10 Sensory Memory Examples
Sensory memory is the brief physiological storage of information that comes from one of the five senses. It processes external stimuli automatically and does not require conscious effort.
Sensory memory is sometimes referred to as the sensory register or sensory store.
It can include the memorization of inputs from touch, taste, hearing, sight, and smell.
Sensory Memory Definition and Overview
Sensory memory is defined as:
“A type of ‘neural’ memory that holds different sensory modalities of information automatically for approximately two seconds because of neural impulses still being relayed to the brain.” (Nicholas, 2008)
Each sensory modality has a sensory register. This is the first step in perception, but only lasts for a very brief period of time, depending on the specific sensory store.
For example, visual information will only be stored in the iconic sensory store for approximately 250 milliseconds. However, auditory information can be stored in the echoic sensory store for several seconds.
Sensory memory is not controlled by higher-order cognitive processes, for example by affecting its capacity or duration.
It is also not possible for an individual to control what information is stored in sensory memory.
However, attentional control can specify which aspects of sensory information is processed further.
Types of Sensory Memory
There are five types of sensory memory, one for each sensory modality.
1. Iconic memory
The iconic sensory store processes visual images. It has a large amount of storage but limited duration, lasting for less than a second as stated above.
The brighter the visual image, the longer the duration of staying in iconic memory.
2. Echoic memory
This memory store processes auditory information. Whatever a person hears is processed in the echoic sensory store.
The duration of echoic memory lasts for several seconds. This is why it is possible to repeat what someone has said to you, even though you were not being attentive when they first said.
As a person asks for someone to repeat what they said, they might actually hear it in their mind, sort of like rewinding a recording and playing it again.
3. Haptic memory
The sense of touch is initially processed through the haptic sensory store. It includes sensations such as pressure, pain, itching, or the processing of textures such smooth or rough.
Haptic sensory nerves are located all over the body.
4. Olfactory memory
This memory store processes odors. Once odor molecules enter the nasal cavity, a chain of neurophysiological events occur which processes the odor.
Olfactory sensory memory is also linked with long-term memory. Experiences and semantic information can be associated with olfactory stimuli and improve long-term retention and recall.
Olfactory sensory memory also plays a crucial role in the perception of taste. Molecules from chewed food substances enter the nasal cavity and are involved in the perceptual process.
5. Gustatory memory
This sensory store is associated with taste and linked to the olfactory store as stated above.
It primarily involves taste receptors on the tongue that are impacted by food molecules and activate various physiological sensations that are associated with the five basic flavors: salty, sweet, bitter, sour, and umami.
Sensory Memory Examples
- Fourth of July Sparklers (Visual): If you light a sparkler and look at it for a few seconds, then close your eyes, you can see an afterimage. The afterimage is a function of bright visual stimuli lasting longer in sensory memory.
- The Coffee Connoisseur (Gustatory): Some people just seem to be born with the taste receptors of a gustatory sensory store that are naturally fine-tuned to particular coffee profiles (the expensive ones).
- Learning a Tonal Language (Echoic): Having a sensitive echoic sensory memory may facilitate learning how to speak a foreign language, especially if it is a tonal language.
- Touch Tablets for Babies (Haptic): One particular Montessori toy is designed to exercise haptic sensory memory and perception of surface roughness. It contains different sandpaper gradients and looks like this .
- The Phi Phenomenon (Iconic)) Discovered by Max Wertheimer in 1912, when lights in close proximity to each other are blinked on and off sequentially, it creates an optical illusion of movement that is often utilized in road signs directing traffic. Although it utilizes iconic sensory memory, it is actually a perception-based phenomenon.
- Asking Someone to Repeat What They Said (Echoic): Sometimes when not paying attention to someone talking, we might ask them to “say that again.” But right as we do, our echoic sensory store automatically rewinds and replays what they said. We can actually hear it, like a recording.
- Pressure Cylinders (Haptic): This Montessori toy is specially designed to build a child’s sense of pressure by exercising their haptic sensory register and related perceptual processes.
- Olfactory Sensory Memory and Semantic Recall (Olfactory): Studying in a room with an essential oils diffuser can improve recall of encoded information when smelling the same aroma as when we studied.
