Science and Technology in Kazakhstan: Current Status and Future Prospects (2007)
Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological competitiveness in the global marketplace during the next few years. At the same time, the government has a wide variety of policies and programs in place that are intended to improve the social and economic well-being of a population of 15.2 million people dispersed over a vast geographical area. Government leaders have emphasized that achieving success both internationally and domestically will depend in large measure on the effectiveness of upgraded science and technology (S&T) capabilities—within the education system, research and development (R&D) institutions, and Kazakhstani production companies and service organizations.
S&T-related activities permeate all sectors of the economy. Given the constraints on time and financial resources available to complete the present study, the National Research Council committee that was responsible for this report focused on a limited number of S&T activities in Kazakhstan. Still, the report identifies important opportunities and limitations in achieving more effective development and use of S&T in a variety of areas. While other aspects of S&T deserve further analyses, the conclusions and recommendations of this report, together with related conclusions of analyses by the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) and other ministries, should help a number of governmental organizations with strong interests in S&T chart the future course of the country.
CONTEXT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF S&T CAPABILITIES
Kazakhstani officials have correctly concluded that the country’s long-term economic well-being will depend in large measure on how wisely its financial
resources are invested in the development of nonoil sectors of the economy and in promotion of sustainable, broad-based economic growth. The country needs to make the transition from producing and exporting primarily unprocessed raw materials to producing and exporting more knowledge-intensive, value-added goods and services, but this transition will take many years. Upgraded S&T capabilities in both the public and the private sectors are essential in moving forward in this regard. However, during the next few years, Kazakhstan has no choice but to rely heavily on foreign technologies to operate and modernize its industrial base and to serve the requirements of its population.
The government must balance the urgent need to strengthen its industrial base through the use of imported technologies with a comparable need to support the rapid development of a capability to generate its own technologies. Thus, the government should support through financial, tax, regulatory, procurement, and other mechanisms the educational and S&T infrastructures necessary for the development in Kazakhstan of technology-intensive goods and services for the Kazakhstani and world markets.
At the present time, however, few industrial companies show interest in the products of local R&D activities. Thus, the future technological needs of companies do not usually play a role in determining the focus of research programs, particularly within public-sector institutions. In the absence of the development of greater “market pull” for technological innovations, the likely success of most technology transfer programs will remain low. Governmental policies such as those noted above that encourage companies to invest in innovation, either in their own laboratories or through outsourcing tasks to R&D institutions, are essential.
MES, other ministries, and many S&T institutions have documented these and other problems that inhibit effective development and application of S&T. Of critical importance, all reports that have been available to the committee underscore the fact that the number of talented and well-trained students who pursue S&T careers in Kazakhstan following completion of their studies is inadequate. This loss of S&T-oriented talent is due in large measure to low salaries, poor laboratory facilities, and housing difficulties that inhibit mobility, along with the attractions of working abroad or entering private business in Kazakhstan. At the same time, many well-established researchers must cope with outmoded laboratory equipment and limitations on financial support that inhibit their personal growth and their contributions to national development.
Unfortunately, the coupling of research with education is often weak. For example, universities are not able to take full advantage of the research capabilities of the 25 independent research institutes that had formerly been under the management of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan. This is due to a variety of factors, including (1) the long history of organizational separation; (2) higher levels of scientific development in most of the institutes and the lack of interest of their scientists in a university environment; and (3) competition
among the educational and the independent research institutions for limited government resources, which discourages early sharing of concepts.
APPROACHES TO UPGRADING S&T CAPABILITIES
Against this background the committee reached the following conclusions:
Considerable time will be required to reach the ambitious goals of the country. Progress is dependent on many factors in addition to the availability of financial resources. In particular, the pace of financial investments should be consistent with the development of human resources that can use the investments effectively.
The Kazakhstani government faces a continuing challenge of choosing between investments in (1) upgrading existing S&T institutions, complexes, or laboratories and (2) replacing or supplementing these institutions, complexes, or laboratories with new facilities. Each approach will have certain advantages in specific situations, and the government needs to draw on objective expertise, domestically or internationally, to identify and assess the advantages and difficulties associated with each approach.
Intense interest by the country’s leadership in the potential economic payoffs from development of “breakthrough” technologies seems to have pushed the importance of modernizing established technologies into the background. In the near term, upgrading established technologies will often have higher payoffs than attempting to introduce entirely new products and processes into uncertain domestic or international commercial markets.
The government has ambitious plans to expand R&D activities so that new products and new processes can be developed in Kazakhstan, but comparable attention should be given to the importance of S&T services (e.g., health care, standards, geological mapping) that have been and should continue to be provided to government organizations, the private sector, and the general public by technology-oriented institutions.
