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APA Sample Paper
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Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
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- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 6th edition
Quick Guide to APA Citation (6th ed.) | In-Text Citation & Reference List
APA style is one of the most common formats for citing sources Other well known citation styles include MLA and Chicago .
APA Style citations consist of two parts:
- In-text citation : A brief citation in parentheses when you mention a source, citing the author’s last name and the year of publication, e.g. (Smith, 2019) . It identifies the full source in the reference list.
- Reference list entry : Full publication details listed on the reference page , which appears at the end of your paper. The reference provides all the information needed to find the source, e.g. Smith, P. (2019, April 18). Citing Sources in APA Format. Retrieved April 21, 2019, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/
This citation guide is based on the 6th edition of the APA Manual. The latest edition, published in October 2019, is not yet supported, but we have compiled a quick guide to the most important 7th edition changes .
Table of contents
In-text citations, reference list, apa formatting for papers.
An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author. Use one every time you quote or paraphrase a source.
Include the author’s last name and the year of publication. When quoting a source, it’s also necessary to include the page number(s) of the quote.
- An earlier study in which X and Y were compared revealed that … (Smith, 2017) .
- Smith (2017) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …
When there are two authors, separate their last names with an ampersand (&), or with the word ‘and’ when they appear in the running text.
- Research shows that there is a great need for … (Reynolds & Thomas, 2014) .
- Reynolds and Thomas (2014) write that there is a great need for …
When there are three or more authors, separate their last names using commas . The last two authors’ last names should be separated by both a comma and an ampersand.
- Recent research suggests that there is … (McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, & Thomas, 2014) .
- McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, and Thomas (2014) argue that …
If you cite the same source again, to save space, you shorten the citation. Instead of including all the authors’ names, include only the first author, followed by “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”).
- In this research, many participants made use of … (McGuire et al., 2014) .
- McGuire et al. (2014) noticed that …
6 or more authors
If a source has six or more authors, use the shortened version from the first citation.
- Lunott et al. (2015) discuss the …
Organization as author
When a source does not list an individual author, it can often be attributed to an organization instead.
- According to new research … (Microsoft, 2014) .
When you quote a source , you also have to add the page number to the in-text citation.
- According to the company’s business plan, “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work, but many students benefit from it” (Swan, 2014, p. 5) .
Multiple sources in one citation
Sometimes, it’s necessary to cite multiple sources in one sentence. You can combine them into one set of parentheses, separated by semicolons .
- Various studies show that … ( Docker & Vagrant, 2002 ; Porter, 1997 ; Lima, Swan, & Corrieri, 2012 ).
Full in-text citation guide
Every source cited in the text must also appear in your reference list .
The format differs depending on the source type, but every reference begins in the same way: with the author’s last name and initials, the publication year or date, and the title of the source.
Note: Book titles should be italicized .
- Format Last Name, Initials. (Year). Book title (edition). City, State/Country: Publisher.
- Example Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
Journal article citations
Note: The journal title and volume number should be italicized .
- Format Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name , Volume (Issue), Page Number(s). https://doi.org/DoiNumber
- Example Andreff, W., & Staudohar, P. D. (2000). The evolving European model of professional sports finance. Journal of Sports Economics , 1 (3), 257–276. https://doi.org./10.1177/152700250000100304
- Format Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Page title [OptionalType]. Retrieved from http://webaddress
- Example Worland, J. (2015, July 27). U.S. flood risk could be worse than we thought. Retrieved from http://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities
Note: The title should be italicized .
- Format Organization Name or Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Report title . Retrieved from http://webaddress
- Example Royal Bank of Scotland. (2015). Annual report and accounts 2014 . Retrieved from http://investors.rbs.com/~/media/Files/R/RBS-IR/2014-reports/annual-report-2014.pdf
More APA Style examples
Do you want to cite an image , interview , YouTube video , movie , or another source type that is not on this list? We have many more APA Style examples to help you cite correctly.
Sorting the reference list
Sort the references in alphabetical order based on the author’s last name. If you cite multiple sources by the same author, then sort them by publication year.
When you use the APA Citation Generator , your reference list is alphabetized automatically.
Full reference list guide
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
There are certain formatting rules you must adhere to when writing a paper in APA format .
The basic requirements are:
- Times New Roman 12 pt
- Double line spacing
- One-inch (2.54 cm) margins
- Left-aligned running head with a shortened title and page number
In addition to these general rules, there are more specific requirements for formatting the title page , running head , abstract , reference page , and headings and subheadings .
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APA Style Sixth Edition Resources
With each new edition of the Publication Manual there is a transition period, in which authors continue to submit journal articles and students continue to write papers in the previous edition’s style. We recommend that editors and instructors make the switch and adopt the seventh edition Publication Manual in January 2020 or thereafter.
In the meantime, we’ve archived the sixth edition APA Style blog, frequently asked questions pages, and other resources here. These will be available until further notice.
Sixth Edition APA Style Blog
The sixth edition APA Style blog was launched in June 2009, on the same day that the sixth edition of the Publication Manual was published. In the 10 years that the blog was active, we discussed all aspects of APA Style, and we answered thousands of questions (in nearly 5,000 comments).
Those original posts and comment conversations are still available in an archive.
We will keep this archive available until further notice.
