in the home, the neighborhood, the city, region, nation and across the globe — to respond to the challenges at hand. As Alex Steffen reminds the urban planners, architects, designers, elected leaders and others involved in the effort, "All those cities are opportunities."

Urbanism and the environment: A brief history

For centuries, successful city-building has required careful attention to the environmental consequences of urban development. Without this, as Jared Diamond demonstrated in Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed , a city inevitably ended up fouling its nest, thus entering a spiral of epidemics, economic hardship, decline and, ultimately, oblivion. Civilizations evolved different ways of dealing with environmental considerations — some with more success than others. For example, thanks to elaborate aqueducts and sewer systems, the Romans were able to build and sustain for centuries large cities that featured a reliable public water supply and state-of-the-art public health conditions.

In other civilizations, however, residents simply abandoned cities when they could no longer rely on their environment to supply the resources they needed. Often this was a direct result of their own activities: for example, deforestation and the attendant erosion of fertile soil, epidemics due to contaminated water and, with the advent of coal-fired industrialization, air pollution.

Urban planning got its start as a profession largely dedicated to averting different types of crises arising from urban growth and providing conditions for public health. This was particularly true in the many 19th century European and North American cities transformed by industrialization and unprecedented rates of population growth. Rapidly deteriorating air and water quality made it necessary to introduce regulations to protect the health of the residents of these cities.

The planners' first-generation improvements included sewers, water treatment and distribution, and improved air quality through building codes and increased urban green space. It's especially remarkable today to think that these interventions were adopted in response to observable health consequences, but without knowledge of the contamination mechanisms at work: germ theory didn't arrive on the scene until Louis Pasteur published his work in the 1860s. From the late 19th century onward Pasteur's findings bolstered the case for even more urban sanitation improvements, particularly those designed to improve water quality.

Starting in the 1950s, however, planners no longer narrowly targeted immediate health effects on urban residents as their chief environmental concern. Their work also absorbed and reflected Western society's deeper understanding of, and respect for, natural processes and growing awareness of the long-term environmental impacts of cities from the local to the planetary scale.

Rachel Carson is often credited as the first to popularize environmentalism. Published in 1962, her landmark book Silent Spring sounded a warning call about how pesticides endanger birds and entire ecological systems. Soon after, air pollution became a rallying point for environmentalists, as did the loss of large tracks of rural and natural land to accelerated, sprawling development. Today, sustainable development and smart growth, which largely overlap and address multiple environmental considerations, enjoy wide currency; most urban planning is now based on these principles.

Today, as we reckon with population growth, advancing rates of urbanization, and widespread recognition of climate change, we know that the cities of the future share a common destiny. The choices we make about how we build, inhabit and maintain these cities will have global and long-term effects.

Sustainable development: Two schools of thought

In modern urban planning, there are two general categories of sustainable development. The first doesn't challenge the present dynamics of the city, allowing them to remain largely low-density and automobile-oriented, but still makes them the object of measures aimed to reduce their environmental load (for example, green construction practices). Ian McHarg spearheaded this approach as a way to develop urban areas in harmony with natural systems; the planning principles he formulated gave special care to the preservation of water and green space. His lasting influence is visible in many of the more enlightened suburban developments of recent decades which respect the integrity of natural systems. Today, the Landscape Urbanism movement promotes these same ideas.

A second school of urban development focuses on increasing urban density and reducing reliance on the automobile. This approach advocates transit-oriented and mixed-use development along pedestrian-friendly "complete streets." On a regional scale, it aims to reduce sprawl by creating a network of higher-density multifunctional centers interconnected by public transit. Today, it's common for plans with a metropolitan scope to follow this approach.

Studying the city: About these materials

Cities are arguably the most complex human creation (with the possible exception of language) so it's not surprising that we study them at multiple scales and from diverse perspectives. We can approach cities through a narrow focus on an individual building or a neighborhood, expand the investigation to consider a metropolitan region in its entirety, or study the global system of cities and its interconnections. What's more, we can think about cities as built environments, social networks, modified ecologies, economic systems and political entities. Aware of the multiple ways that we engage with cities, the Romans had two words to refer to them: urbs referred to the physical city with its wall and buildings, and civitas , the city as a collection of residents.

Ecofying Cities explores urban areas at different scales. In some cases, the TED speaker focuses on a neighborhood project, like The High Line in Manhattan; others describe city-wide transformation, as in Curitiba, Brazil, or a regional or national initiative like China's plan for a network of eco-cities to house its growing urban population. Likewise, the talks explore cities from different disciplinary perspectives including urban planning, urban design, transportation planning, architecture, community organization and environmental science. What unites them all? A commitment to sustainability and a belief that sustainability is more about creating positive effects rather than reducing negative impacts.