The government and R&D institutions should make special efforts to help ensure that researchers are linked to potential users of the results of research early in the R&D cycle. At the same time, the government should promote programs to educate the S&T community on recently enacted patent legislation concerning government-funded R&D that provides the researchers’ institutions with ownership of the intellectual property rights.
The government should provide incentives for young entrepreneurs to take risks in setting up small innovative firms, such as tax incentives, opportunities to lease research equipment when necessary, and access to incubators.
While the government’s commitment to taking advantage of international experience and expertise is laudable, the selection of international advisers should be made with care, assuring that they are not only experienced in their
fields of interest but also are sensitive to the realities of carrying out activities in Kazakhstan. Prior to engaging international advisers, the relevant government offices should clearly identify the tasks and scope of the results that are expected.
Procurement offices throughout the government of Kazakhstan regularly make decisions as to whether to import products or equipment with embedded technologies or to purchase such products or equipment that are or could be produced or assembled in Kazakhstan. As Kazakhstan continues to develop its industrial base, the government should have a consistent policy as to the extent to which Kazakhstani organizations should be given special consideration in competing with foreign organizations for government contracts. This policy should recognize the importance of procurements that enable Kazakhstani institutions to use their S&T capabilities and to link these capabilities with users of the results of their research.
Kazakhstani officials, in their presentations to political leaders, emphasize the simplicity of a linear model that depicts the movement of an idea from basic research to applied technology to design and development and then to a successful process, product, or service. But the steps are seldom discrete, and the overall process is not simple. While some key officials recognize this reality, others may not. Furthermore, the process of developing a product does not necessarily lead to a successful business, and a substantial failure rate for businesses, particularly technology-intensive businesses, should be anticipated.
The committee has several recommendations as to S&T policy:
The committee is concerned about the intention of the Kazakhstani government to consolidate the administration of all government R&D funds under MES. Before such consolidation is implemented, careful analyses should be carried out of the possible negative impacts on the capabilities of other ministries to draw on and effectively nurture the technical expertise of the R&D institutes for which they are responsible.
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) has limited in-house capability to assess oil, gas, and mineral reserves as a basis for setting development and extraction policies and for negotiating and controlling the activities of national and international companies operating in the country. The current approach of reliance on short-term contracts, awarded on a competitive basis, to provide authoritative natural resources information is not adequate, given the large financial stakes involved. MENR needs a strong resources assessment unit within its organizational structure that can help guide the development and use of hydrocarbon and solid mineral resources in a consistent and sustained manner.
The government should encourage foreign investors to satisfy “local content” requirements through the use of products based on local R&D activities
and the use of services provided by highly skilled Kazakhstani S&T specialists rather than using only low-technology local products and low-skill services to satisfy these requirements while importing S&T-intensive goods and services.
INITIATIVES IN RESEARCH AND EDUCATION
Turning to developments within the universities and research institutes, the committee has reservations about the Kazakhstani government’s plan to establish 15 applied technology centers in specialized technical fields at 15 universities of uneven quality in various regions of the country. These technology centers would be components of five central national laboratories that are planned. The importance of stronger education, applied research, and technology transfer capabilities in a number of disciplines is clear, and the committee recognizes the political appeal of the distribution of technology centers within selected universities in regional cities.
However, the committee recommends an alternative approach. This approach calls for concentrating available resources within three or four technology centers and expanding to a larger number in several years if the initial centers are successful in bridging the gap between research and commercial applications. Also, the locations of the centers should be determined on the basis of open competitions that would not be limited to applications from only universities. If geographic distribution is important, a constraint on the competitions could be a limit on the number of technology centers that could be located in any one city.
Other aspects of higher education are also of considerable importance. As the universities make the transition to the bachelor’s-master’s-Ph.D. degree system, the awarding of the degree of doctor of science should continue and should be widely recognized as a significant scientific achievement. Stronger integration of research and higher education activities should receive priority. In particular, the 25 research institutes that had been components of the Academy of Sciences should gradually become affiliated with the universities during the next few years in a way that avoids further disruption of important research programs. Finally, one or more new grant programs to support postdoctoral scientists at universities, research institutes, and other appropriate institutions should be established, with particular emphasis on using such programs to encourage scientists trained abroad to become researchers in Kazakhstan.