- Cartoon Animation (Iconic): Cartoons used to be made by drawing thousands of pictures on paper and then rapidly showing them sequentially, thus creating the illusion of movement. The history of animation starts in 1832. Although the iconic sensory store is certainly involved, the illusion is a perceptual one based on how the images are processed in the cerebral cortex .
- Great Chefs (Gustatory): A great chef not only has an incredibly sensitive gustatory sensory memory, but their olfactory sensory store is also especially receptive.
Four Fundamental Characteristics of Sensory Memory
Although each type of sensory memory is different in terms of duration and capacity, there are some common features.
- Outside of Conscious Control: The formation of a sensory memory trace is outside of conscious control.
- Specific to Sensory Modality: Information stored in sensory memory is specific to the sensory modality. For example, auditory information is only stored in echoic memory, not any of the other sensory stores.
- Depth of Storage: Each sensory memory store can hold a large amount of detailed information. For instance, the iconic sensory store, although short-lived, holds a great deal of visual stimuli in incredible detail.
- Limited Duration: Each sensory store has very limited duration. The sensory memory trace decays rapidly, and once gone, it cannot be recreated through higher-order cognitive processes.
Research Case Study: The Sperling Paradigm
George Sperling (1960) is credited with identifying the limited duration of the iconic sensory register (lasting approximately 1/3 rd second).
Sperling used a T-scope ( tachistoscope ) to present a picture card for 1/20 th of a second. Different cards displayed letters in various configurations. Click here for a demonstration.
In one study, participants were asked to recall as many letters as possible. Most participants could recall 3-4 letters, but then the image faded from their iconic sensory store.
“The fact that observers commonly assert that they can see more than they can report suggests that memory sets a limit on a process that is otherwise rich in available information” (p. 26).
In other studies, Sperling presented a tone 1/3 rd of a second or longer after the stimulus card disappeared.
Sperling instructed the participants to recall letters on the top, middle, or bottom rows, depending on the tone they heard. As long as the tone was presented within 1/3 rd of a second, participants could name the letters on any row.
However, the longer the delay in the tone, the greater the decline in recall. These findings suggest “Short-term information storage has been tentatively identified with the persistence of sensation…that of a rapidly fading visual image of the stimulus” (p. 26).
Applications of Sensory Memory
1. in driving and autonomous vehicles (avs).
Research has indicated that 85%–95% of the sensory cues in driving are visual (Malfetti & Winter, 1986).
This is of particular concern when considering older populations because of age-related changes in sensory functions, especially visual and auditory (see Yang & Coughlin, 2014).
The accumulated knowledge in iconic sensory memory and related perceptual processes of humans has been fundamental to the development of autonomous driving vehicles. Image sensors are designed to process visual images in the driving environment that is derived from research studying similar systems in human beings (Ignatious & Khan, 2022).
Research on the haptic sensory memory has also been explored as an information input mechanism to improve driver safety in AVs. For instance, Chiossi et al. (2022) suggest using “on-body tactile displays” can improve situational awareness.
Borojeni et al. (2017) suggest incorporating vibro-tactile stimulation to steering wheels to indicate the need for the driver to resume control of the vehicle. Kern et al. (2009) showed that tactile feedback can improve driving performance, while Enriquez et al. (2001) demonstrated that tactile feedback can decrease reaction times in identifying problems.
2. In Aviation
Pilots and air traffic controllers are required to process vast amounts of visual stimuli.
For example, the cockpit of an airplane displays an incredible amount of visual stimuli. Pilots must process that visual stimuli accurately and efficiently, particularly during take-off and landing procedures, which are the most dangerous points in flying.
Much of our understanding of factors that affect sensory encoding of visual stimuli and subsequent perceptual processes comes from the work of Christopher Wickens.
Wickens, et al. (1986) utilized the Sternberg paradigm as a way to assess pilot workload. Wickens et al. (1988) found that stress can affect performance in scenarios that require the processing of spatial working memory , but not knowledge stored in long-term memory.
As Martins (2016, p. 67) explains, the Multiple Resources Theory developed by Wickens “is one of the most influential theories to address…” issues in high workload dual-task situations.
See Wickens (2008) for more detailed information regarding human factor design considerations in task or system configuration.
There are five types of sensory memory, each corresponding to the five senses. Although each one operates according to specific parameters, there are some commonalities in terms of limited duration and capacity.
