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Insights Social Psychology and the Business World

Social psychology and the business world, blog | psychology insights from haas faculty.

Psychology is the study of behavior, cognition, and consciousness. Social psychology is understanding an individual’s behavior, decisions, and influences in specific social contexts. Business practices employ this knowledge in a wide array of areas ranging from marketing to management, utilizing theory to sell products or to become a more effective team leader.

One major area of focus in social psychology research looks at the various important relationships that are prevalent in the business world, such as those between the corporation and its customer base, upper management to the rest of the corporation, and between peers, to name a few. Social psychologists are also fascinated by power: power dynamics, the effect of power on those in leadership roles, and negotiations between parties. Additionally, psychologists examine business ethics and environment, factors that form a company’s culture. All of these topics investigate the construction of feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and goals and their influences on human interactions. As social beings, how we make sense of ourselves and wider social networks are enormously important parts of our daily experience.

Among the Berkeley Executive Education faculty, there are many notable psychologists that perform research and implement their peer-reviewed publications into their teaching. Dacher Keltner, faculty member for the Women’s Executive Leadership Program, examined the effect of power on those in leadership roles for Harvard Business Review in 2016. “While people usually gain power through traits and actions that advance the interests of others, such as empathy, collaboration, openness, fairness, and sharing,” he writes, “when they start to feel powerful or enjoy a position of privilege, those qualities begin to fade. The powerful are more likely than other people to engage in rude, selfish, and unethical behavior. The 19th-century historian and politician, Lord Acton, got it right: “Power does tend to corrupt.” Keltner describes this psychological effect as the power paradox, where people rise through the ranks based off their good qualities, but their behavior worsens as they rise. Additionally, the newer the leader, the more likely they are to lose their good attributes. Becoming aware of how power affects those who hold it can be critical to both leaders and their teams. How does one combat these consequences? Keltner says by practicing awareness, empathy and generous action.

Dr. Holly Schroth is the faculty director of our Negotiations and Influence  program. She is also the author of multiple research articles on negotiations and conflict. In one particular study, she explores the role of anger and strong emotions in the negotiating process. In a recent research article, she looks into teaching strategies for managing and harnessing emotions evoked by conflict during negotiation. She says that there are two kinds of anger: tactical and genuine. There are ways to recognize and utilize such a strong emotion during negotiations. Schroth claims that the ability to manage your own and the other party’s anger is a powerful tool.

Dr. Laura Kray is the Warren E. and Carol Speiker Professor of Leadership and the faculty director for our Women’s Executive Leadership program. She has published over 60 articles on her work with stereotypes, ethics, and negotiations. One of her research articles from 2017 investigated gender differences during negotiations within a social-cognitive paradigm. Kray and her team used this framework to explain gender differences in ethics, differences that manifest as moral identities in negotiator behavior. The study found that women internalize moral traits in their identities. These moral identities suppress unethical behavior, and financial incentives increase women’s, but not men’s, unethical negotiating behavior. There are negative stereotypes surrounding women’s ability to negotiate as well as men, and Kray’s research could give light to the origin of these stereotypes and possible insight on how to break them down.

Dr. Jennifer Chatman is the Paul J. Cortese Distinguished Professor of Management and faculty director for our Leading-High Performance Culture program. One of her recent research articles asks if leadership has discernible effects on individual behavior and organizational outcomes. She examined the characteristics and behaviors of leaders to understand how they “garner followers, inspire small groups, how (they) capture entire organization’s attention and cultivate intense commitment among members to realize organizational goals” (Kray, 2017). These traits were not what you might expect: confidence, dominance, assertiveness, and intelligence did not have much predictive validity. Instead, diagnostic capabilities, breadth and flexibility of behavioral repertoire, and understanding of leadership paradox were good predictors of effective leadership. These qualities allow a leader to create a sense of membership within the group for their subordinates, resulting in a stronger team and stronger organization.

Understanding the psychology of various business practices can lead to improved solutions. Many areas of business use the tools of psychology to understand an individual’s behavior within a group, and social psychology may be the tool that can lead to even more efficient, adaptive, and innovative practices.

Written by: Corinne McGinley UC Berkeley Executive Education Sales & Marketing Intern UC Berkeley undergraduate student

Schroth, H. A. (2008). Some like it hot: Teaching strategies for managing tactical versus genuine anger in negotiations. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 1(4)

psychology business essay

  • Original Paper
  • Published: 17 January 2019

Psychology and Business Ethics: A Multi-level Research Agenda

  • Gazi Islam 1  

Journal of Business Ethics volume  165 ,  pages 1–13 ( 2020 ) Cite this article

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Business! Mankind was my business. The common welfare was my business…The dealings of my trade were but a drop of water in the comprehensive ocean of my business! –Ghost of Marley, Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol

Arguing that psychology and business ethics are best brought together through a multi-level, broad-based agenda, this essay articulates a vision of psychology and business ethics to frame a future research agenda. The essay draws upon work published in JBE, but also identifies gaps where published research is needed, to build upon psychological conceptions of business ethics. Psychological concepts, notably, are not restricted to phenomena “in the head”, but are discussed at the intra-psychic, relational, and contextual levels of analysis. On the basis of this presentation, I discuss future directions for development in psychology and business ethics, including but not limited to studies of personality, emotion, decision making, motivation, and the biological bases of psychology and business ethics. An inclusive approach to these and related areas, it is argued, will both bring about depth of understanding on the psychological bases of business ethics, and allow dialogue across disciplinary areas within JBE.

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psychology business essay

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Islam, G. Psychology and Business Ethics: A Multi-level Research Agenda. J Bus Ethics 165 , 1–13 (2020).

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Received : 20 January 2018

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Published : 17 January 2019

Issue Date : August 2020


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Defining Business Psychology As A Field

Modern day business psychology finds its roots in industrial psychology, which originated in the United States in the early 1900s. Its practical application took off in the wake of World War I and World War II. 

Today, the science of psychology is helping to redefine what makes a successful workplace. Business psychology combines multi-disciplinary business study with the latest psychological and neuroscience research. Business psychology degrees explore traditional business and psychology disciplines in non-traditional ways, focusing on the qualitative and human aspects of marketing, economics, finance, management, and human resources.

How Is Business Psychology Used In Organizations? 

Human relationships are core to the success of any business. From employee to consumer interactions, no one understands this crucial aspect of business better than leaders of top companies who use business psychology to their competitive advantage.

psychology business essay

Business psychology can be used in every facet of business. Let’s look at the influential ways business psychology is used in organizations in every industry.

  • Marketing: Marketing professionals apply psychological principles in new product or service marketing. Business psychology helps them understand consumer behavior, develop motivational messaging and create compelling marketing campaigns to convert customers.
  • Talent Recruiting & Management: Business psychology helps human resource professionals differentiate job applicants using behavioral science methods. It also teaches them motivational coaching techniques to improve employee performance.
  • Executive Leadership: Business leaders can use psychology tools to assess the business intelligence of an organization and create processes that stimulate innovation and productivity.
  • Change Management: Change can be a difficult process at any organization. Whether moving to a remote workforce or addressing ethical challenges, understanding human behavior can help managers anticipate and mitigate workforce issues. 
  • Organizational Culture: Defining a corporate culture helps organizations develop long-term strategies, hire the right people and grow their brand. Understanding the value of neuroscience tools in the workplace can build a long-lasting and powerful corporate culture.

What matters most when choosing a master’s program? Compare features, benefits and cost to find the right school for you.  

The role of business psychologists: what they do.

Business psychologists have a variety of responsibilities within their organization. Due to their influential role in employee management, emotional intelligence and dedication are leading traits in this career choice.

Day-to-day responsibilities may vary by role or department, however, all business psychologists need to be equipped to complete the following tasks:

  • Increase business efficiency and employee productivity.
  • Establish employee training and development programs.
  • Provide motivational leadership and coaching for employees.
  • Perform employee evaluations.
  • Improve organizational structure to meet business goals.
  • Enhance workplace safety and employee wellbeing.

5 Career Paths for Business Psychology Professionals

psychology business essay

There are many different career paths for individuals with a business psychology degree. Business psychologists can be found in organizations large and small across the private, public and nonprofit sectors. 