The Ministry of Health has under its jurisdiction a number of medical universities and research centers. However, the universities concentrate almost entirely on classroom education activities. Research centers that are separate from the universities are primarily interested in applied research and publish their research results primarily in Russian-language journals with limited international circulation. Also, clinics are distant from the universities. Establishment of a modern hospital as a component of one of the medical universities and located adjacent to the university, together with an expanded emphasis on basic research
at the university, could serve as a model for significantly improving opportunities for students, researchers, and practitioners to participate routinely in a broad range of education, medical research, and health care activities.
As to research at the agricultural universities and institutes, linkages with international research centers are particularly important. Kazakhstan and other countries with institutions involved in international networks already benefit from the linkages to Kazakhstani institutions. The orientation of agricultural research toward highly applied activities is appropriate in the near term. In the longer term, greater emphasis should be given to basic research, particularly in the universities.
The foregoing comments highlight the significance of higher education as a critical determinant of the technology future of Kazakhstan. The country is fortunate in having a highly literate population that appreciates the value of education and that is eager to expand on the country’s advanced technological achievements in the nuclear and space fields. Sound policies are of course important, and continued economic growth can provide much-needed resources. But only with competent and committed scientists, engineers, and health care professionals will Kazakhstan be able to reach the ambitious goals that have been set. The Bolashak program that provides government financial support for 3,000 students studying at leading universities abroad at any given time reflects the commitment of the government to strengthening the human resource base of the country.
The Kazakhstani government should give special emphasis to several types of activities that cut across the entire range of S&T programs, particularly the following:
Universal broadband access to the Internet by members of the S&T community.
Appropriate modern equipment throughout the research laboratories.
Maintaining the high level of pedagogy in mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, and the earth and atmospheric sciences.
Economics training and research.
Professional scientific societies, industrial associations, and academies of science and engineering.
Standards and quality control.
Publication in English-language journals.
Ethics for S&T-related activities.
Turning to specific S&T areas that deserve priority, the committee developed the following criterion for judging their importance:
Within the area of interest, Kazakhstan has or could have in the next five years the technical leaders and the human and physical resources that are necessary to carry out R&D programs and/or provide S&T services that could contribute in a major way to the social and/or economic progress of the country. Such progress could over time be measured through (1) increased profits for Kazakhstani exporters of products based on R&D achievements or for providers of S&T services for foreign clients, (2) at traction of new domestic and foreign investments in Kazakhstan that uti lize the R&D results or S&T services of local organizations, and/or (3) improved well-being of the general population as a result of the R&D prod ucts or S&T services.
At the same time, expanded government support of the priority area of interest should (1) increase significantly the attractiveness of educational opportunities within the country that have the potential of leading to important S&T-oriented careers for highly talented young people and (2) enhance the prestige of Kazakhstani S&T within the country and internationally.
With this criterion in mind, the committee recommends that the government of Kazakhstan give priority to the S&T aspects of the areas listed below, with the understanding that priorities should be reviewed periodically, perhaps every three years. There may be other areas of particular importance that the committee did not have an opportunity to address, such as the following:
Nuclear science and technology: assessment of nuclear power facilities; radioecology; uranium mining.
Biomedical science and technology: disease surveillance and prevention; cancer therapies; natural products chemistry; orthopedic devices.
Agricultural S&T: cereal grain production; livestock productivity; nutrition.
Hydrocarbon resources: chemical engineering; catalysis; assessment of reserves; environmental protection.
Minerals: metallurgy; assessment of ore deposits; environmental protection.
Construction: seismic-resistant structures; construction materials.
Water science and technology: irrigation systems; monitoring and assessment of water quantity and quality; protection and remediation of water quality.
Finally, hundreds of S&T-intensive programs are under way that involve specialists from Kazakhstan and neighboring countries. Given the long tradition of regional cooperation, the committee recommends expanding regional efforts in several areas that would be of economic as well as S&T benefit to Kazakhstan. Specifically, regional cooperation in the management of transnational water resources is increasingly important. Surveillance for human and animal diseases that are endemic to the region or that could enter the region is of great
concern. Educational experiences for foreign students in public health education and associated research facilities in Kazakhstan could strengthen important professional ties. Finally, the new advanced-technology university in Astana offers an opportunity to attract future scientific leaders from neighboring countries where Kazakhstan hopes to have markets for its high-technology products of the future.
Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological competitiveness in the global market place during the next few years, but achieving success will depend in large measure on the effectiveness of upgraded science and technology (S&T) capabilities. This report identifies important opportunities and limitations in the education system, research and development (R&D) institutions, production companies, and service organizations to help governmental organizations in Kazakhstan with strong interests in S&T chart the future course of the country.
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Science and Technology in Kazakhstan
Current status and future prospects.
Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological competitiveness in the global market place during the next few years, but achieving success will depend in large measure on the effectiveness of upgraded science and technology (S&T) capabilities. This report identifies important opportunities and limitations in the education system, research and development (R&D) institutions, production companies, and service organizations to help governmental organizations in Kazakhstan with strong interests in S&T chart the future course of the country.
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National Research Council. 2007. Science and Technology in Kazakhstan: Current Status and Future Prospects . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11808. Import this citation to: Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager
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- Science and technology
Kazakhstan science and technology. Education in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan science and archeological research.
The origin of science in ancient Kazakhstan dates to antiquity. Archeological research and written sources contain information on the culture of cities and colonies existing in the 6 th- 11 th centuries on the territory of Zhetisu, Central and East Kazakhstan. The founders of this culture were native (local) Turkic tribes: oguzy, karluki, kimaki, and kypchaki.
As a result of the strengthening of the influence of the Arabian Halifat in Central Asia and Kazakhstan, in the 8 th -11 th centuries Islam extended its influence, along with Arabian culture. Arabian language on the Halifat's territory became prevalent; however local culture and language were preserved. Many scientists, natives of the countries conquered by the Arabs, took an active part in the development of Arabian culture. Medieval cities were famous all over the world not because of their markets and handicrafts, but for poets, scientists, artists, great libraries, and educational institutions.
Otrar city, located on the Great Silk Road which had important geographic and economic value and led from China to Europe, had a special significance. The Farab library was the largest storehouse of wealthy manuscript literature, even compared with the Alexandrine library in Egypt. The great scientist Abu Nasr Al Farabi was born in Farab city. His scientific heritage is contained in more than 100 literary works.
In the Karahanid state, existing in the 10th-11th centuries on the territory of Kazakhstan, the outstanding poet and thinker Jusuf Balasaguni created his literary works. His work "Kutadgu Bilig" ("Beneficial Knowledge") became known in many countries. Already in those days, an exceptional contribution by Eastern progressive thinkers in science and culture had been recognized by Europe. This has been testified to by translations of Eastern scientists' and thinkers' literary works, which gained wide spread dissemination in the 10th-12th centuries in France, Europe, Spain and other states.
At the end of the 17 th and beginning of the 18 th centuries, scientists of Russia and several countries of Western Europe began to research Kazakhstan's territory, and study its history, culture, life and the customs of its population.
The first fundamental work on the history of the Kazakh "Description of Kyrgyz-Kazakh or Kyrgyz-Kaisak hordes and steppes" (1832) had been created by A. I. Levshin. Sh. Valikhanov had named him "the Kazakh nation's" Herodotus and his monograph is considered an invaluable scientific property. Well-known Russian researchers P. P. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, N. M. Przhevalsky, and G. N. Potanin made an important contribution not only to the study of the land but also to the creation of democratic scientific thought in the latter half of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries. This research and also that of V. V. Grigoriev, N. F. Kostylezky, E. P. Mikhaelis, P. E. Makovetsky, and A. A. Blek exerted great influence on the spiritual formation of Kazakh democrats like Sh. Valikhanov, Y. Altynsarin, and A. Kunanbayev.
At the beginning of the 20 th century most Kazakh children had the opportunity to study only in countryside medresehs where training had been limited to memorizing Koran ayats. On the eve of 1916 there were only several Russian and Russian Kazakh schools on Kazakhstan's territory, in which 19,370 Kazakh children were studying
By 1932 there were more than 10 research institutes, about a hundred base stations, laboratories and weather stations, and several geological survey organizations. The Kazakh Base of the Science Academy of the USSR, was created on 8 March 1932 with zoology and botany branches operating there. In 1935, the Kazakh Research Institute of National culture, including Kazakh language and literature and folk arts branches had been placed under the authority of the Kazakh Base of the Science Academy of the USSR. At that time, the Almaty Botanical Garden laid its foundation, and medical science was developing.
During the War, plenty of scientific institutions and institutes of higher education were evacuated to the Republic. World-famous scientists were working there, such as I. P. Bardin, L. S. Berg, V. I. Vernadsky, N. F. Gamaleya, I. I. Meshaninov, N. D. Zelinsky, L. I. Mandelshtam, N. V. Tsitsin, S. G. Strumilin, A. M. Pankratova, A. E. Favorskiy, S. E. Malov, V. G. Fesenkov, G. A. Tikhov, B. A. Vorontsov-Veliaminov and others. These scientists made a number of suggestions of great value for defense and pertaining to the national economy, discovering deposits of ferrous metals, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese ore and others. In 1942 were organized the Institute of astronomy and physics and the Institute of metallurgy and chemicals, and in 1943, the Institutes of soil science, botany, zoology and tropical diseases. From 1942-1945 the specialized Institute of chemistry, metallurgy and mining, fireproof and building materials, and zoology was established.