Visit the 6th edition APA Style blog archive
Free Tutorials and Online Courses
The Basics of Sixth Edition APA Style ®
Sixth Edition APA Style Online Course
These sample papers illustrate various elements of sixth edition APA Style.
Sample Meta-Analysis (PDF, 407KB)
Sample Paper: One-Experiment Paper (PDF, 2MB)
Sample Paper: Two-Experiment Paper (PDF, 159KB)
Frequently Asked Questions
Frequently Asked Questions About Sixth Edition APA Style ®
Supplemental and Related Materials
Guidelines for Nonhandicapping Language
APA Style (American Psychological Association)
- Academic Writer
- APA 7th edition Resources
- Videos for 7th ed
- How do I cite...
- Diagnostic Imaging
Apa style table of contents, bible: apa says 6th edition, apa handouts --- apa 6th edition, why you need to cite sources, apa style central and the university, apa style books by apa.
- Handouts / Documents
ANNOUNCEMENT --- UPDATE as of May 10, 2020
Academic Writer will be changing to the 7th edition as of the 1st week of August 2020.
- APA Style Blog 6th edition
- APA Style Blog 7th Edition The APA Style Blog is the official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It's run by a group of experts who work with APA Style every day. They publish weekly posts to talk about what we love—writing, publishing, and APA Style.
- Publication Manual of the America Psychological Association -- Table of Contents 6th Edition
How do you cite the Bible or other classic works?
Reference list entries are not required when you cite ancient Greek and Roman works or classical religious works. However, in the first text citation, indicate the version of the classic work you used.
Book: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. see section 6.18
- How to cite the Bible or other classic work? by APA Style blog
- APA Basics 6th ed (2013 update) AHU rev
- APA Basics 6th Ed (2013) AHU rev
- APA Style Guide -- DACC.NMSU
- Basic Citation Styles APA Table 6.1 p. 177 From 6th edition of APA manual
- DOI Flowchart from APA
- Paraphrasing and Quoting Created by San Francisco State U.
- Why You Need to Cite Sources Video clip (~3 min).
- How to Cite Books -- Funny video (1:38) Video heading says following APA rules. What are the mistakes?
- APA Format. Remix Wrap. (1:13)
APA Style is used in most courses here at the University, with the exception of the Physical Therapy and Nurse Anesthesia programs which use AMA Style or both APA/AMA Styles. The library subscribes to Academic Writer, the tool by the American Psychological Association which helps with writing and sharing the APA Style rules.
Why use Academic Writer?
- Helps with learning APA Style Rules
- Offers a place to write your papers
- APA Publication Manual rules online and searchable
- Short videos to help learn APA
- Citation tool for creating References
- It’s BY the American Psychological Association (APA)
Academic Writer includes:
- Short video clips
- Reference Lists
- Sample papers
- Writing Tool
- << Previous: Diagnostic Imaging
- Next: Handouts / Documents >>
- Last Updated: Nov 10, 2022 3:40 PM
- URL: https://libguides.ahu.edu/apa
APA style report (6th edition)
This APA format template has you covered if you’re working on an APA-style research paper, report, or thesis. With specific instructions and formatting based on the APA 6th edition guidelines, this APA template will help save time and prevent mistakes. The template includes details on creating APA compliant charts, layouts, footnotes, and provides a clear sample of APA format. Plus, as an APA template in Word, it’s easy to use. Just select a paragraph and type over to replace it with your own text. This is an accessible template.
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APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Audiovisual Media
The most important APA format guidelines in the 6th edition are: Use 12 pt Times New Roman Set 1 inch page margins Apply double line spacing Insert a running head on every page Indent every new paragraph ½ inch Table of contents APA format template Running head Headings Title page Abstract Reference page In-text citations and references
APA Sample Paper APA Formatting and Style Guide (6th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Footnotes and Endnotes Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources
Annotated APA Sample Paper and Style Guide for Student Writers (6th Edition) e introductory sectionin anAmerican Psychological Association (APA) Style paper establishes the purpose and problem that will be addressed. Where the abstract is a concise summary, the introduction devotes more time to explaining the central concern
APA formatting for papers There are certain formatting rules you must adhere to when writing a paper in APA format. The basic requirements are: Times New Roman 12 pt Double line spacing One-inch (2.54 cm) margins Left-aligned running head with a shortened title and page number
Sample papers from the Publication Manual The following two sample papers were published in annotated form in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here as PDFs for your ease of use. The annotations draw attention to content and formatting and provide the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.
Sample Papers These sample papers illustrate various elements of sixth edition APA Style. Sample Meta-Analysis (PDF, 407KB) Sample Paper: One-Experiment Paper (PDF, 2MB) Sample Paper: Two-Experiment Paper (PDF, 159KB) Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions About Sixth Edition APA Style ®
This gives concise rules for the 6th Ed of APA style. We have a copy in Reserve and in Reference. Displaying your findings : a practical guide for creating figures, posters, and presentations by Adelheid A.M. Nicol Call Number: WZ 345 .P85 2010 ISBN: 1433807076 Publication Date: 2010
APA style report (6th edition) This APA format template has you covered if you’re working on an APA-style research paper, report, or thesis. With specific instructions and formatting based on the APA 6th edition guidelines, this APA template will help save time and prevent mistakes.