At a fundamental level, each sensory memory store is our way of detecting the environment and allowing us to navigate our surroundings.
Even though it is possible to isolate a discussion on each specific store, it is important to keep in mind that each one is connected to a complex perceptual process located in various regions of the cerebral cortex.
Knowledge regarding the iconic sensory memory has been fundamental to the development of computer-based image processing systems found in AVs, in addition to understanding the enormity of processing cockpit stimuli.
Haptic sensory memory has been investigated as a tool for improving driver safety in AVs by providing another mechanism for informing the driver of dangers or the need to take control of the vehicle.
Chiossi, F., Villa, S., Hauser, M., Welsch, R., & Chuang, L. (2022, June). Design of on-body tactile displays to enhance situation awareness in automated vehicles. In 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Virtual Environments for Measurement Systems and Applications (CIVEMSA) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Borojeni, S. S., Wallbaum, T., Heuten, W., & Boll, S. (2017, September). Comparing shape-changing and vibro-tactile steering wheels for take-over requests in highly automated driving. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Automotive user Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (pp. 221-225).
Enriquez, M., Afonin, O., Yager, B., & Maclean, K. (2001, November). A pneumatic tactile alerting system for the driving environment. In Proceedings of the 2001 Workshop on Perceptive user Interfaces (pp. 1-7).
Ignatious, H. A., & Khan, M. (2022). An overview of sensors in Autonomous Vehicles. Procedia Computer Science , 198 , 736-741.
Kern, D., Marshall, P., Hornecker, E., Rogers, Y., & Schmidt, A. (2009, May). Enhancing Navigation Information with Tactile Output Embedded into the Steering Wheel. In Pervasive (Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 42-58).
Malfetti, J. L. and Winter, D. J. (1986). Drivers 55 plus: Test your own performance. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, DC.
Martins, A. P. (2016). A review of important cognitive concepts in aviation. Aviation , 20 (2), 65-84.
Nicholas, L. (2008). Introduction to Psychology . Cape Town: UCT Press.
Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological monographs: General and applied , 74 (11), 1.
Wickens, C. D., Hyman, F., Dellinger, J., Taylor, H., & Meador, M. (1986). The Sternberg memory search task as an index of pilot workload. Ergonomics , 29 (11), 1371-1383.
Wickens, C. D. (1980). The structure of attentional resources, in R. Nickerson (Ed.). Attention and performance VIII . (pp. 239–257). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wickens, C. D. 2008. Multiple resources and mental workload. Human Factors 50 (3): 449–455.
Winkler, I., & Cowan, N. (2005). From sensory to long-term memory: evidence from auditory memory reactivation studies. Experimental Psychology , 52 (1), 3-20.
Yang, J., & Coughlin, J. F. (2014). In-vehicle technology for self-driving cars: Advantages and challenges for aging drivers. International Journal of Automotive Technology , 15 , 333-340.
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Long -Term Memory (LTM)
Gender differences in memory, memorizing by assimilation, memorizing by using a mnemonic device, intelligence, fluid and crystallized intelligence.
The most elementary memory processes are those that constitute our sensory memory. The term sensory is used because the memory processes resemble sensation and perception through which stimulus is recognized. It is high capacity but short-lived sensory trace that is not itself considered to be available to conscious awareness. Sensory memory has two forms: iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) memory. Visual sensory memory, called Iconic memory, is a form of sensory memory that briefly holds a visual representation of a scene that has just been perceived. Auditory sensory memory, called Echoic memory, is a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived. It is necessary for comprehending many sounds, particularly those that constitute speech (Tulving & Craik, 2000).
Short-Term Memory (STM) and Working Memory (WM). Previously, Short-term memory was considered as unitary system that is severely limited in capacity, has a time course counted in seconds to minutes, and is readily available to our conscious awareness. However, Shah & Miyake (1999) identified that theories of short term memory (STM) could not adequately describe the kind of temporary memory that complex cognitive tasks require. Currently, memory research gave rise to theories in which short term memory was considered as one component of a larger system known as working memory (Tulving & Craik, 2000). According to Baddley (2002), short-term memory is better thought of as a four-part working memory; central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad and an episodic buffer
Learning can be represented as the transfer of information from STM to LTM. Information maintained for a significant time is referred to as long-term memory. Theorists have tended to split long-term memory into two major divisions; declarative memory and non-declarative memory. Declarative memory refers to knowledge that we have conscious access to, including personal and world knowledge. Declarative memory can be broken down further into parts: episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory involves conscious awareness of past events; it is personal, autobiographical memory.