The year 1991 was the beginning of new period in the development of native science. The law "On scientific and technical politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan" was passed 15th January 1992, and in the same year the Ministry of science and new technologies was founded. Since 1993 state expertise of scientific and technical programs, which are financed with public funds has been supported. A unified procedure of the registration of reporting documentation by development of structural and technological works in the republic has confirmed the legislative basis of financing scientific-technical and experience-structural works.
The results of this work, which have been conducted in the scientific-technical area, were exhibited in Astana in February 1998. Projects of government programs on the development of mechanical engineering, atomic industry and energy in the country, as well the conclusion of development of a mining and smelting complex in republic were completed. For the first time native computers and a series of electronic equipment of industrial and ordinary application had been produced.
The scientists of the republic made their contribution in ensuring the processes of public administration. The history of Kazakhstan and Kazakh philosophy has been explored since ancient times. New philosophy and methodology of science has been created in the context of the mixing of eastern and western cultures. The development of constitutional processes in the Republic of Kazakhstan, Eurasian fusion and geopolitics has been explored, population forecasts made. The hundred years anniversary of academician K. I. Satpayev was included in the register of jubilees conducted under the support of UNESCO. An international scientific symposium dedicated to this event was held in Paris 15-23 April 1999. The exhibition "The scientists of Kazakhstan: from the past to the future: was also organized.
Investigations of science, which have been conducted in the last few years, have been directed at the competitive capacity of native science and technology. In order to create projects associated with the restructuring science of the scientific base, the increase in efficiency of the use of natural and mineral resources, production of new materials and products, improvement in processing of human and industrial waste, stabilization of the operations of the mining and smelting complex, and use of molecular and cellular biology in biotechnology, medicine, agriculture, communications, and atomic energy. The years of independence have been characterized by new methods of science and science administration, creating favorable conditions for scientists' work, the training of a new generation of scientific personnel, and searching for an effective systemic fusion of education and science.
If we examine the Middle East, we can see that education was introduced from other states, sometimes because of a higher grade of social development or because of conquering armies, which subjugated most of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. In the Pre-Islamic period educational and scientific centers were established by emigrants from the West.
As a result of the Arab conquests (beginning in 651), Islam became the dominant religion in the region and, accordingly, the Arabic language and alphabet became standard. For many centuries reading, writing and education were the prerogative of the elite, a necessary prerequisite for working in government administration. So, in the 8 th -9 th centuries in official documents and literature, the hegemony of Arabic language was established, which was companion of and guide to Islam. It is possible to draw an analogy with Latin, which was a ubiquitous feature of culture and education, introduced to Western Europe through the Catholic Church. During this era, Islamic schools appeared and grew in the region. The Medieval schools of the Muslim world can be divided into two types: Maktabs (Dabristan) and Madrasahs. A Maktab is a primary school attached to a mosque; a madrasah is a type of secondary and high school.
Only boys were allowed to become literate. Medieval Islamic schools had much in common with each other, though they greatly varied in their standards of education. They showed social distinction, as well as the evolution of the development of this type of school. One of the first rate Madrasah was established by the famous astronomer Nizamal-Mulk in the latter half of the11th century in Baghdad, with government support, with salaries for teachers and grants for pupils.
In Iran and the Central Asian lands of the Arabian caliphate existed prohibitions on the translation of the Koran from Arabic into other languages. This prohibition was observed for centuries. Tabari translated the Koran into Persian in the 10 th century, but his book was banned.
Central Asia and Kazakhstan were invaded from the East by the immense nomadic armies of Genghis Khan in 1219, and carts with warriors' families followed them. Thus, a new period in the history of the Kazakh steppes had begun. During the 15 th -16 th centuries the most well known Madrasahs were in Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent. These Madrasahs, which have been treasured since their creation, today are considered monuments of architecture. The Kazakh and Kyrgyz nationalities formed on their respective present territories during the 16 th century. Subsequently, diplomatic and trade relations with the Russian Empire became stronger, leading to the next stage of development of the education system and the spreading of literacy.