The message emanating from Ecofying Cities is one of complexity, optimism and uncertainty. We can't be sure that the changes these speakers suggest will be enough to help us balance supply and demand in the sustainability equation. But we can expect that their ideas and efforts will improve the built environment — as well as quality of life — in cities, thereby providing hopeful perspectives for a sustainable future.

Let´s begin with writer and futurist Alex Steffen´s TEDTalk "The Sharable Future of Cities" for a look at the interplay between increasing urban density and energy consumption.

argumentative essay urban planning

Alex Steffen

The shareable future of cities, relevant talks.

argumentative essay urban planning

Jaime Lerner

A song of the city.

argumentative essay urban planning

Majora Carter

Greening the ghetto.

argumentative essay urban planning

Robert Hammond

Building a park in the sky.

argumentative essay urban planning

Michael Pawlyn

Using nature's genius in architecture.

argumentative essay urban planning

William McDonough

Cradle to cradle design.

argumentative essay urban planning

James Howard Kunstler

The ghastly tragedy of the suburbs.

argumentative essay urban planning

Ellen Dunham-Jones

Retrofitting suburbia.

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How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 6, 2021.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

What can proofreading do for your paper?

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.

argumentative essay urban planning

See editing example

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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This page contains the best examples of essays on Urban Planning. Before writing your essay, you can explore essay examples - note their structure, content, writing style, etc. The process of creating an essay about Urban Planning generally consists of the following steps: understanding the assignment, identifying the topic, collecting information, organizing the information collected, developing the main statement, writing a draft. At the editing stage of the draft, its coherence is improved, essential material is added, non-essential is omitted and a smooth transition between the individual parts of the Urban Planning essay is ensured. Then the structure and content of the paragraphs are corrected, individual words and sentences are polished. After editing, the draft is subtracted, and spelling and punctuation errors are corrected.

Essay examples

Essay topics, information.

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Are your career goals related to city-building activity, regional planning, real estate, and community development? Then it will be useful for you to learn more about urban planning essays and the subject in general. The urban planning course explores the challenges faced by rapidly expanding cities. The urban planning issues essay focuses on solving the main problems arising from the complexities of modern urban life: urban design, ecological planning, social services, public management, etc. free paper writing service presents the directory with high-quality academic papers where you can find a masters essay sample, research papers, case projects related to urban planning, and many other useful materials. Sample essays on urban planning will help you to find the most burning issues to make your paper topic powerful and impressive. A good essay example can serve as a guide for your piece of writing in terms of the outline, the content structure, etc. provides students with paper custom services. If you need help with your college application essay, research paper, or any other type of assignment, use the help of our competent writers. We guarantee fast and affordable writing of unique essay examples exclusively for you.

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argumentative essay urban planning

Essay On Urban Planning

Artifact compering early childhood assessments.

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As the world’s population continues to migrate and live in urban areas, planners, engineers, and politicians have an important role to ensure that they are livable and sustainable. But what defines an urban area and what makes it so attractive? In my opinion, urban areas are places that consist of a variety of land uses and buildings, where services and amenities are easily accessible to the general public, and includes an established multimodal transportation network. Also, it should be a place where people can play, learn, work, and grow in a safe and collaborative manner. Based on that definition, the novel, “Parable of the Sower” by Octavia Butler mostly portray cities as a problem due to their lack of safety and the oppression

Argumentative Essay On Affordable Housing

Affordable housing is a necessary requirement in life for people who accept low income and has a good effect for society. According to Tran, (2015) view that, affordable housing is a worthy resource which has great potentialities in the economic system and it has contributed enormously to change the appearance of the metropolis as well as the countryside. The target of affordable housing gives the support to the community. For example, affordable housing can give us benefit in all aspects such as it brings profit in commercial enterprise, improving the standard of animation and an affordable housing can bring down some of the problems which related to the surroundings. As a consequence, the government should make more affordable lodging for

The Elderly Justice Act

The process of aging in not an unfamiliar topic to society and is an inevitable phase of life. Since 2011, the number of older individuals are increasing annually particularly those from the baby boomer generation. The life expectancy has been increasing with people living longer thanks to modern medicine. These occurrences are proof that civilization is growing exponentially, however the process of aging also means that the older individuals are facing dilemmas such as decreased physical functions, financial instability from retirement, and abuse. Even older adults who are independent may face some limitations. To address these issues, Congress has passed several acts to decrease the number of elderly abuse and improve living conditions.