Getting a master’s degree in business psychology can help professionals advance to management and executive leadership positions, which offer higher pay, better job stability and increased employment opportunities.

Let’s look at some of the popular career paths for professionals with a master’s degree in business psychology.

Industrial-Organizational Psychologist

The most direct translation of a business psychology degree is to pursue a career as an industrial or organizational psychologist. These professionals apply psychological principles and research methods to enhance the overall work environment, including: employee performance, interdepartmental communication, professional satisfaction and workplace safety.

  • Median Income: $96,270
  • Projected Job Growth: 3%

Management Analyst

Management analysts, also called management consultants, recommend ways to improve organizational efficiency. A degree in business psychology provides both the business process knowledge and qualitative analysis skills to take human behavior into account when making suggestions for improvement. 

  • Median Income: $87,660
  • Projected Job Growth: 11%

Marketing Manager

Marketing managers plan and direct promotional programs, such as determining the demand for products and services, identifying potential customers and developing pricing strategies. Getting a degree in business psychology prepares these professionals to research, monitor and evaluate customer behavior to optimize marketing initiatives.

  • Median Income: $134,290
  • Projected Job Growth: 7%

Human Resources Manager

Human resources managers are responsible for recruiting, developing and retaining top talent. These professionals consult with top executives on strategic planning, serving as a link between an organization’s management and its employees. A business psychology degree is a natural fit for this role that requires empathy and motivational skills.

  • Median Income: $121,220
  • Projected Job Growth: 6%

Top Executive

Top executives are responsible for developing and implementing business strategies. Many prospective executives lean toward MBA degrees when considering advanced education. However, in today’s highly competitive markets, expertise in human-centered leadership can be a differentiating factor. A business psychology master’s degree can give you an edge by giving you a well-rounded business education from a qualitative, people-first perspective.

  • Median Income: $107,680
  • Projected Job Growth: 4%

Prepare For A Career In Business Psychology With a Master’s Degree

Advancing your career in business can greatly benefit from understanding human behavior and motivation. Earning a master’s degree in business psychology is an ideal way to make yourself an empathetic and holistic leader.

Franklin University offers an online M.S. in Business Psychology degree that can be completed in as few as 14 months. At Franklin, experienced business professionals teach you to combine business strategy with the latest psychological research to empower business growth.

See how Franklin University’s M.S. in Business Psychology can prepare you to apply new insights into human behavior to solve business challenges and advance your career. 

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Journal of Business and Psychology

The Journal of Business and Psychology (JBP) is an international outlet publishing high quality research designed to advance organizational science and practice.  Since its inception in 1986, the journal has published impactful scholarship in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Human Resources Management, Work Psychology, Occupational Psychology, and Vocational Psychology.

Typical subject matters include

  •          Team processes and effectiveness
  •          Customer service and satisfaction
  •          Employee recruitment, selection, and promotion
  •          Employee engagement and withdrawal
  •          Organizational culture and climate
  •          Training, development and coaching
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  •          Leadership
  •          Workplace health, stress, and safety
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  •          Careers and retirement
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  •          Employee motivation and job design
  •          Organizational change and development
  •          Employee citizenship and deviance
  •          Organizational effectiveness
  •          Work-nonwork/work-family

Rigorous quantitative, qualitative, field-based, and lab-based empirical studies are welcome.  Interdisciplinary scholarship is valued and encouraged.  Submitted manuscripts should be well-grounded conceptually and make meaningful contributions to scientific understandingsand/or the advancement of science-based practice.    

The Journal of Business and Psychology is

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Issue 5, October 2023

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Leader Identity on the Fly: Intra-personal Leader Identity Dynamics in Response to Strong Events

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  • Published: 05 September 2023

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Well-being: the Ultimate Criterion for Organizational Sciences

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Free access articles, july 2023.

Check out these five articles which are currently free to access from the Journal of Business and Psychology through August 31st, 2023. 

Call for Papers: Security, Privacy, and Surveillance in Cyberspace: Organizational Science Concerns and Contributions

This special issue follows a paper recently published in the Journal of Business and Psychology (Dalal et al., in press). The goal of the current special issue, building on the recent paper, is to catalyze micro-, meso-, and macro-organizational science research on cyber security, privacy, and surveillance. We welcome submissions that emphasize knowledge transfer from organizational science to cyber security, privacy, and/or surveillance as well as submissions that emphasize knowledge transfer in the opposite direction.

Guest Editors:  Reeshad S. Dalal, Rebecca J. Bennett, Clay Posey Submission Deadline:  April 15, 2022

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50+ Topics of Psychology Research

How to Find Psychology Research Topics for Your Student Paper

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

psychology business essay

Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

psychology business essay

Are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper ? Sometimes it seems like coming up with topics of psychology research is more challenging than the actual research and writing. Fortunately, there are plenty of great places to find inspiration and the following list contains just a few ideas to help get you started.

Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. Psychology is such a broad topic, so you want to find a topic that allows you to adequately cover the subject without becoming overwhelmed with information.

In some cases, such as in a general psychology class, you might have the option to select any topic from within psychology's broad reach. Other instances, such as in an  abnormal psychology  course, might require you to write your paper on a specific subject such as a psychological disorder.

As you begin your search for a topic for your psychology paper, it is first important to consider the guidelines established by your instructor.

Topics of Psychology Research Within Specific Branches

The key to selecting a good topic for your psychology paper is to select something that is narrow enough to allow you to really focus on the subject, but not so narrow that it is difficult to find sources or information to write about.

One approach is to narrow your focus down to a subject within a specific branch of psychology. For example, you might start by deciding that you want to write a paper on some sort of social psychology topic. Next, you might narrow your focus down to how persuasion can be used to influence behavior.

Other social psychology topics you might consider include:

  • Prejudice and discrimination (i.e., homophobia, sexism, racism)
  • Social cognition
  • Person perception
  • Social control and cults
  • Persuasion , propaganda, and marketing
  • Attraction, romance, and love
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Prosocial behavior

Psychology Research Topics Involving a Disorder or Type of Therapy

Exploring a psychological disorder or a specific treatment modality can also be a good topic for a psychology paper. Some potential abnormal psychology topics include specific psychological disorders or particular treatment modalities, including:

  • Eating disorders
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • Profile a  type of therapy  (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, psychoanalytic therapy)

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Cognition

Some of the possible topics you might explore in this area include thinking, language, intelligence, and decision-making. Other ideas might include:

  • False memories
  • Speech disorders
  • Problem-solving

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Development

In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to  early childhood  such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt to concentrate on issues that affect older adults such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

Some other topics you might consider include:

  • Language acquisition
  • Media violence and children
  • Learning disabilities
  • Gender roles
  • Child abuse
  • Prenatal development
  • Parenting styles
  • Aspects of the aging process

Do a Critique of Publications Involving Psychology Research Topics

One option is to consider writing a critique paper of a published psychology book or academic journal article. For example, you might write a critical analysis of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams or you might evaluate a more recent book such as Philip Zimbardo's  The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil .

Professional and academic journals are also great places to find materials for a critique paper. Browse through the collection at your university library to find titles devoted to the subject that you are most interested in, then look through recent articles until you find one that grabs your attention.

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Famous Experiments

There have been many fascinating and groundbreaking experiments throughout the history of psychology, providing ample material for students looking for an interesting term paper topic. In your paper, you might choose to summarize the experiment, analyze the ethics of the research, or evaluate the implications of the study. Possible experiments that you might consider include:

  • The Milgram Obedience Experiment
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment
  • The Little Albert Experiment
  • Pavlov's Conditioning Experiments
  • The Asch Conformity Experiment
  • Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Experiments

Topics of Psychology Research About Historical Figures

One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the  history of psychology  and write a paper about them. Your paper might focus on many different elements of the individual's life, such as their biography, professional history, theories, or influence on psychology.

While this type of paper may be historical in nature, there is no need for this assignment to be dry or boring. Psychology is full of fascinating figures rife with intriguing stories and anecdotes. Consider such famous individuals as Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Harry Harlow, or one of the many other  eminent psychologists .

Psychology Research Topics About a Specific Career

​Another possible topic, depending on the course in which you are enrolled, is to write about specific career paths within the  field of psychology . This type of paper is especially appropriate if you are exploring different subtopics or considering which area interests you the most.