Secular Kazakh Schools
The history of secular Kazakh schools began in 1789. The first such establishment. "Asian College", was opened in Omsk. This town was the center of administration of the northern regions of present Kazakhstan. In 1825 the Nepluev School was created, and in 1844 it was re-organized as a Military School. A seven-year school attached to the frontier committee of Orenburg opened in 1850. The teaching of Islam had prevailed there, but subsequently the curriculum was extended. Russian history, mathematics, geometry and geography were introduced in 1859. Altynsarin studied in this school. Teaching was carried out in Russian, but Tatar was studied too. The first woman's school for Kazakh girls opened in 1883. In this period the Vernen men's preparatory school began operation. Obligatory subjects were mathematics, physics, logic, history, Russian language and literature, and religion. There were four languages taught: new - German and French; and classical - Greek and Latin. In addition, singing, drawing, sketching, calligraphy, gymnastics and dance were taught. Occasionally, educational hikes around Lake Issyk Kul, Almaty and Lake Issyk were arranged.
However, the general education system had been kept unproductive. Before the revolution, the literacy rate averaged a few percent in Kazakhstan. In 1916, the number of pupils in Kazakhstan averaged 164,859.
Education during the period of socialism
At the beginning of the 20 th century, intensive development of education and pedagogical science began in the region. A new generation of enlighteners appeared on the public scene. They evolved the materialistic opinions of their predecessors, and introduced new ideas in the area of teaching.
The realization of a broad program of economic and social reorganization in the former outlying districts of the Soviet Union began after the establishment of Soviet power. By the 1940's illiteracy in Kazakhstan had been eliminated, and a new school of general education for the entire population was created in place of the old country schools. Elementary, vocational and high schools began to operate.
Publishing had an important significance in the development of pedagogical science. In 1919, the Bukeev branch of the People's committee published "Mugalim" ("The teacher") pedagogical magazine. Published articles emphasized the high prestige of educators and parents, and the educational opinions of Aristotle, Socrates, Z. Z. Rousseau, L. N. Tolstoy and many others. This first published work promoted the creation of the first Kazakh schools.
In 1928 the Pedagogical Institute, where training of specialists for schools of general education and secondary schools was carried out, was founded. The idea of general literacy was promoted as the first and foremost challenge or graduating students.
Cattle-breeding districts of Republic had waited for the opening of The Veterinary Institute in 1929 impatiently.
The Capital of Kazakhstan experienced a rise not only in terms of the national economy. It was a time of the development of social art. Musical, Choreographic and dramatic arts schools opened in Alma-Ata city in 1930. The Institute of Agriculture opened its doors in 1930.
In 1931 the State Medical Institute began training high quality specialists in occupations with good job opportunities. Pediatricians, therapists, surgeons and doctors of particular specializations mastered all the subtle skills of their respective fields, drawing on Russian and foreign clinicians' experience.
The Kazakh Republic Technical School of physical training, which became a favorite in student circles, has operated since 1932.
1934 was the year of the grand opening of Kazakh State University. The famous history of this institute of higher education's activity became the model for a whole era of education. Kazakh State University was the first to provide brainpower and scientific elites to the Kazakh Republic.
The Artistic School received its first students. Young people were enlightened with the knowledge of the history of world arts and the practical skills of applied artistic creations beginning in 1938.
A group of writers and scientists created original textbooks for Kazakh schools from the 1920's to the 1940's.
Teachers training college of foreign languages in Almaty was created in 1941. Kazakh womens' teacher training college was created in 1944. Liberal arts education was offered to future teachers, musicians, choreographers, psychologists and speech therapists.
At the same time, the Kazakh State Conservatory began enrollment of musicology and performing arts faculties. For the first time in the conservatory were heard the sounds of piano, fiddle, flute, kobiz and dombra, bayan and balalaika. The choral part of the Conservatory found talented, promising students. The Kazakh State Institute of Physical training was opened in the last year of world war two.
Since 1957, the State has organized boarding schools for children from broken families and those with poor health.
In 1963 the Institute of national economics, which promoted the ideas of the progressive period in the history of socialism, was created. Students of the Institute received knowledge of economic and social sciences.
The Energy Institute of Almaty has provided education for electrical engineering specialists for the needs of the national industry and municipal services since 1975.
In 1976 the Institute of railway transportation engineers of Almaty began education of engineers on vitally important areas of transportation engineering.
The Institute of Artistic Theatre for creative youth was created in 1978. There were trained specialists for national theatres, Kazakh cinema and television, and artistic and choreographic arts, which are famous all over the world.
The Architectural and Construction institute of Almaty started its education of students in 1980. This institute turns out architects, creators, designers, builders and engineers.