The Pros And Cons Of Biophilic Design

“Biophilic design is the deliberate attempt to translate an understanding of biophilia into the design of the built environment” (Kellert, 2008). It involves building and landscape design that enhance human well-being by fostering positive connections between people and natural environment. It is an innovative design approach that aims to maintain, enhance and restore the benefits of experiencing nature in the built environment. It starts by observing the effect of the mutual interaction between the natural and the built environment. The learned knowledge is then reflected onto the design and construction of the built environment. Utilizing that knowledge in architectural and urban design can guide architecture towards a more humane experience.

Late Adulthood Research Paper

Living arrangements are very important in this development. Retirement, a main change that occurs during this period, is a step that involves living arrangement, change in life style, and possible change in social interaction. Teas and Benignton discuss this retirement stage when living arrangement change and many elders should cope with such change. The idea of retirement has been a recently new accepted life style during late adulthood due to the life expectancy increase and the rise of urban America (1982, pg. 21). Living arrangements do not necessary depict one’s well-being. An elderly could live in a retirement center, nursing facility, or alone with relatives and be in good health or in bad health (Papalia, Feldman, & Martorell, 2012, pg. 541-542). Chronic illness and psychical change will be occurring during late adulthood yet, another focus will be psychological development, which is heavily influenced by the social environment in which one elderly lives and thus brings out the importance of finding good living arrangements. This is a huge factor in many other life stages as well. For instance, “the state of the job market may determine when offspring choose to leave home… [or] when we retire may depend on the provisions of our pension plan. The social environment is no more immune to the passage of time than is the human body” (Teas and Benignton, 1982, pg. 12). Teas and Benignton discuss the industrial and political world developed the idea that the old are less valuable employees then the youth (1982, pg.17). The late adulthood stage needs to express the importance of self-sufficiency, individualism, and even privacy in the psychosocial development. During this time in one’s life they are possibly experiencing great loss of individualism. Kaufman discusses the observation of family members of the elderly who feel they must be the decision

Elderly Population Survey Paper

The research that I am going to be performing during my collection of information will consist of a survey given to doctors, nurses, patients, and family members from several of assisted living communities here in Manhattan. These facilities include: Meadowlark Hills Retirement Community, Via Christi Village, and Stoneybrook Retirement Community. My study lacks the use of funding to help in the development of professional questionnaires, a team to assist in research, and a larger sample size to support a greater collection of information about facility operations, services, and care provided.

Disadvantages Of Energy Efficient Construction

One of the crucial problems that world facing is energy use and energy efficiency is the main solution for this issue. As Juodis (2009) mentioned, term energy efficiency has two meaning, namely minimal consumption of energy and cost-effective energy use which is smallest amount of energy consumption to keep convenient hygiene conditions in a building. Energy efficient construction should be compulsory in Kazakhstan. Such a change would significantly reduce the energy consumption of the country and lead to decrease in consumer expenditure. In addition to economic benefits during the period of ever-increasing prices, energy efficient construction is environmentally-friendly as it does not emit harmful carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Argumentative Essay On Urbanisation

To what extent is urbanization a critical driver of social instability, failure of infrastructure, water crises & the spread of infectious diseases?

Education And Urbanization

Urbanization improves access to basic education for all. Expanding education systems in urban areas is easier and costs less than in rural areas. Thus Africa’s rapid urbanization is expected to increase enrolment, especially at primary level. Indeed, the nature of cities appears to provide incentives for investment in education by residents. Returns to education are generally higher in urban than rural areas—and so literacy rates and enrolment should be higher in urban than rural areas. There is a positive relationship between urbanization and education school enrolment at both primary and secondary level increases with urbanization. While enrolment in primary schools is less than 50% in regions with an urban population share less than 20%,

Public Space Literature

The relation between people and environment will be based on the public space because of this is the good place for people having social action and improve their mental health. This action is not only have meaning in healthy but also in mental. The relation among the quality of the public spatial and the issues of segregation and daily life is the major goal of this paper. Hence, this section will give for the reader the definitions and discussions on the major concepts by review the relevant literature and give the differences brief reports and results.

Essay On Urban Land Use System

To meet the higher urbanization and higher population new infrastructure has to be provided and as well as has to upgrade the current

Essay On Living In Urban Areas

In recent decades, urban cities turned to become an attractive place for people from Different cultures to live in. This movement from different cultures to urban areas caused a significant change and development to urban cities and made it an extrovert area for different backgrounds. Cross (1989) defined culture as “ an integrated pattern of Human behavior that includes thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious, or social group”(p.7). Nowadays, we are living and socializing with different cultures and backgrounds in urban areas, which lead to a significant change in our life. I believe that living in a cultural diversity city make us more extrovert and creative

Essay On Eco Friendly Building Materials

Eco friendly building material is those provide the appropriate service and lifetime, with the minimal maintenance, while minimizing the decimation the raw of material, the pollution from, and also energy consumption by production and use, and that have the maximum potential for the reuse.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Urbanization

“FGHI is a newly resettled urban colony in a big city in India. Most of the inhabitants were engaged in various informal economic sectors in their prior area of habitation.