In your paper, you might opt to explore the typical duties of a psychologist, how much people working in these fields typically earn, and the different employment options that are available.

Topics of Psychology Research Involving Case Studies

One potentially interesting idea is to write a  psychology case study  of a particular individual or group of people. In this type of paper, you will provide an in-depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography.

Generally, you will also assess the person, often using a major psychological theory such as  Piaget's stages of cognitive development  or  Erikson's eight-stage theory of human development . It is also important to note that your paper doesn't necessarily have to be about someone you know personally.

In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films.

Psychology Research Topics Involving Literature Reviews

Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic.

Literature reviews are generally found in the  introduction  of journal articles and other  psychology papers , but this type of analysis also works well for a full-scale psychology term paper.

Topics of Psychology Research Based on Your Own Study or Experiment

Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. In some cases, students simply devise the study and then imagine the possible results that might occur. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results.

Finding a topic for your study can be difficult, but there are plenty of great ways to come up with intriguing ideas. Start by considering your own interests as well as subjects you have studied in the past.

Online sources, newspaper articles, books , journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. Before you begin, learn more about  how to conduct a psychology experiment .

A Word From Verywell

After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject. While this variety makes it possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic.

If you are still stumped by your assignment, ask your instructor for suggestions and consider a few from this list for inspiration.

  • Hockenbury, SE & Nolan, SA. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers; 2014.
  • Santrock, JW. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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How to Write a Psychology Essay

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Educator, Researcher

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

Before you write your essay, it’s important to analyse the task and understand exactly what the essay question is asking. Your lecturer may give you some advice – pay attention to this as it will help you plan your answer.

Next conduct preliminary reading based on your lecture notes. At this stage, it’s not crucial to have a robust understanding of key theories or studies, but you should at least have a general “gist” of the literature.

After reading, plan a response to the task. This plan could be in the form of a mind map, a summary table, or by writing a core statement (which encompasses the entire argument of your essay in just a few sentences).

After writing your plan, conduct supplementary reading, refine your plan, and make it more detailed.

It is tempting to skip these preliminary steps and write the first draft while reading at the same time. However, reading and planning will make the essay writing process easier, quicker, and ensure a higher quality essay is produced.

Table of Contents

Components of a Good Essay

Now, let us look at what constitutes a good essay in psychology. There are a number of important features.
  • Global Structure – structure the material to allow for a logical sequence of ideas. Each paragraph / statement should follow sensibly from its predecessor. The essay should “flow”. The introduction, main body and conclusion should all be linked.
  • Each paragraph should comprise a main theme, which is illustrated and developed through a number of points (supported by evidence).
  • Knowledge and Understanding – recognize, recall, and show understanding of a range of scientific material that accurately reflects the main theoretical perspectives.
  • Critical Evaluation – arguments should be supported by appropriate evidence and/or theory from the literature. Evidence of independent thinking, insight, and evaluation of the evidence.
  • Quality of Written Communication – writing clearly and succinctly with appropriate use of paragraphs, spelling, and grammar. All sources are referenced accurately and in line with APA guidelines.

In the main body of the essay, every paragraph should demonstrate both knowledge and critical evaluation.

There should also be an appropriate balance between these two essay components. Try to aim for about a 60/40 split if possible.

Most students make the mistake of writing too much knowledge and not enough evaluation (which is the difficult bit).

It is best to structure your essay according to key themes. Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points (supported by evidence).

Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument.

essay structure example

Knowledge and Understanding

Remember that an essay is simply a discussion / argument on paper. Don’t make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic.

You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences.

Each paragraph should have a purpose / theme, and make a number of points – which need to be support by high quality evidence. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed (.e.g. cognitive development, social development etc.).

Try not to overuse quotations in your essays. It is more appropriate to use original content to demonstrate your understanding.

Psychology is a science so you must support your ideas with evidence (not your own personal opinion). If you are discussing a theory or research study make sure you cite the source of the information.

Note this is not the author of a textbook you have read – but the original source / author(s) of the theory or research study.

For example:

Bowlby (1951) claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.e. there is a critical period.
Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on.

As a general rule, make sure there is at least one citation (i.e. name of psychologist and date of publication) in each paragraph.

Remember to answer the essay question. Underline the keywords in the essay title. Don’t make the mistake of simply writing everything you know of a particular topic, be selective. Each paragraph in your essay should contribute to answering the essay question.

Critical Evaluation

In simple terms, this means outlining the strengths and limitations of a theory or research study.

There are many ways you can critically evaluate:

Methodological evaluation of research

Is the study valid / reliable ? Is the sample biased, or can we generalize the findings to other populations? What are the strengths and limitations of the method used and data obtained?

Be careful to ensure that any methodological criticisms are justified and not trite.

Rather than hunting for weaknesses in every study; only highlight limitations that make you doubt the conclusions that the authors have drawn – e.g., where an alternative explanation might be equally likely because something hasn’t been adequately controlled.

Compare or contrast different theories

Outline how the theories are similar and how they differ. This could be two (or more) theories of personality / memory / child development etc. Also try to communicate the value of the theory / study.

Debates or perspectives

Refer to debates such as nature or nurture, reductionism vs. holism, or the perspectives in psychology . For example, would they agree or disagree with a theory or the findings of the study?

What are the ethical issues of the research?

Does a study involve ethical issues such as deception, privacy, psychological or physical harm?

Gender bias

If research is biased towards men or women it does not provide a clear view of the behavior that has been studied. A dominantly male perspective is known as an androcentric bias.

Cultural bias

Is the theory / study ethnocentric? Psychology is predominantly a white, Euro-American enterprise. In some texts, over 90% of studies have US participants, who are predominantly white and middle class.

Does the theory or study being discussed judge other cultures by Western standards?

Animal Research

This raises the issue of whether it’s morally and/or scientifically right to use animals. The main criterion is that benefits must outweigh costs. But benefits are almost always to humans and costs to animals.

Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. Can we generalize from studies on animals to humans as their anatomy & physiology is different from humans?

The PEC System

It is very important to elaborate on your evaluation. Don’t just write a shopping list of brief (one or two sentence) evaluation points.

Instead, make sure you expand on your points, remember, quality of evaluation is most important than quantity.

When you are writing an evaluation paragraph, use the PEC system.

  • Make your P oint.
  • E xplain how and why the point is relevant.
  • Discuss the C onsequences / implications of the theory or study. Are they positive or negative?

For Example

  • Point: It is argued that psychoanalytic therapy is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority.
  • Explain: Because psychoanalytic therapy involves talking and gaining insight, and is costly and time-consuming, it is argued that it is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority. Evidence suggests psychoanalytic therapy works best if the client is motivated and has a positive attitude.
  • Consequences: A depressed client’s apathy, flat emotional state, and lack of motivation limit the appropriateness of psychoanalytic therapy for depression.

Furthermore, the levels of dependency of depressed clients mean that transference is more likely to develop.

Using Research Studies in your Essays

Research studies can either be knowledge or evaluation.
  • If you refer to the procedures and findings of a study, this shows knowledge and understanding.
  • If you comment on what the studies shows, and what it supports and challenges about the theory in question, this shows evaluation.

Writing an Introduction

It is often best to write your introduction when you have finished the main body of the essay, so that you have a good understanding of the topic area.

If there is a word count for your essay try to devote 10% of this to your introduction.

Ideally, the introduction should;

Identify the subject of the essay and define the key terms. Highlight the major issues which “lie behind” the question. Let the reader know how you will focus your essay by identifying the main themes to be discussed. “Signpost” the essay’s key argument, (and, if possible, how this argument is structured).

Introductions are very important as first impressions count and they can create a h alo effect in the mind of the lecturer grading your essay. If you start off well then you are more likely to be forgiven for the odd mistake later one.

Writing a Conclusion

So many students either forget to write a conclusion or fail to give it the attention it deserves.

If there is a word count for your essay try to devote 10% of this to your conclusion.

Ideally the conclusion should summarize the key themes / arguments of your essay. State the take home message – don’t sit on the fence, instead weigh up the evidence presented in the essay and make a decision which side of the argument has more support.

Also, you might like to suggest what future research may need to be conducted and why (read the discussion section of journal articles for this).

Don”t include new information / arguments (only information discussed in the main body of the essay).