Eminent statesmen have made definite contributions to the development and formation of education and science in the republic, such as S. Asfendiyarov, S. Zhandosov, T. Zhurgynov, S. Mendeshev, T. Ryskulov, N. Toreculov, I. Omarov and others, greats of Kazakh literature, such as M. Auyezov, S. Seyfullin, I. Zhansugurov, B. Maylin, S. Mukanov, G. Musrepov, G. Mustafin; art and science workers: A. Zhubanov, S. Amanzholov, E. Bekmakhanov, M. Gabdullin, S. Zhienbayev, A. Margulan, K. Satpayev, D, Tursunov, M. Khamraev, and others.
of OrexCA.com and KTA and KAGIR. Information has been taken from the "All about tourism in Kazakhstan".
Science in Kazakhstan: Current Situation and New Developments
When we look at the latest scientific and technological developments in the world, we can see that science covers almost all areas of our lives. In recent years, many changes and innovations have been implemented in Kazakhstan in terms of scientific developments. As it is known, many scientific project announcements supported by the state are carried out in a competitive environment. In this process, besides the production of information, some bureaucratic procedures are required to be completed.
Junior research fellow.
Balzhan Eshmetova Batyrhanovna is a research-fellow at the Eurasian Research Institute. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degree from Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. She also received her bachelor’s degree in “Law” from Almaty University of Continuing Education. She completed her doctorate in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Oriental Studies, TURKSOY Department in the specialty of “6D021200-Turcology”. During the study, she did research under the International Mevlana program in Omar Halisdemir University (Republic of Turkey, in Nigde). She did her scientific inter
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Science in Kazakhstan: achievements and changes
ALMATY. October 20. Press center – What progress has been made in domestic science over the last 30 years? We are pleased to present top 10 achievements of Kazakh science within the years of independence.
Laser for health
In 1994, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Alshynbai Rakhishev received an inventor's certificate from the National Patent Office, allowing the use of lasers for medical purposes. The results of many years of experiments by Professor Rakhishev turned out to be significant. The domestic scientist managed to experimentally prove the positive stimulating effect of low-energy goose lasers on the vascular and nervous systems of a person. This discovery made it possible to use laser radiation to improve human health.
Domestic alloy «Kazakhstanskiy»
In 2008, the «Kazakhstanskiy» alloy was patented. The new material is used in metallurgy for deoxidation, alloying and modification of steel. In other words, the domestic alloy improves the structure and quality of steel by reducing non-metallic inclusions and visible hot cracks. The alloy contains silicon, aluminum, calcium, barium, vanadium, titanium, carbon and iron. Also, the "Kazakhstanskiy" alloy allows to increase the degree of extraction of manganese into steel, increases its impact toughness. And the economic feasibility of the alloy consists in the use of cheap high-ash carbonaceous rocks instead of expensive coke.
In 2013, Kazakh scientist Fail Sultanov began a project to develop superhydrophobic sponges for collecting spilled oil. The author was prompted to this idea by working with airgel - an expensive but highly absorbent material. It was decided to work with a ready-made structure. In the beginning, they took an ordinary polyurethane sponge, which people use every day at home. The walls of the sponge were coated with nanomaterials - graphene and carbon nanotubes - which made it superhydrophobic (the ability to completely repel water). Due to the porosity of the material, sponges perfectly absorb organic liquids, and due to their hydrophobicity, they do not absorb water. Super-sponges are used as filters and purify water from organics by 95-97%. High hydrophobicity, high sorption capacity, low cost, regenerability and environmental friendliness allow using the discovery to clean up reservoirs from spilled oil.
Creation of super-accumulators
In 2015, Kazakh scientist Tolganai Temirgalieva and Japanese professor Suguru Noda took up a project to create supercapacitors. If ordinary capacitors (or batteries) have a limited charge-discharge resource, then supercapacitors can very quickly (in a few minutes) charge and release energy. At the same time, "super-accumulators" have an almost infinite charge-discharge cycle - for a conventional capacitor this figure is only 1,000, and for supercapacitors - from 10,000 to 500,000 cycles, that is, they are 10-500 times more durable.
Supercapacitors store more energy for every cubic centimeter of their volume.This effect is achieved through the use of porous activated carbons, which were obtained from rice hulls and apricot pits. Carbons from organic material, being used as capacitors, have an electrical capacity of 180-200 farads per gram.
The advantage of domestic development is in greater capacity and low cost. In fact, carbons are created from waste (rice husks and apricot kernels), which, among other things, do not pollute the environment and do not require special disposal like traditional batteries. Supercapacitors can be used in telephones, electronic electricity meters, security alarm systems, measuring instruments and medical devices.