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Argumentative Essays

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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.

What is an argumentative essay?

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.

Please note : Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises or tests, such as the GED or GRE.

Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.

In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important ( exigence ) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.

Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis ( warrant ).

However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.

The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.

It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.

A complete argument

Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.

The five-paragraph essay

A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.

Longer argumentative essays

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.

Urban Planning Essays Samples That Help You Write Better, Faster & with Gusto

When you need a minor spank to compose a first-class Urban Planning Essay, nothing does the job more efficiently than a top-level sample you can use for inspiration or as a prototype to follow. And hardly can you find a better resource with so many remarkable Essay samples than open-access catalog of Urban Planning papers. Each Urban Planning Essays example you see here can do one or several of these elements for you: give you a hint about an interesting topic; inspire you to come up with a novice perspective on a well-explored subject; demonstrate the best writing techniques you can exploit; and/or present you with proper structure patterns. Apply this valuable wisdom to write an impressive paper of your own or use our pro writers' help to get a custom Urban Planning Essay sample sent right to your email inbox.

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Urban Planning


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              One of the most distinct marks of civilization in the whole world is the formation of informal communities that aim to make the lives of its members relatively more manageable when compared to the times that the group is still not formed. As modernization became an unstoppable trend across many communities, a process of pooling these communities occurred. It resulted to a process that is attributable to the formation of socio- economic and political centers such as cities. Generally, it can be said that cities are considered to be the center of activities from all aspects of humanities; this presupposition relegated urban planning strategies and developments close to the notions of cityhood.

This paper would strike this presupposition down by counter arguing that urban planning need not be compromising in terms of achieving a city- like environment. Adding to this presupposition is the common conclusion that change within cities are caused by moving developments of both materialistic and idealistic natures in the field of city planning (Cooke n.pag.). Among these developments, common foci of studying urban planning such as spatial analysis, urbanization and social networks are put into play. However, in this paper much link will be given to social change in cities being a result of the spatial structuring plan of the cities’ urban planners.

This paper will try to achieve its goals through in depth analyses on two of the most pronounced literatures on urban planning- The Life and Death of Great American Cities and Home: A Short History of an Idea.  Jane Jacob until her death in 2006 is considered to be one of the most influential and successful urban planner in the second half of the twentieth century (Alter n.pag.). Her glory is crowned with her book titled The Life and Death of Great American Cities. On the other hand, Home: a Short Story of an Idea is written by a contemporary popular urban planner-Witold Rybczynski.

He is one of the minds behind the redefining of the term comfort which he believed has been long compromised due to urban developments (Wilson Quarterly 153). His works are being used by many students and even members of the academe of urban planning because of its precisely set conditions in laying down its plan, and also Rybczynski is internationally acclaimed for the aids that he has given to compliment the existing sets of ideologies regarding urban planning.

This paper will be guided by three basic thematic conditions where these books will be studied on. Jacob’s work will be studied in this paper through the controversial issue of American schizophrenia in their actions that can be accounted for in the destruction of nature. Additionally, Jacob’s work will be examined through her rejection in the presupposition that cities have inherent “unnaturalness” and “naturalness” of the suburban. On the other hand, Rybczynski’s work will be explained through its underlying principle on the importance of comfort through the approaches of materialism and even fetishism.

Jane Jacob and the Basic Ideas in “The Life and Death of Great American Cities”

              Jane Jacob as one of the most influential and successful individuals in the field of urban planning was able to establish herself as a teacher that show hostilities toward the orthodox and modern strategies in city planning and building (Kutsche 908). She attacked the basic tenets of the orthodox school of city planning by restructuring the strategies prescribed by most modern city builders through putting stress and importance on what she regards as the real reasons for the successes of cities.

According to Kutsche, Jane Jacob regards that success of cities is highly dependent on concentrated use, high diversity of residents and effective experimentation with new enterprise (908). These factors are deemed by Jacob to be present in her residential area in Greenwich Village. Due to her personal attachment to what she coined as successful, criticisms whether what she claims is too biased to her personal preferences are abundant.

Jane Jacob also attacks modern city planning through the conception that the American population is schizophrenic in sentimentalizing as well as destroying the environment. Her argumentation in this aspect is evident in the specifications of her work regarding the building of sidewalks and parks in cities. As a generalization of the points that she raised in relation to the environment, a stress on informal social structure is evident in her work (Kutsche 908). There are four major specific themes in Jacob’s work- multi purpose of district, short blocks, variation in buildings and dense population (Kutsche 908). Each district must serve different purposes to insure the heavy traffic flow of pedestrians in both sidewalks and parks (Kutsche 908).