If you are unsure of what to write read the essay question and answer it in one paragraph.

Points that unite or embrace several themes can be used to great effect as part of your conclusion.

The Importance of Flow

Obviously, what you write is important, but how you communicate your ideas / arguments has a significant influence on your overall grade. Most students may have similar information / content in their essays, but the better students communicate this information concisely and articulately.

When you have finished the first draft of your essay you must check if it “flows”. This is an important feature of quality of communication (along with spelling and grammar).

This means that the paragraphs follow a logical order (like the chapters in a novel). Have a global structure with themes arranged in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas. You might want to rearrange (cut and paste) paragraphs to a different position in your essay if they don”t appear to fit in with the essay structure.

To improve the flow of your essay make sure the last sentence of one paragraph links to first sentence of the next paragraph. This will help the essay flow and make it easier to read.

Finally, only repeat citations when it is unclear which study / theory you are discussing. Repeating citations unnecessarily disrupts the flow of an essay.


The reference section is the list of all the sources cited in the essay (in alphabetical order). It is not a bibliography (a list of the books you used).

In simple terms every time you cite/refer to a name (and date) of a psychologist you need to reference the original source of the information.

If you have been using textbooks this is easy as the references are usually at the back of the book and you can just copy them down. If you have been using websites, then you may have a problem as they might not provide a reference section for you to copy.

References need to be set out APA style :

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work . Location: Publisher.

Journal Articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers

A simple way to write your reference section is use Google scholar . Just type the name and date of the psychologist in the search box and click on the “cite” link.


Next, copy and paste the APA reference into the reference section of your essay.

apa reference

Once again, remember that references need to be in alphabetical order according to surname.


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The complete guide to business psychology: Education, careers and more

Group of people discussing an issue together

By Michael Feder

At a glance

  • Psychology has several applications in the field of business, such as in marketing, human resources, recruiting, company culture and more.
  • Business psychology professionals can work for public or private sector organizations in a wide range of industries and departments and help in a number of functions, such as evaluating practices and policies, advising leadership and developing strategies.
  • An  industrial-organizational psychology degree  from University of Phoenix can equip students with an educational foundation that is useful in the field of business psychology.

What is business psychology?

Businesses in virtually every industry are in a constant struggle to distinguish themselves from their competitors.  Psychology can be a valuable tool  to this end, as an understanding of human behavior inside and outside the organization can give a business a leg up on the competition. By better understanding both employees and customers, a business can fine-tune services and strategies to improve outcomes for all parties involved. 

Business psychology, often known as industrial-organizational psychology (IO psychology), is a field that focuses on psychology in the context of workplace and business efforts. Businesses can use organizational psychology for a variety of outcomes, but often the ultimate goal is to increase a company’s bottom line. 

Those who work in this field are known as business psychology professionals. People may consider those working in IO psychology as “psychologists,” but becoming a psychologist requires a doctoral degree in psychology as well as specific licensure. Where the two differ is that a psychologist position is usually more clinical or research-driven, while work in business psychology is more focused on organizational development and problem-solving.

Explore University of Phoenix psychology degrees

Psychology professionals typically need a master’s degree in psychology and must be licensed to practice in their state, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports. However, a doctoral degree may be preferred by an employer and is the required education level to be a licensed psychologist. If business and IO psychology professionals do not possess a terminal degree—the highest degree available in a field—they must work under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist in clinical, counseling or research settings.

Increased productivity, improved service quality and advanced reputation management are some typical focus areas for a company using organizational psychology to boost its revenue. Generally speaking, business psychology professionals support these goals by providing insight into the perspectives and behaviors of employees and customers alike. This can give a business more direction when it is trying to adjust its strategies or offerings.

Business psychology professionals often approach their work through a combination of consultation and review. They provide businesses with best practices regarding target areas of concern and review current trends related to that area. The latter can help better understand and address a business’s unique circumstances and concerns. These efforts are often highly effective when approached properly as business and psychology are connected in many ways, both expected and unexpected.     

Psychology and business

Psychology plays a role in several fundamental aspects of business, and therefore organizations can use business psychology to help optimize their operations in any or all of these areas. Some businesses may consult professionals in organizational psychology on an as-needed basis, while others may maintain one or several people with applicable credentials on the payroll.

Businesses can use psychology in marketing to help understand consumer behavior and therefore develop more engaging messages and optimized services. Marketing is a key investment for many organizations, as it is the primary means through which a business can set itself apart from competitors and inform customers about updates and offerings. Without  understanding its customer base , a business’s marketing efforts will fall flat. 

Human resources and recruiting

Using a psychological approach, organizations can optimize recruitment by crafting customized messages that resonate with potential candidates. Psychology professionals in human resource departments can also help anticipate employee needs and mediate disputes. By recruiting and maintaining a high-quality pool of talent, an organization can significantly increase its productivity and the quality of its offerings.

psychology business essay

Change management

Major changes within an organization may cause serious disruptions and losses if they are not handled appropriately. These changes might include a wide variety of adjustments, such as relocation, new acquisitions, rebranding or reorganization. Organizations should guide employees through changes with compassion to minimize stress and other potential obstacles. To this end, a business can use organizational psychology to anticipate and address any potential stressors or problems that employees may experience as a  consequence of changes within the organization . 

Company culture

Development and maintenance of company culture is an important way to  promote wellness and productivity in the workplace .  Healthy workplace culture  helps to keep employees motivated and collaborative. However, cultivating a culture that is right for a particular organization can be a significant challenge. Considering the psychological impacts of various strategies can play a key role in developing a company’s culture. 

Where do business psychology professionals work?

These professionals can work for public or private sector organizations in a wide range of industries and departments. They may work in an as-needed, freelance capacity for businesses, or they may remain on a company’s payroll. The latter situation is more common in the human resources department of a larger organization. Their position in a company may also depend on their specific duties. The profession has five major focus points. 

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What do business psychology professionals do?

Business psychology professionals may handle a large variety of concerns within a company or they may specialize. Five of the most common duties they fulfill are:

  • Evaluating practices and policies
  • Advising leadership
  • Developing strategies
  • Assisting in various processes
  • Supporting employees

In short, however, their job is to analyze business procedures and strategies through a psychological lens to improve outcomes. 

Evaluate practices and policies

Psychology can help organizations evaluate the efficacy of their current practices and policies through a variety of means. Notably, business psychology professionals may ask for feedback from employees or customers and provide insight about procedural practices that tend to garner positive psychological responses. This can optimize procedures at both the design and production phases. 

Advise leadership

An organization’s leadership decisions are best made when informed by the opinions of a variety of relevant professionals. When a business is making a decision that affects or will be affected by the perceptions or expectations of people, input from a psychological professional can be highly valuable. These professionals may anticipate problems such as negative effects of overwork on employees or how customers may perceive certain practices. 

Develop strategies

Industrial-organizational psychology professionals can help organizations refine strategies aimed at promoting growth, managing crises and maximizing operational efficiency. Therefore, they can be particularly useful whenever a business is restructuring or otherwise updating or adjusting procedures. They also may be able to help the organization measure the success of strategies and adjust them as needed. 

psychology business essay

Assist in processes

IO psychology professionals can also offer direct support to other professionals within an organization. By assigning a psychology professional to oversee a process, a leader can assess efficacy from a psychological perspective. For example, one of these professionals could help a hiring manager adjust how they speak to prospective talent or determine how to reduce fatigue on the production floor. 

Support employees

Organizational psychology professionals can not only help other employees in accomplishing their work tasks but can also help them address personal concerns and stressors. These professionals can be very effective assets when it comes to mediating disputes and providing counseling resources for employees. By hiring an IO psychology professional in this capacity,  a business can improve morale , manage concerns as they arise, and demonstrate a dedication to their employees’ well-being.    

How can you become a business psychology professional?

According to BLS, psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology and must be clinically licensed to practice in their state. However, a master’s degree, such as a  Master of Science in Industrial-Organizational Psychology,  may be the minimum education level needed for employment in non-research or clinical settings. As stated, a doctoral degree is often required for a psychologist, and those without a terminal degree must be supervised by a doctoral psychologist in those settings.

A master’s degree can help those with an undergraduate degree enhance their skills in critical areas, like research and statistics, that are necessary in the workplace. Gaining experience through business consultation will also help build up your portfolio. 