Semantic Memory is a type of long-term memory that contains data, facts, and other information, including vocabulary Nondeclarative Memory is revealed when previous experiences facilitate performance on a task that does not require intentional recollection of the experiences. Nondeclarative memory includes forms of memory that are learned and retained even when explicit memory for that knowledge does not exist; therefore it is called implicit memory. Procedural Memory is one form of nondeclarative memory that involves the learning of a variety of motor skills.
Perceptual Representation System (PRS) is another form of nondeclarative memory that acts within the perceptual system. Third type of nondeclarative memory is Classical Conditioning, also referred to as Pavlovian conditioning, occurs when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Fourth type is Nonassociative learning, it does not involve the association of two stimuli to elicit a behavioral change. Rather it involves forms of simple learning such as habituation and sensitization (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Evidence from the cognitive neuroscience suggests that there are different types of memory localized in different areas of brain. Explicit or declarative memory is localized in the hippocampal formation in the medial temporal lobe, whereas, procedural memory is located in striatum, priming in ne cortex, classical conditioning in Amygdala and cerebellum and non-associative learning is found in reflex pathways (Squire & Knowlton, 1994).
Several studies found that females have an advantage in processing speed (Burns & Nettelbeck, 2005; Meinz & Salthouse, 1998. Meinz and Salthouse’s meta-analysis (1998) found that males scored higher than females in working memory. However, Goldstein, Jerram, Poldrack, Kennedy, Seidman and Markis (2005) have found no sex difference. In contrast, some studies identified that female performed better on short term memory (e.g., Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2008). Studies have shown male advantage on short term memory and visuospatial tasks (De Frias, Nilsson, & Herlitz, 2006). Some studies reported that females have advantage on processing speed and verbal episodic memory (Herlitz & Rehnman, 2008). Methods of memorizing.
Bellezza (1980) described three ways in which information can be learned or committed to memory:
- by assimilation,
- by using a mnemonic device.
Information is learned by assimilation when the structure or substance of the information fits into already existing schema possessed by the learner. The new information is assimilated to or linked to the existing schema and can be retrieved readily by first accessing the existing schema and then reconstructing the new information. Assimilation involves learning by comprehension. Therefore, it is a desirable method, but it can only be used to learn information that is somehow related to our previous experience.
A mnemonic device is any means of organizing or encoding information for the purpose of making it easier to remember. A high school student cramming for a geography test might use the acronym ‘HOMES’ as a device for remembering the first letter of each of the Great Lakes in Ontario, etc.
Memorizing by rote. Biggs (1997) defined Rote learning as a learning in ‘a mechanical way without thought of meaning’ and Moore (2000) described it as a method involving repetition and memorization. Material to be learned is repeated verbally with sufficient frequency that it can later be repeated from memory without use of any memory aids. When information is learned by rote, it forms a separate schema not closely interwoven with previously held knowledge. That is, the mental processing adds little by way of elaboration to the new information, and the new information adds little to the elaboration of existing schemata. Learning by rote is a brute force technique. It seems to be the least efficient way of remembering.
Verbal rehearsal is usually considered a form of rote learning because it involves simply repeating information over and over until we think we have learned it. For abstract material, verbal rehearsal can be used effectively. Atkinson-Shiffrin stage model emphasized verbal rehearsal as a means of transferring information from short term memory to long term memory. Since most of us have used this method to learn material, the role of rehearsal in learning seems intuitively attractive. AtkinsonShiffrin model support link between verbal rehearsal and serial position effect but Craik and Lockhart (1972) argued that recalling a word is not a function of time it was maintained in STM therefore rehearsal does not automatically result in learning, The effectiveness of rehearsal, like that other method of study, depends on the level at which material is been processed.
There are three levels of processing such as Structural coding: memory codes that emphasized the physical structure of stimulus Phonemic coding: memory codes that emphasized the pronunciation of stimulus; Semantic coding: memory codes that emphasizes the meaning of stimulus. The reason rehearsal often results in learning is that people usually attend to the meaning of the material during rehearsal. In contrast, Level of processing approach argued that rehearsal is not used for learning. Sometimes it is used to maintain information in short term memory named as maintenance rehearsal.