The building of blocks should be short to cultivate more interactions among residents through closely knitted turns (Kutsche 908). Buildings must vary in condition and nature of use to insure economic variations that will further translate to diversified opportunities (Kutsche 908). Residents should be densely concentrated to promote safety and security in the community (Kutsche 908). Jacob pursued these qualifications by stating that the American city planning can become a schizophrenic entity by failing to meet these qualifications.

The schizophrenia in sentimentalizing and destroying the environment in Jane Jacobs’s The Life and Death of Great American Cities can be seen in what she coined as destructive city infrastructures. Among these structures is low- income and low- cost housing projects. This type of housing project according to Jacob does not only breed alienation but also paranoia. Low cost housing projects breed paranoia such as on the field of security and safety by cultivating a generalization that the residents of such projects are more prone to conduct harmful activities such as gang violence and other leading crimes (Kutsche 908).

              Jane Jacob is also famous for the qualifications she set on the need to have balanced planning strategies (Rybczynski n.pag.). Her strong focus on the needed balance for city and urban planning is the direct clashing point in terms of her rejection of the notion that cities are unnatural and suburban areas are natural. She does not have explicitly stated whether suburban areas are bad and cities are good. Instead, she simply broke away from the basic prejudices of individuals regarding cities and suburban areas by stating that the successes which the two can achieve are highly based on balanced planning. Balanced planning which can only be achieved by accounting not for what works, but also for what fails (Kutsche 908).

It is true that suburban traits such as the existence of parks in cities is good and even relaxing; however, Jane Jacob limits the value of suburban integration in the cities through more city- like features like sidewalks beside parks that would divert more traffic to the park, making the park less dangerous and more enjoyable. It can be said that for Jane Jacob, the “unnaturalness” of cities and the “naturalness” of the suburban can be compliments of each other; highly dependent on what she primarily established- balanced planning (Rybczynski n.pag.).

              Even in the presence of these evident specifications in the field of urban planning in the work of Jane Jacob she is still criticized to be too vocal than ideal in her works. Among the criticisms she received is the criticism that she failed to historically account for the possible reasons why the orthodox modern city planning strategies existed in the first place (Kutsche 909). This failure of Jacob will be compensated for by the book, Home: A Short History of an Idea by Witold Rybczynski. As the name implies, this book from Rybczynski is literally a historical accounting of the developments towards the concept of “comfort”.

Witold Rybczynski: Historically Accounting of Urban Planning Strategies

              Witold Rybczynski is known to be one of the pioneering urban planners that put emphasis on the relative definition of comfort (Wilson Quarterly 153). In his book Home: A Short History of an Idea, Witold Rybczynski pushed forward two basic concepts- home as a retreat and home as a result of fetishism. Rybczynski notes that comfort is one of the most forgotten foci in urban planning (Wilson Quarterly 153). He used historical accounting to draw out a vivid illustration of the evolution of urban planning as well as the reasons for the changes that occurred during those times.

He started off by stating that during the 11 th up to the 17 th centuries, comfort is questionable up to the point that it appears to be non existing(Wilson Quarterly 153). He characterizes that during these periods spaces between workplace and home are joined and are not demarcated (Wilson Quarterly 153).Privacy is minimal to nonexistent because of the merging of spatial boundaries (Wilson Quarterly 153). Furnishings during these times are also movable because spaces transform every once in a while according to the need at hand (Wilson Quarterly 153).

              However, the emergent of a new bourgeoisie class in most European parts put a stop in the almost tragic living conditions. Neglecting the concept of comfort ended during in the settlements of Dutch bourgeoisie in the late 17 th century (Wilson Quarterly 153).Since more individuals are gaining wealth through the fast developing economy, a more distinct line that state that home is a retreat from the stresses of workdays can be seen in this period. Some of the basic features of Dutch settlements are clean and orderly dwellings, workday environment are vividly demarcated from the actual home spaces (Wilson Quarterly 153).

The distinct demarcation between work areas and the materiality of the concept of home is a clear mark that indeed individuals have started to take comfort as a vital part of their lives. This trend in the same way clearly shows that the stratification of comfort is the result of the material fetishism that people started doing just like in the case of the Dutch.

Leisure and ease paved the way for the perfect structuring of comfort as a part of urban planning (Wilson Quarterly 153).Among the representations of the fetishes in making materials around the house more comfortable are stuffed chairs and improved fireplaces and stoves which soon also became the benchmark of belonging to the class of bourgeoisie (Wilson Quarterly 153).