People interested in this position are typically those who are interested in both the objective and subjective aspects of business strategy. A desire to help people and solve problems will also be beneficial in this field. 

Interested in learning more about the intersection of business and psychology? Check out the Bachelor of Science in  Industrial-Organizational Psychology  and Master of Science in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from University of Phoenix.  

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What Is Business Psychology? A Complete Explanation


Business psychology is an exciting and diverse field. In this article, we’ll discuss what business psychology is, the many types of business psychology careers, and the tasks and roles of a business psychologist.

Business psychology is also a lucrative and well-paid job, so we’ll lay out the education and steps needed to become a business psychologist, plus the salary you can expect if business psychology is the right fit for you.

What Is Business Psychology?

Business psychology, also known as industrial-organizational psychology, combines the science of human psychology with practical business application in order to improve the work environment for employees, improve productivity in businesses, and organize groups of people in companies.

What Is A Business Psychologist?

A business psychologist examines employees and companies with the goal of improving productivity and the work environment. A business psychologist evaluates the company’s goals, work strategies, and employees in order to assess areas and tools for improvement.

They may also help assess prospective employees to ensure that they are right for the role and company, and may develop leadership and training programs in order to incorporate new employees and improve skills in the workplace.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Vs. Business Psychology

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, and are commonly merged roles, there is a difference between industrial-organizational psychology and business psychology.

Industrial-organizational psychology is the field that studies the workplace and small group theory and applies it to personal and individual workplace issues. It focuses on employees, company culture, productivity, morale, and team-building.

Business psychology, on the other hand, is broader than industrial-organizational psychology, and applies psychological practice and theory to the big-picture issues. This may include business strategies, stakeholder relationships, market performance, and business operations.

For the sake of this article, we will be using the term business psychology to cover both of these areas of the field.

Photo by  Lukas  from  Pexels

Business psychology in practice.

The practice of business psychology includes various areas of expertise, including:

Business psychologists offer an unbiased and psychological perspective on personal and interpersonal issues in the workplace.

2. Diagnosis

By using scientific research methods on human behavior and psychology, business psychologists help companies understand issues and challenges that arise in the workplace.

Business psychologists design programs and solutions that are geared toward the company’s unique issues, as well as design training and assessment programs.

4. Delivery

Business psychologists may also help implement and facilitate solutions and programs in the workplace.

5. Evaluation

The business psychologist evaluates scientific research and demonstrates its evidence to the company in order to show the benefits of intervention in the company.

What Does A Business Psychologist Do?

Below is a list of some of the various roles and tasks that a business psychologist is responsible for in the workplace. Depending on what kind of business psychologist someone is, they may focus on a few specific tasks, or perform a large range.

  • Researches scientific and psychological studies that are relevant to human psychology, behavior, and the workplace.
  • Advises employers and CEOs based on this research.
  • Devises plans for improving employee performance, efficiency, and motivation .
  • Researches and implements methods of assessing employees, developing leadership , ensuring workplace safety, maintaining work-life balance, and diversity in the company.
  • Improves methods of hiring, employee feedback, training, and management for the company managers.
  • Develops training and leadership programs for the employees and management teams.
  • Assists with employee selection.
  • Designs solutions to ensure a positive work environment.
  • Performs employee appraisals and evaluations.
  • Provides employee counseling.
  • Designs initiatives for employee health and well-being .
  • Improves the business’s organizational and management structure.

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Where does a business psychologist work.

Business psychologists can work in a variety of places and roles. They may work in the private or public sector, and for small or large companies.

Privately, business psychologists may be in leadership positions , human resources, office management, unions, and training administration.

In the public sector, business psychologists may work for various departments, such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, Federal and State Prisons, Department of Defense, Department of Labor, and public school systems.

Career Options For A Business Psychology Degree

With a degree in business psychology, you have numerous job options. Below are some of the related jobs that are available to holders of a business psychology degree.

Business Psychologist Or I/O Psychologist

As a business psychologist or I/O psychologist, you will be able to work in federal or state agencies, marketing and sales, human resources, college professor, or in a private practice.

Related Jobs

Other jobs related to the business psychology field span a wide range of roles, including jobs as a business coach, consultant or facilitator, as well as roles such as human resources coordinator, organizational development or effectiveness consultant, organizational psychologist, or personnel psychologist.

Photo by  Rebrand Cities  from  Pexels

How to become a business psychologist, step 1: bachelor’s degree.

In order to study business psychology, you can earn any bachelor’s degree, but many choose related fields such as business or psychology.

If your end goal is to become a business psychologist, consider earning your bachelor’s degree online, so that you can earn a degree from anywhere in the world. University of the People is a completely online and tuition-free university that offers bachelor’s degrees in business administration . We take pride in ensuring that quality education is available and affordable for all prospective students.

Step 2: Master’s Degree Or PhD

In order to become a business psychologist, a master’s degree can be enough to land the role, but a PhD helps give an edge in the field.

In addition, PhD studies will include practice hours, which will help if your state requires licensing practice.

Graduate Option 1: Internship

Once you’ve earned your degrees, many graduates may choose to complete an internship program. Internships give graduates the opportunity to gain experience and mentorship under practiced psychologists. In addition, internships are a great way to get into the field and land a job once your internship is complete.

Graduate Option 2: Find A Job

Some interns may continue jobs with their company. Other graduates may choose to search for jobs directly after their education, and will look for entry-level jobs in their field.

How Much Does A Business Psychologist Make?

Business psychology is a successful and lucrative field. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) , the median salary for a business psychologist ranges from $92,880 to $111,150.

In certain business-dense areas, business psychologists are even more valued. For example, salaries in California are as high as $145,410, and in Washington, D.C., as high as $170,420.

Additionally, the BLS predicts a job growth and demand of business psychologists by 8% between 2016 and 2026.

Business psychology is a fascinating and dynamic career. The many facets of the field create opportunities for various kinds of roles and jobs. Whether you’re interested in practical psychological research, intricate problem solving, or business efficiency, business psychology might be just the right career for you.

Becoming a business psychologist requires a master’s degree and plenty of experience, but the work will be rewarding and exciting if you decide to take this career path.

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Camille Preston Ph.D.

What Is a Business Psychologist?

How a business psychologist can drive results for you and your team..

Posted April 4, 2020

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Leading is complex and hard work. Leaders juggle competing demands. They are also charged with aligning a diverse, distributed, and often distressed workforce. There is unique psychology behind doing each of these things well. This is why more leaders are engaging with psychologists, and not in the traditional way.

As businesses are forced to rethink how they operate, the most competitive businesses are turning to business psychologists. They are doing this to ensure they have the right team, focus, and foundation to navigate the path forward. But what do business psychologists do, and how do they differ from other types of psychologists?

This article explores the foundations of business psychology. First, this article offers a preliminary definition of a business psychologist. Second, it explores the impact business psychologists have on leaders, teams, and organizations. Third, this article outlines how business psychologists work with leaders and teams and how their work with individuals and teams differs from the work carried out by coaches. Finally, this article discusses how to find and contract with a business psychologist.

Business Psychologist Defined

A business psychologist is a coach plus. They do everything coaches do and more. Business psychologists leverage psychological insights to help individuals, teams, and workplaces operate more effectively. They also help executives lead with increased clarity, teams function with decreased friction, and organizations realize ambitious business goals (e.g., increased profits). Most importantly, they do this with an eye to ensuring there are no cracks in the foundation. Business psychologists drill down on underlying problems that might impede success down the line.

Business psychologists have a wide range of specializations from organizational psychology to clinical psychology to community psychology. Drawing on a range of skills and extensive knowledge, business psychologists understand individuals, assess what is happening below the surface (e.g., understand ingrained behaviors that might be impacting an individual’s ability to thrive in a specific system), and identify opportunities. In other words, they understand what is happening at the moment and what is below the surface driving the behavior.

Business psychologists are skilled in understanding the individual and the intersecting system. They understand business dynamics and have a system-level perspective on how businesses operate. But a business psychologist doesn’t need to be an industry expert to help a leader or business thrive. Business psychologists aren’t present to offer advice on finance, real estate, or healthcare. They are brought in as people experts. They delve deep to identify how internal factors (at the individual and team levels) pose obstacles to business success. Only business psychologists have the expertise and training to do this internal work.