Experiments of Craik and Watkins (1973) found that probability of recalling a word at the end of experiment was not a function of the length of time it was maintained in short term memory. Therefore they argued that maintenance rehearsal did not result in learning. Rote memorization is a form of learning, which avoids grasping the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition, based on the idea that one will be able to recall the meaning of the material the more they repeat it.
Rote learning is helpful when learning the Latin alphabet, the vocabulary of a foreign language or the conjugation of foreign irregular verbs, one must simply memorize because there is little or no inner complexity that can be grasped (as cited in Anzar, 2003). Since the present research also deals with intelligence and personality traits of Hafiz and non-Hafiz adolescents, we’ll address these concepts in the following sections
The word intelligence comes from the Latin verb ‘intellegere’, which means ‘to understand’. Scientists have attempted to define intelligence in various ways. Some consider it as a problem solving skills and the ability of human beings to learn from their environment and adapt themselves to their every day’s life experiences (Santrock, 2006). Others view it as intellectual skills, attitudes, and values practiced in life and community, which are learned through social participation and appropriation (Resnick & Nelson-Legall, 1998).
Theories of intelligence have gone through various phases (Binet, 1916; Cattell, 1987: Guilford, 1961; Spearman, 1927; Terman, 1916; Wechsler; 1958), and stages of developments. Spearman’s Two Factor Theory (1927), deals with intelligence within the Information Processing Approach. Gardener’s Eight Frames of Mind (2000) and Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (2002) have major focus on Multiple Intelligence Perspective but it also has elements of Information Processing Approach. A report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association (1996), stated that individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by active thinking.
According to this report, although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal agreement. Generally we can say that intelligence is an umbrella term used to describe a property of mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn (Plucker, 2002).
Spearman having a strong statistical background, proposed two-factor theory of intelligence in 1927. His theory of intelligence states that performance of any intellectual act is a combination of “general factors” “g” and “specific factors” “s”. General factors available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and specific factors are specific to that act and which varies in strength from one act to another. Therefore, most important information to have about a person’s intellectual ability is an estimate of their “g”. Stanford-Binet Scale is based on spearman’s “g” factor (McNemar,1942).
Raymond Cattell, another theorist of psychometric approach proposed that human intellectual competence can be divided into three dimensions named as fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and visual-spatial reasoning (Gv). Fluid intelligence is defined as ability to develop new problem solving techniques. Crystallized intelligence is described as the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge with cultural relevance to solve current problems. Visual-spatial reasoning is defined as a specialized ability to use visual images and visual relationships in solution of a problem.
To understand mathematics, Visual-spatial reasoning is used (Cattell, 1971). Fluid intelligence also known as Gf, refers to the reasoning ability, information processing capabilities and memory. It is interpreted as the using operations such as inductive and deductive reasoning, capacity to solve novel, complex problems, concept formation and classification. (Feldman, 2006; Kane &Engle, 2002). Whereas crystallized intelligence, also known as Gc, refers to the skills, information, and strategies that are learned through experience and are applied in problem solving situations (Feldman, 2006). Crystallized intelligence represents individual differences in breadth and depth of knowledge of the language, information and concepts of a culture.
It is acquired through education and experience and it primarily reflects verbal knowledge and skills, as well as declarative knowledge in wide areas. Crystallized and fluid intelligence can be traced to two separate brain systems (Geary, 2005). Fluid intelligence found in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and other systems related to attention and short-term memory. Crystallized intelligence involves those brain regions that characterized for storage and usage of long-term memories, such as the hippocampus.
Working Memory (WM) and Fluid Intelligence
Martinez (2000) described fluid intelligence as the ability to understand complex relationships and solve novel problems. Studies conducted to observe the relationship between working memory and fluid intelligence could not come up with conclusive evidence on the precise relationship between working memory and fluid intelligence. Some have argued that working memory is highly correlated with fluid intelligence that they could be considered isomorphic (Engle, 2002; Jensen, 1998; Kyllonen, 2002; Stauffer, Ree, & Carretta, 1996).