Conclusion: The Value of these Works

One of the present day trends in urban planning are clear attempts to provide the utmost comfort possible (Wilson Quarterly 154). This trend is only made possible after the almost downfall of issues on efficiency and productivity. Comfort has been traded for the more tangible and measurable parts of city living. However, through the works of Jane Jacob and Witold Rybczynski, the whole world amidst the criticisms on their works was able to find an equal footing on rediscovering comfort. This goes the same to what Witold Rybczynski said that comfort should be rediscovered to avoid living in machines instead of a home.


Alter, Lloyd. Witold Rybczynski on the Four Paradigms of American Cities. 20 November 2009. 2010 May 3 2010 <>.

Cooke, Philip. “Modern Urban Theory in Question.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 15, No. 3 (1990): 331-343.

Kutsche, Paul. “Book Review of The Life and Death of Great American Cities.” American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 64, No. 4 (1962 ): 907-914.

Rybczynski, Witold. Home Remedies: The Vibrant Legacy of Jane Jacobs. 26 April 2006. 3 May 2010 <>.

Wilson Quarterly. “Untitled Review.” The Wilson Quarterly Vol. 11, No. 1 (1987): 153-154.

Wyly, Elvin. “Continuity and Change in the Restless Urban Landscape.” Economic Geography, Vol. 75, No. 4 (1999): 309-338.

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How to Write a Standout Argumentative Essay

Matt Ellis

An argumentative essay is a piece of writing that uses factual evidence and logical support to convince the reader of a certain way of thinking. Although many types of essays aim at persuading the reader to believe a specific point of view, argumentative essays rely heavily on hard evidence, drawing on other studies and sources to prove their argument is best. 

Don’t let the name fool you: Argumentative essays don’t have to be aggressive or combative. Rather, it gets its name from the style of arguing, whereby the writer presents sufficient research to both support their own claim and invalidate opposing perspectives. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, remember that the goal is to show that your thesis is the only logical conclusion. 

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Argumentative essays are only as good as their argument, and structuring good arguments requires a little more than just being stubborn (even if it helps!). Below, we run through the most useful techniques for writing the perfect argumentative essay. But don’t take our word for it—our evidence speaks for itself! 

What is an argumentative essay? 

Like persuasive essays and other types of essays , the point of argumentative essays is to convince the reader of a particular point of view. What makes an essay argumentative is the method of convincing: An argumentative essay uses fact-based evidence and unquestionable logic to prove that its thesis is true. 

Persuasive essays do this, too, but tend to be more emotional and less formal . Argumentative essays focus more on concrete empirical data, whereas persuasive essays appeal more to the reader’s emotions. In other words, argumentative essays favor quantitative support, while persuasive essays favor qualitative support. 

Likewise, it’s easy to confuse argumentative essays with expository essays , which rely heavily on fact-based evidence and copious research. The main difference is bias : Argumentative essays presume one point of view is correct, whereas expository essays usually present all sides of the argument and leave it to the reader to make up their own mind. 

Another distinction of argumentative essays is that the thesis is not obvious . It usually has strong enough opposition to necessitate an explanation of why it’s wrong. For example, “the sky is blue on a sunny day” would be an awful thesis for an argumentative essay. Not only would it be redundant, but also far too simplistic: Your evidence may be “look outside,” and that’d be the end of it! 

The idea is that an argumentative essay leaves no doubt that its thesis is accurate, usually by disproving or invalidating opposing theories. That’s why argumentative essays don’t just talk about the writer’s own thesis but discuss other contradicting points of view as well. It’s hard to name one perspective as “true” if you’re ignoring all the others. 

Basic argumentative essay structure

Because your entire argumentative essay depends on how well you present your case, your essay structure is crucial. To make matters worse, the structure of argumentative essays is a little more involved than those of other essay types because you also have to address other points of view. This alone leads to even more considerations, like whose argument to address first, and at what point to introduce key evidence. 

Let’s start with the most basic argumentative essay structure: the simple five-paragraph format that suits most short essays. 

This simple structure serves you well in a pinch, especially for timed essays that are part of a test. However, advanced essays require more detailed structures, especially if they have a length requirement of over five paragraphs. 

Advanced argumentative essay structure

Some essays need to support more complicated arguments and more definitive rebuttals than normal. In these cases, the three major formats below should serve your argumentative essay for a variety of needs. 