Business Psychologist’s Key Areas of Impact

As a coach plus, business psychologists focus on the individual, entire system, and how and why individuals thrive or don’t within specific systems. They offer support on three key levels:

  • Leadership and Effectiveness: A business psychologist will frequently start by working with a leader and then help the leader bring their insights to their team and organization. How an executive leads can set the tone for an entire organization. More specifically, business psychologists don’t just tell leaders how to lead or lead more effectively. By digging deep, they also help individual leaders build awareness of their core self, including underlying pathologies and strengths, and how they profoundly impact how they show up on the job, lead, and inspire change. On this basis, a business psychologist is uniquely positioned to help a leader lay a foundation for permanent changes.
  • Team Functioning: A business psychologist can help teams identify and fix talent gaps, points of friction, and weak and broken systems. Using assessments, facilitated meetings, targeted training, and retreats, a business psychologist can help a team function more effectively.
  • Organizational Impact: A business psychologist can carry out a system-level audit of an organization to identify barriers to success (e.g., aspects of the organization’s structure or culture that may be lowering productivity , compromising retention, etc.).

In summary, business psychologists build on insights from psychology, neuroscience , and business to drive workplace effectiveness and wellbeing at the individual, team, and organization levels. Specifically, business psychologists help individuals, teams, and organizations in the following ways:

  • Clarify desired outcomes and dig below the surface to identify and understand internal or external factors blocking the realization of desired outcomes;
  • Assess systems, identify breakdowns and gaps, and flag what needs to change (e.g., systemic problems sabotaging progress);
  • Increase alignment (e.g., ensure individuals and teams are aligned around a core mandate) and understand factors that may be interfering with alignment;
  • Improve decision making and understand how psychology and specific cognitive skills can drive decision-making processes forward;
  • Build awareness of options to help leaders see the complexity of any situation; ensure they have the perspective required to be fully aware of all the options, impacts, consequences of their approach;
  • Manage bandwidth to help individuals and teams do more by engaging stakeholders in understanding the larger system and identifying/addressing new ways of working/being (e.g., replacing old habits with more productive habits);
  • Support talent management (e.g., identifying talent gaps and under-utilized talent resources) to ensure the right people are working at the right level;
  • Support workplace culture by embedding the right workplace psychology to drive future success;
  • Manage change (e.g., ensuring change is sustainable, scalable, and aligned with core values);
  • Improve wellbeing to achieve business goals (e.g., higher productivity, higher retention, higher revenues, and greater impact) by focusing on the mental health and wellness of the entire system (i.e., individual, team, and organization);
  • Identify opportunities (e.g., business levers) and gain clarity on which opportunities will yield the greatest impact to drive sustainable change.

How Business Psychologists Work With Leaders and Teams

Business psychologists overlap with coaches (e.g., business coaches, leadership coaches, and executive coaches) but only to the extent that both business psychologists and coaches focus on common system-level changes (e.g., helping individuals and teams get clear on key priorities).

psychology business essay

Business psychologists are a coach plus because they also identify and resolve underlying problems. In other words, while good coaches offer helpful tools to improve one’s performance, business psychologists offer the same tools and help clients discover the underlying causes of specific leadership or team functioning deficits. By focusing on tactical solutions and resolving underlying problems, business psychologists are better equipped to fix problems in the present and drive sustainable change over time.

Developed by Camille Preston

How to Hire a Business Psychologist

Look for credentials (a Ph.D. in psychology) and certifications (Center for Creative Leadership-360, Hogan MVPI, etc.) as a starting point. Beyond that, look to experience. Who have they worked with in the past? You might seek out a business psychologist with a specific specialization (e.g., a venture capital firm may look for someone who is already familiar with the specific challenges of working in the VC and/or startup world). In addition, the ideal candidate will be someone who can anticipate and solve problems before they become a reality.

The best way to assess this is to ask for references from former clients. Outstanding business psychologists will have many clients more than happy to sing their praises. Choosing a business psychologist, like any psychologist, is a personal decision. Above all else, you must feel a resonance with the individual and sense that there is a strong potential to build a trusting relationship over time.

Camille Preston Ph.D.

Dr. Camille Preston is a leading business psychologist and the founder and CEO of AIM Leadership.

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220 + Top & Best Psychology Essay Topics + [Psychology Essay Example]


As a student, you are likely required to write essays. But what if you could avoid the dreaded “writing process” altogether by using psychological essay topics? If you are looking for ideas for psychology essay topics, then read on!

What is Psychology?

What is psychology? Psychology is the study of the mind and its processes. It is a multidisciplinary field that includes research in cognitive science, neuroscience, social psychology, and psychopathology.

Psychologists use a variety of methods to study the mind, including experiments, surveys, and case studies . They are also often involved in clinical work, helping people with mental health problems.

One of the main goals of psychology is to understand how mental processes affect our behavior and emotions. Psychologists also aim to improve people’s mental health by helping them learn how to cope with their problems.


Overall, psychology is a incredibly complex and interesting field that has a lot of potential to help people improve their lives.

You can also check out  Technology Essay Topics

Psychology Essay Topics

Argumentative psychology essay topics.

  • How do psychologists explore the mind?
  • What are the implications of psychological research on moral behavior?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of law?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of medicine?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of parenting?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of education?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of business?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of sociology?
  • How do psychological theories inform the practice of engineering?
  • What are some potential ethical issues raised by the practice of psychology?

Persuasive Psychology Essay Topics

  • What is the difference between persuasive and coercive persuasion?
  • How do persuasion techniques work?
  • What are some common persuasive arguments ?
  • What are some common psychological tricks used in persuasion?
  • What are some ways to resist persuasive arguments ?
  • What are some techniques for building trust?
  • What are some ways to increase the credibility of a persuasion message?
  • What are some common objections to persuasive arguments?
  • How can persuasive messages be adapted for different audiences?
  • Can persuasion be used to manipulate people?

Developmental Psychology Essay Topics

  • The phenomenon of aggressive behaviour in children and what causes it.
  • How to prevent the child suicides and connection with family feuds.
  • The psychological phenomenon of an individual who has been subjected to abuse in the family.
  • The importance of games as a medium for inculcating psychological competence in adolescence.
  • The impact of media on the development of a child’s personality .
  • The formation of moral and reflective judgment.
  • Emotional and behavioural attributes of children belonging to dysfunctional families.
  • The background and causes of Dyslexia and the methods of diagnosis and treatment of the disorder
  • Society and its influence on the act of instant gratification
  • Exposure to violence among children: Is it a threat?
  • Social media and its psychological influence on the masses
  • The developmental concerns of children brought up in a modern family.
  • What are attachment theory and its connection with a classroom environment
  • The influence of curiosity in children
  • Explain the phenomenon behind the developing friendship with an imaginary figure
  • The psychological aspect of imitation among children affected by Autism
  • How to counter aggression among children
  • The application of anger management in children
  • Coping with low self-esteem in teenage
  • How the order of birth shapes a child’s perceptions
  • The relationship between a child’s IQ and his/her order of birth
  • The phenomenon of psychic trauma in childhood
  • What is the impact of television on child development?
  • What are the best ways to discipline a child?
  • How do children learn to trust or mistrust others?
  • What causes bedwetting in children?
  • How does a child’s temperament develop?
  • How does language development occur in children ?
  • What is the best way to solve problems parents have with their children?
  • How do children develop empathy for others?
  • What is the “terrible twos,” and why does it happen?
  • Does reading books to children impact their development?
  • What are some developmental milestones healthy children should reach by certain ages?
  • What is the impact of divorce on child development?
  • How does a child’s social environment affect their development?
  • What are some common issues that children experience during puberty?
  • What are the benefits of nature exposure for children?
  • How do siblings influence each other’s development?
  • Discuss different parenting styles and their effects on child development.
  • How do different parenting styles impact a child’s social skills development?
  • What are some ways to discipline a child without being too harsh or permissive?
  • Which psychological disorder is most likely to be passed down from a parent to a child?
  • Is sexual abuse as a child easier to overcome than sexual abuse as an adult?
  • Does abuse become a cycle if it is not addressed immediately?
  • How does child development research help to prevent child abuse?
  • What are the long-term effects of child abuse?
  • What are some warning signs that a child may be being abused?
  • How can parents get help for their child if they think they may be abusing them?
  • What is the best way to help a child who has been abused?
  • What are some of the warning signs of suicidal behavior in children?
  • The psychological  factors that influence the emotional wellbeing of a child
  • The basic elements of children psychopathology
  • The role of the media in facilitating violence
  • How psychology development can be used to tackle bullying
  • The underlying factors of psychopathic behaviour in youth
  • Factors that help in creating violence in children
  • The place of gender roles in the modern society
  • Factors that increase the likelihood of child abuse
  • The psychological reasons as to why the ageing process exits
  • The fundamental ways of parenting that have cast a bad light in developmental psychology lately
  • How parental development influences child development
  • Factors that affect language learning and language learning capabilities