In 1998, in a kurgan near the village of Berel in the Chiliktinskaya valley, which is In the Kazakhstan region, a joint Kazakh-French expedition led by the famous domestic archaeologist Zeinolla Samashev discovered the burial of the Saka prince, which dates back to the IV century. BC NS. It contained household items, jewelry and the remains of 13 horses with a harness decorated with gilded horns. The analysis showed that the horses from the mound are more than 2 thousand years old. Large-scale archaeological research of the Berel burial ground continues to this day. Already investigated about 70 elite and ordinary mounds of the era of early nomads.
Device for bioresonance activation of seeds
In 1999, studies began on ways of bioresonance activation of seeds, the main person of which was Professor Abdumalik Ashirov. He developed a device that acts on seeds with a low-frequency electromagnetic field. When processing seeds, 18 parameters are taken into account, including cosmogeophysical (the position of the Moon, the Sun, the location of other planets, solar flares, tidal forces of gravity, tectonic faults and others).
Scientists have obtained positive results when processing seeds of wheat, barley, rice , corn, rye, potatoes, pumpkin, cucumbers, beets, as well as oats and cotton. In 2004, Professor Ashirov was awarded a diploma for his scientific discovery "The regularity of the enhancement of bioresonance activation of agricultural seeds" and the medal of P.L. Kapitsa.
Composite fertilizer «Humint»
Kazakhstani science is rich in discoveries and developments in the field of agricultural sciences. One of such developments is «Humint». The composite fertilizer developed by scientists of the Institute of Organic Synthesis and Coal Chemistry headed by Professor Serik Fazylov has a flexible formula. Its composition can be changed by increasing the proportion of essential macronutrients. Moreover, "Humint" can retain water and give it to plants during drought. Fertilizer is produced from chicken manure and waste from the coal industry.
The appearance of fertilizer became possible after Kazakhstani researchers found a way to obtain humic substances from young coals and peat. Humic substances are natural components that are used in industry and agriculture. "Humint" accelerates the development of plants, makes them more resistant to unfavorable weather conditions, increases productivity by 15-20%.
Humates (salts of humic substances) contain less nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but contain the organic matter necessary for plants - proteins and carbohydrates. Thanks to humates, humus is formed in the soil, air permeability and moisture capacity of the earth improves.
Development of the Kazakh vaccine QazCovid-in
The vaccine against COVID-19 was developed by the Scientific Research Institute of Biological Safety Problems of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The QazVac vaccine is inactivated and the body produces protective antibodies when used. The vaccine is given in two doses 21 days apart. QazVac is stored at a temperature of + 2-8 degrees Celsius, which makes it unpretentious for transportation and storage in comparison with foreign counterparts.
Clinical trials of the vaccine began on December 25, 2020. In Kazakhstan, the vaccine has been used since April 26, 2021 and as of August 17, 6 million people have received the vaccine.
Catalyst for the refining process
An important development in the field of oil refining is the discovery of Kazakh scientist Khadichakhan Rafikova. She developed a method for creating rhodium-iridium catalysts based on phosphorus-containing ionic liquids. These liquids are used in the hydrogenation of acetophenone, the combined production of styrene and propylene oxide from ethylbenzene and propene, and the production of stilbenes necessary for the production of semi-rigid plastics by copolymerization with more active monomers. Usually, acids that are harmful to the atmosphere are used for such purposes. And the catalysts created by domestic scientists headed by Khadichakhan Rafikova allow carrying out the necessary processes on the basis of harmless water.
Discovery of the phenomenon of «thresholdless amplification of surface acoustic waves»
In 2015, researchers from Kazakhstan, Russia and the United States reported a discovery in physics. A group of scientists, including professors Zinetula Insepov and Kurbangali Tynyshtykbaev, using graphene managed to amplify high-frequency acoustic signals, while spending little energy. The effect of "non-threshold amplification of the surface acoustic wave" revealed by scientists in 2017 was tested by independent organizations in Russia. Experts acknowledged that the study is indeed a scientific discovery in the field of acoustoelectronics. Their discovery allows the use of the strongest, thinnest and most lightweight electrically conductive material - graphene - in micro- and nanoelectronics.
Scientists at Nazarbayev University, where the experiments took place, deposited a film of graphene on the surface of a piezoelectric crystal - a material that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. At the same time, graphene was exposed to a constant current source. In the course of the experiment, a unique phenomenon was recorded: a thresholdless amplification of the amplitude of acoustic traveling waves, which were generated by a high-frequency electric current, but amplified by a direct current, occurred on the surface of the piezoelectric crystal. As a result, the energy of the acoustic waves was incommensurably greater than the original acoustic signal. The discovery is of significant value for the defense industry, medicine, national security and space communications. Research in domestic science is gaining new strength.
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