Aristotelian (Classic)

When to use it: making straightforward arguments

The Aristotelian or classic argument is a default structure for a clear argument, more like an extension of the simple five-paragraph structure above. It draws on credibility ( ethos ), emotion ( pathos ), and reasoning ( logos ) to prove its points, all of which can be adapted for virtually any argument. In form, it follows a direct and logical path: 

1 Introduce the problem.

2 Explain your perspective.

3 Explain your opponent’s perspective. Refute their points one-by-one as you go. 

4 Present your evidence.

5 Conclude your argument.

When to use it: presenting complex issues with no clear truths or when your thesis is a rebuttal or counterargument. 

The Toulmin method was developed to analyze arguments themselves, so it makes sense to use it for essays. Because it’s steeped in logic and deep analysis, this approach best suits complicated issues that need unraveling, but also works well for refuting an opposing point of view piece by piece. 

In form, it includes six main areas, but you’re free to organize them in whatever order works best for your essay. Keep in mind that your claim can itself be a rebuttal of another argument, so your entire essay could be disproving another thesis rather than presenting your own. 

1   Claim: your thesis or argument, stated clearly

2   Reasons: your evidence, including data or generally accepted facts

3   Warrant: the connection between your claim and reasons (requiring you to state assumptions explicitly so there’s no confusion)

4   Backing: additional evidence to support your claim

5   Qualifier: the limits to your own claim, including concessions

6   Rebuttal: addressing opposing viewpoints and criticisms of your claim

When to use it: showing both sides of an argument as valid or when presenting to a mixed audience.

The Rogerian method is simply a middle-ground approach, where you acknowledge the validity of both your thesis and the opposition’s viewpoint. It’s the least confrontational and most respectful, which helps in convincing readers who are naturally biased against your main claim. In form, it follows a five-step structure: 

2 Explain your opponent’s perspective first. Validate their points when correct. 

3 Explain your perspective. 

4 Bring both sides together. Present a middle ground where both viewpoints coexist. 

5 Conclude your (balanced) argument.

How to write a good thesis

The thesis, or argument, is the cornerstone of any good essay. If your thesis is weak or full of holes, not even a perfect essay structure can save you. 

The thesis itself should be the one takeaway you want your readers to leave with. What are you trying to convince them of, or what do you want them to remember after reading? Knowing this informs all other aspects of writing your essay, including the best structure and format, not to mention which evidence to collect. 

For starters, choose a topic you feel strongly about (if it’s not already assigned). It helps if your argument is specific; having a broad or general argument means more facets to examine, which can make for a wordy essay. 

It also helps to consider your audience. You don’t always have to tell readers what they want to hear, but their biases should influence how you write your essay, including your wording and how much credit to give the opposition. 

Above all, choose a thesis with sufficient evidence. Argumentative essays thrive on factual proof from credible sources, and you don’t want to waste time searching for data that doesn’t exist. If you can’t find enough facts to back up your thesis, maybe you shouldn’t argue that point in the first place. 

How to write an argumentative essay: the writing process

Argumentative essays follow the same recommended writing process as other kinds of writing, albeit with more emphasis on researching and preparing. Here’s a brief overview of how to adapt the process for argumentative essays: 

1   Brainstorming: If your argument is not provided in the assignment, take some time to think up a good thesis based on our guidelines above. 

2   Preparing: This phase is for collecting all the evidence going into your essay, as well as writing an outline . Because proof is key to argumentative essays, set aside ample time for research until you have all the support you need. It’s also a good time to outline your essay, answering questions like when and how to discuss opposing viewpoints. 

3   Drafting: Write a rough draft of your essay. It helps to include any data and direct quotes as early as possible, especially with argumentative essays that often cite outside sources. 

4   Revising: Polish your rough draft, optimize word choice, and restructure your arguments if necessary. Make sure your language is clear and appropriate for the reader, and double-check that you effectively made all your points and rebuttals. 

5   Proofreading : Go through your draft and focus exclusively on fixing mistakes. If you’re not confident in your grammar skills or diction, use Grammarly . 

Although optional, it always helps to have a fresh set of eyes on your essays before finalizing it. See if your argument is strong enough to convince your friends!

Argumentative essay writing tips

Our tips for writing better essays apply just as well to argumentative essays as any others, so that’s the best place to start if you’re looking for additional guidance. For tips specific to argumentative essays, try these: 

Support your argument with concrete facts

Although similar to persuasive essays, argumentative essays are in some ways the exact opposite. While persuasive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, argumentative essays appeal to the reader’s reason. That’s why hard facts work best. 

Do plenty of research until you have enough data to support each of your main points. Feel free to cite other sources or studies to improve your credibility as well. Try to withhold your personal opinions and feelings as much as possible—let your evidence speak for you. 

Be proactive about language

In an argumentative essay, tone and style are more important than you may think, especially if you’re criticizing another person’s perspective. Be respectful when choosing your words and phrasing. Using an aggressive tone reflects worse on the writer than the target, even if rebutting a despicable point of view. 