Psychology Essay Topics

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Analytical Psychology Essay Topics

  • What are the different types of analytical psychology?
  • How does analytical psychology differ from other psychological fields?
  • How does analytical psychology help people?
  • How money affects behavior in marriage and gender in different stereotypes.
  • How can social media change the morality of a society ?
  • Describe the psychological concepts of Yang and Yin.
  • Why is it easy for women to confirm naturally than men?
  • In what ways can employers help the employees to reduce stress?
  • Explain how different scientists explain homosexuality in their era.
  • Explain the psychological challenges that single parents have when raising a child.
  • Define the concept of self, as described by William James.
  • What are personality and its structures, according to Sigmund Freud?
  • Describe the psychology of dreams as well as their origin and development.
  • Why is it that more men in the community are mad or commit suicide than women?
  • Outline the psychological advantages of a parent breastfeeding their kids.
  • Explain the multiple intelligences child development Theory as given by Howard Gardner.
  • Describe the concept of money in gender and marriages.
  • Explain how you can maintain and not lose your personality at your workplace.
  • Define psychological health.
  • What are the main characteristics of a person who psychologically healthy?
  • Which psychological processes come to play when a person wants to participate in an intentional buying exercise?
  • Why do the majority of people need long-term relationships with other people?
  • In which ways does bullying among adolescents become normal that abnormal for adults?
  • How can you make your kid unique?
  • What challenges does analytical psychology face?
  • What are some methods used in analytical psychology?
  • What are some benefits of using analytical psychology?
  • What are some criticisms of analytical psychology?
  • How can analytical psychology be used in therapy?
  • What are the challenges in using analytical psychology in therapy?
  • How can analytical psychology be used in business?
  • What are the different types of analysis used in analytical psychology?
  • How does analysis help to understand people and their behaviour?
  • How can analysis help to make decisions?
  • What are some criticisms of using analysis in psychological research?

You can also check out Controversial Topics for Teens

Cognitive Psychology Essay Topics

  • Cognitive patterns of gamers based on their preferences for different gaming activities.
  • The social representation of talented children from the perspective of cognitive psychology.
  • The cognitive and behavioural impact of various forms of media on the adolescents.
  • The impact of music on the development of cognitive abilities in children belonging to primary school age.
  • The Importance of attention to the growth of the cognitive abilities.
  • The psychological phenomenon of the “Déjà vu” effect.
  • The importance of art therapy techniques in socio-psychological training
  • How do we make choices? The psychology of decision making
  • What is Collective Intelligence? How is it applied within a workplace
  • The role of creativity in inspiring innovation
  • Why do we suppress the unpleasant memories?
  • A comprehensive study about the possible connection between problem solving and intelligence
  • What approaches can be adopted to recover lost or forgotten memories?
  • How to apply the theories of cognitive psychology within the sphere of marketing?
  • How has our knowledge of the brain functions evolved over the past 50 years?
  • Explain how human beings make choices and illustrate the decision-making process.
  • Which of the psychological mechanisms involved, especially in a deja vu effect?
  • How does attention influence the effective development and execution of cognitive processes?
  • Discuss the dual-process theory of thinking.
  • How does power loads moving in different directions influence short-term memory?
  • Define cryptomnesia.
  • Explain confabulation and paramnesia.
  • Explain how you can offer socio-psychological training using art- therapeutic techniques.
  • How does music affect cognitive development in primary school children?
  • How do social expectations for gifted children influence the kids’ self-esteem?
  • Describe the cognitive psychology of loneliness.
  • Discuss the Buddhism approach to cognitive psychology.
  • How does the media influence adolescent behaviors?
  • Describe emotional responsiveness .
  • Explain the therapeutic and diagnostic importance of medical empathy in psychology and psychiatry.
  • Explain how to cope with rage and anger.
  • A critical assessment of language development among children
  • Are there any distinction in brain structure that can influence upon the way in which men and women or adults and children approach problem solving ?
  • The concept of cognitive psychology and its connection with Buddhism
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Abnormal Psychology Essay Topics

  • What are the causes of the increasing anorexia rate in children?
  • Causes of anorexia in adults
  • Causes of anxiety disorder and how to overcome it
  • Why is there an increase in eating disorders among the youth?
  • What are the factors that contribute to an eating disorder?
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  • What factors can cause multiple personality disorders?
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  • Who started abnormal psychology studies, and what was his /her approach?
  • Give examples of unusual psychological cases?
  • List down the importance of understanding abnormal psychology.
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  • Give a history of abnormal psychology.
  • What is the scope of abnormal psychology?
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  • Which approaches would you take in treating panic disorder?
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  • Conduct pathogenesis of panic disorder and describe personality features.
  • Which are the best systems to use when offering psychotherapy for families with personality disorders?
  • How do nocturnal panic attacks relate to depressive disorders?
  • Give a theoretical analysis of the Emotional Stroop Effect.
  • Describe the personality structure of a patient with eating disorders and obesity .
  • Describe the treatment of depressive psychological disorders.
  • What is the connection between menopause and depressive disorders among women?
  • To what extent do hereditary factors influence depressive disorders in kids and adolescents?
  • Describe a psychological model as well as diagnosis and treatment of social anxiety.
  • Give a full description of cognitive processes, especially in organic brain lesions.
  • Describe schizophrenic disorders.
  • Give examples of ways in which the essential components of cognition are violated in schizophrenic cases.
  • Which is the best way to diagnose and treat children with attention problems?
  • How can you protect drug addicts psychologically?
  • How do drug abuse influence personality traits and relationships in individuals?
  • Describe circular depression among people with a concomitant personality disorder.
  • How to diagnose personality disorders among adolescents.
  • Violent video games are a cause of mood disorders among children.
  • Reasons for phobias and how to deal with them
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  • Various techniques of the diagnosis of certain personality disorders among the younger generation.
  • The role of heredity in influencing the phenomenon of Depressive disorders in children and teenagers.
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  • The features of persistent depressive disorders in patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis .
  • Critical analysis of the functions of emotional “Stoop” effect.
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  • Narcissism and issues with body image in the patients suffering from eating disorders and obesity.
  • What is deviant behavior? How does it influence an individual
  • The psychology of Deceit: How to deal with the habit of lying
  • The cognitive and social factors that inspire the act of deception
  • The phenomenon of Oedipus complex and how it is caused.
  • How to deal with sociopathic behavior
  • Strategies to counter the rising incidents of teenage suicide
  • Psychological factors that play major role in influencing the suicidal tendencies among adolescents
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  • Innovative approaches to deal with the condition of Phobia
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  • The impact of climate on mental health
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Clinical Psychology Essay Topics

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  • The cognitive behavioural therapy practices for criminals
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  • The factors that lead to eating disorders in adolescents
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  • The best time to refrain from taking antidepressants
  • Using cognitive therapy to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks
  • The best time to refrain from taking the ADHD medicine
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The importance of psychology in business

  • Published: December 26, 2021
  • Updated: December 26, 2021
  • University / College: University of British Columbia
  • Language: English
  • Downloads: 29

Importance ofpsychologyin bussiness….. I think psychology plays an important role in business there are many ways to utilize psychology in your business… if you have any concept about psychology ofhuman beingits easy for you to undersand the nature of your investor either he is optimistic or passimistic so at this level you can make him feeling more comfortable while investing in your business. When we are on any jobinterviewits too much helpfull to us knowing psychology. We may observe their expressions either what quality of mine in being appriciated or not.