Others opined that these two constructs are barely linked to each other (Deary, 2000; Kline, 2000). However, most of the researchers claimed that working memory and fluid intelligence are closely related, but not identical (Ackerman, Beier, & Boyle, 2005; Beier & Ackerman, 2005; Kane, Hambrick, & Conway, 2005) Intelligence in Adolescents. Intellectual growth continues its rapid pace in early adolescence and then slows down and levels off in later adolescence. A spurt in brain development, some studies suggest, occurs at roughly the age of 11 or 12. Brain development may give children the information processing speed and working memory capacity. Adolescents are in formal operation stage according to Piaget’s developmental stages theory. Its most salient feature is the ability to think abstractly. This gives them a new, more flexible way to manipulate information.
They can now understand historical time and extraterrestrial space. They can use symbols for symbols (letting X stand for a number). They can think in terms of what might be, not just what is. They can imagine possibilities and can form and test hypotheses (hypothetical deductive reasoning). The shift to formal reasoning, Piaget thought was brought about by a combination of brain maturation and expanding environmental opportunities. Both are essential. During late adolescence, fluid intelligence undergoes sharp decline while crystallized intelligence increases rapidly.
- Sensory Memory: History, Theories and Implications
- Working Memory
- What Is Sensory Memory?
- Working memory: past and future
- Working memory as executive attention
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Sensory Perception and Memory Role in Its Processing
Over the years, the issue of whether human beings can trust their conscious awareness has generated numerous reactions. Some people believe that they can trust their senses to interpret data and get an accurate view of the world, while others believe they cannot (Amicus, 2011). Senses play a crucial role in developing a connection between the mind and the world through the interpretation of information.
Experts argue that senses have numerous strengths and weaknesses that influence the accuracy of sensory data and an individual’s thinking ability (Amicus, 2011). People often have the freedom to choose whether to trust their senses or not, depending on the truthfulness of the data interpreted by their minds. Human beings make decisions depending on the sensory information that their brains interpret accurately (Byrne, 2006).
Reasons to believe in physical senses
People use the five senses to understand their feelings, activities, and environmental components that are important to them. This happens due to a number of reasons. First, humans possess a sense of touch. When someone touches something cold, hot, rough, or smooth, the brain receives an instant message that it interprets in order to generate the appropriate reaction (Amicus, 2011). Second, humans possess a sense of smell.
Human beings have the ability to smell and distinguish between a bad and a good odor. For example, it is possible to tell if something is delicious by smelling it (Byrne, 2006). Third, humans possess the ability to see.
The optical ability of human beings plays a crucial role in helping them to understand their environment and the events that take place around them. The ability to see often yields more accurate information compared to the other senses (Byrne, 2006). For example, it is easy to tell if someone is walking or running by observing their movements.
Factors that influence the correctness of sensory data
There are three major factors that contribute to the correctness of sensory data. First, nutrition is an important factor. Food helps to give the body essential energy and nutrients that are crucial for the proper functioning of the senses. If the body is weak, the senses do not receive and interpret data accurately (Byrne, 2006). Second, there is sleep. According to experts, getting enough and quality sleep ensures that the body functions optimally. Lack of enough sleep affects crucial body functions, such as the ability to have a clear vision.
This eventually affects the reliability of sensory data (Byrne, 2006). Third, medication is another key factor. Someone taking drugs can experience blurred vision and poor sensitivity to environmental elements such as heat and smell (Amicus, 2011). Drugs and substance abuse affects the normal functioning of the body in numerous ways.
Role of memory in elucidation and assessment of sensory information
Memory plays a crucial role in helping people to capture, analyze, and retrieve information. The ability of senses to function effectively depends on the ability of memory to retain and recall past experiences (Byrne, 2006). Storage and retrieval of sensory information are very important because it aids in the process of making decisions. Experts argue that past experiences can influence the ability of an individual to trust the accuracy of sensory information delivered by the brain.
When a sensory cue is detected by the body, the brain holds the information captured for a short period before triggering a reaction (Byrne, 2006). One of the most effective ways of understanding the role played by memory in interpreting sensory information entails observing something for a while without moving (Byrne, 2006). Soon after stopping, one realizes that the image captured is maintained by the memory for a few seconds before it fades away.
Amicus, C. (2011). An Introduction to the Nature of things . Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.
Byrne, J. (2006). Technical Translation: Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation . New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media.
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