Use aids for style and grammar

Even the smallest typo can derail the most carefully planned argument. The problem is, it’s hard to formulate the best possible argument if you’re distracted by spelling and grammar. 

Grammarly finds all of your writing mistakes for you so you can stay focused on what’s important. It even checks your tone and clarity to make sure your true argument always shines through and comes across as intended. See how Grammarly can help your next writing project by downloading it now.

argumentative essay urban planning

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Urban planning

Updated 21 April 2021

Subject Marketing , 

Downloads 73

Category Business ,  Social Issues ,  Sociology

Topic Community ,  Planning ,  Urbanization

Urban planning refers to a political and technological process involving the use and development of property, public health, the use and conservation of the environment, planning approvals, the design of the urban environment, including the transition of facilities to and from urban areas, water, as well as air. In his post, Roger Sanjek talks about an Elmhurst-Corona and how it used female activists’ creativity to express the concern about the quality of life that brings about the creation of a more inclusive community board. Through the use of the grassroots politicking, this community board successfully improved their neighborhood to a large extent by way of urban planning developments initiatives. In his work, the author stresses on three major lessons learnt from the urban planning development initiative in Queens, to be color-full before color blind, government matters, and lastly pay attention to women for the reason that they do heed to each other.

Brief Description of the Urban Planning Development Initiative

An urban planning development initiative has some general objectives which include clarification of the desirable city model and working towards that goal, improving the living conditions of the citizens involved, adapting to the new circumstances, channeling energy as well as coordinating private and public efforts. Urban planning is a technique that, for many decades, has been applied to many facets of the activities of the human beings with Queens, New York is one of the cases.

Players Involved How Private and Public Interests Come Together

In the 1970s the advent of the multicultural politics in Queens, New York City traversed its ‘majority minority’ (Sankej 764). According to Sanjek (2000), the neighborhood enjoyed a proper representation, from all the unique ethnic and racial backgrounds that the Elmhurst-Corona residents came from, in the government (764). Both the community boards and the Queens, New York City society at large played a major role in the urban planning development initiative. Sanjek points out that in spite of there being multiple races and ethnic groups in Queen, the community boards as administrative districts or district level entities are seen as venues for formalizing the day to day concerns of the locals. Not only do they formalize the daily activities of the residents but also elevate their matters to the city level for policy formulation and political action and so was the case of urban planning development initiative (Sankej 766). In building the case for the critical role played by the community board in the local politics, the author, during the late 1980s, attended hundreds of meetings and documented them through retelling the personal experiences (Sankej 767). In Queen, New York City, individuals who had expanded their friendships and social linkages across the ethnic and racial lines, arose as the neighborhood leaders whereby by they in the long run reframed the common trepidations regarding the conditions of the neighborhood that were declining as a result of the fiscal crisis of the NYC other than the huge influx of the migrants (Sankej 767). These problems brought about the need for the private and public along with all the concerned stakeholders to come together and work out a proper urban planning development initiative.

City Hall, Architects, Private Investments, the Community, Urban Planners,) Which Might Promote A Conflict Of Interest.

Whereas it is trivial for conflicting objectives to exist between the civic responsibility and the institutional needs, Queen, New York City shaped up a different case. Queen experienced a healthy integration between the government, the society, and races. In other words, the urban planners, the community, private investments, Architects, and City hall were conjoined by the healthy association that existed. In his research, Sanjek found out that the racial and social change than existed in the borough of the Queens, New York demonstrated that civic rituals played a major role in the recreation of the sense of community. For instance, some civic rituals such as the observation of the memorial and veterans Days as well as the lighting ceremony at the Christmas time contributed to the one voice in the Urban Planning Development Initiative. Opposition to the Development, Players Involved, and the Pros and Cons of the Development

There existed a few cases of opposition to the development. One of them is the group of people who did not want closure of their local services to pave the way for development. Most of these people were the middle-class immigrants who possessed a substantial amount of social capital. The development helped balance the poverty relief pressures that was experienced by the authorities. Furthermore, it offered catering to the middle class. However, the development came at the expense of the marginalized and the very poor.

Analysis and Reflection

Given the fact that the ethnography fieldwork by Sankej spread across 13 years of hard work, research, and personal participation the article did not receive any media bias. The Queens, New York City urban planning development initiative was effective. This is because it elevated the city infrastructure, developed the land, besides promoting the public welfare. This had the effect of a positive change in the neighborhood business activities.

Works Cited

Sanjek, Roger. “Color-full Before Color Blind: the Emergence of Multiracial Neighborhood Politics in Queens, New York City.” American Anthropologist. 102.4 (2000): 762-772. Print.

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