On the other hand for a professional its necessary to know about the basics of psychology to devolp his/her own atitude towards his/her profession. For example if we are being prepared for a sales department our atitude should be different than in production deprtment. In HR(human recourse) department tha in mechanical department. so it is not possible for us to devolp ourselves as a professional in different of a business firm. We can also motivate our employes to give their best. Psychology helps us in each and every feild of life while behaving with human being. Major implimentations of human psychology are given as under… Importance of human psychology as employer . We have to deal with human beings as professionals in different segments of our business tirms. ·Importance of human psychology as employee. Our employers, olleagues, Subordinates and imideate bosses they are also human being we also also have to copup with them in our daily business. ·Importance of human psychology in daily working. In our daily working we have to copup with different people like customers, dealers contractors, immediate bosses e. t. c and we have to bring them on one point to show their best here human psychology helps us a lot.

psychology business essay

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Trump arrives to deliver remarks in the Brady Briefing Room of the White House in November 2020.

Five key takeaways from Donald Trump’s financial fraud case ruling

New York judge ruled the ex-president had inflated the value of his assets and ordered a cancellation of business certificates

  • Trump fraud ruling – live updates

A New York judge ruled on Tuesday that Donald Trump committed financial fraud by overstating the value of his assets to broker deals and obtain financing.

The ruling is an acceleration of the case that the New York attorney general, Letitia James, has been building against Trump since 2019, that the former president fudged financial statements and inflated his net worth up to $2.2bn more than the actual figure.

In a dramatic step just days before the trial is set to start, New York supreme court justice Arthur Engoron issued a partial ruling largely agreeing with James. He also ordered the cancellation of New York business certificates of all companies related to Trump and his two sons, Donald Trump Jr and Eric Trump, making it difficult for Trump to continue running his real estate business in the state.

A trial is still set to start 2 October, in which Engoron will decide whether Trump, his allies and his companies will have to pay the $250m in monetary damages James is asking for. Trump’s lawyers say they will appeal the judge’s ruling.

Here are five takeaways from Tuesday’s ruling:

1. A big win for Letitia James

Though the trial is technically not over, the ruling is a huge win for the New York attorney general, who started her investigation into the Trump Organization in 2019.

Over three years, her office interviewed 65 witnesses and reviewed “millions of pages of documents”. Trump was ultimately fined $110,000 for not complying with subpoenas for documents. When he eventually sat for a deposition, Trump told James that “the whole case is crazy” and that he created “the hottest brand in the world”.

The former president tried to sue James after she filed her lawsuit in September 2022, but Trump ended up dropping his lawsuit earlier this year. Trump has denied wrongdoing and has called the case a “witch-hunt”.

2. A bench trial will still take place, but it will be shorter

Engoron initially scheduled the trial to go from 2 October to 22 December. But his judgement on Tuesday will dramatically shorten the trial since he already ruled in agreement with James’s main case against Trump: that he and his allies wrote up “false and misleading” financial statements and that they used these doctored financial statements to conduct business transactions.

It is unclear how much shorter the trial will be after the ruling. It is a bench trial, meaning there will be no jury and the case will be decided solely by the judge.

3. Doing business in New York will be difficult for Trump, and his company could still face a $250m fine

Engoron ruled that the New York business certificates of the Trump Organization and other Trump subsidiaries listed in the suit will be cancelled. Certificates of companies owned by the named defendants, including Trump and his two sons, Donald Trump Jr and Eric Trump, will also be cancelled.

The impact of this is still unclear, though it does not bode well for the Trump Organization, which has multiple major real estate holdings in New York City.

This means that his companies can no longer hold certificates that make them incorporated or set up as limited liability companies (LLCs) in the state. Engoron gave the Trumps 10 days to name three people who can oversee the dissolution of existing incorporated companies and LLCs in the Trumps’ name, including the Trump Organization.

James also asked Engoron to rule on monetary damages of up to $250m, which is how much the attorney general’s office believes the Trump Organization gained by issuing false and misleading financial statements. Engoron could also permanently bar Trump and his sons from serving as officers, which includes C-suite executive roles, of New York-based companies and place a five-year ban on any real estate acquisitions.

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4. Trump is a real estate ‘genius’ only in a ‘fantasy world’

In pre-trial hearings before the ruling, Trump lawyer Christopher Kise told the judge that the former president is “an investment genius” and “probably one of the most successful real estate developers in the country”.

“President Trump is a master at finding value where others see nothing,” Kise told Engoron.

In his ruling, it is clear that Engoron sees things differently.

“In defendants’ world: rent-regulated apartments are worth the same as unregulated apartments; restricted land is worth the same as unrestricted land; restrictions can evaporate into thin air; a disclaimer by one party casting responsibility on another party exonerates the other party’s lies,” Engoron wrote.

“This is a fantasy world, not a real world.”

5. The ruling is just another legal woe that is teed up for Trump

Trump has been actively campaigning for the 2024 presidential election and is leading the polls among his peers in the Republican primaries. But his campaign may be interrupted by more trials set to take place next year in New York, Washington DC and Florida.

In January, Trump will be facing another trial around accusations of defamation from writer E Jean Carroll. Carroll is seeking damages of $10m. Trump has two trials scheduled for March: one around hush-money payments made to Stormy Daniels and a second in Washington around the January 6 Capitol insurrection. Then in May, Trump will have a trial in Florida for the withholding of classified documents at his Mar-a-Lago estate. Another trial over election meddling in Georgia has yet to be scheduled.

As much of a setback as Tuesday’s ruling may be for the former president, this may only be the beginning.

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  • Trump on trial
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Most viewed

Explainer: What does New York fraud ruling mean for Donald Trump's business empire?

A worker cleans up one of the Trump Tower's entrance before the arrival of former U.S. President Trump in New York

[1/3] New York Police Department officers stand guard in front of Trump Tower before the arrival of former U.S. President Donald Trump in New York City, U.S., April 12, 2023. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz/File Photo Acquire Licensing Rights

Sept 27 (Reuters) - The fate of Donald Trump’s business empire hangs in the balance after a New York judge stripped control of key properties from the former U.S. president as punishment for his “repeated and persistent fraud” over their valuations.

Here's a look at the ruling and its implications for Trump, the frontrunner for the 2024 Republican presidential nomination.


Democratic New York Attorney General Letitia James filed a civil lawsuit against Trump, his adult sons and nearly a dozen business entities in September 2022, alleging they inflated the value of their assets by billions of dollars to secure more favorable loan and insurance terms.

Justice Arthur Engoron of New York state court in Manhattan ruled on Tuesday that Trump and his co-defendants committed fraud and ordered the cancellation of certificates that some of his businesses need to operate in New York. He also said he would appoint independent receivers to manage the dissolution of the canceled certificates.

The order did not provide a timeline for the cancellations. Engoron asked the parties to recommend potential receivers within the next 30 days.

Trump has denied wrongdoing and said the case is part of a political witch hunt.


The immediate impact of the ruling is unclear as Trump’s holdings comprise a network of roughly 500 entities spanning real estate, licensing and other business ventures.

The ruling covers 10 Trump entities but includes pillars of Trump's empire, including his commercial property at 40 Wall Street in Manhattan, golf resort in Scotland and Mar-a-Lago resort in Palm Beach, Florida.

Independent receivers could continue to operate the properties as businesses or liquidate them, though Trump would likely be entitled the proceeds of any sale, legal experts say.

Engoron declined to answer whether the assets would be sold or simply managed by an independent receiver when asked by one of Trump’s lawyers during a hearing on Wednesday , saying he would rule on that question later.


Trump’s lawyers have said they will appeal the decision, which they described as an “outrageous” attempt to “nationalize one of the most successful corporate empires in the United States and seize control of private property.”

Trump could also seek a stay or pause of the court’s order pending appeal, which would likely be met by a request from James to block any asset transfers while the case plays out.

A trial is scheduled to begin on Monday. Because of Engoron’s fraud ruling, it would largely be limited to how much Trump and his co-defendants must pay in penalties.

James is seeking at least $250 million and has asked the court to permanently bar Trump from serving as an officer or director of any business in New York, and prohibit him from acquiring any real estate or applying for a loan in the state for five years.

James is seeking the same restrictions for Trump's two adult sons, Donald Jr and Eric.


Not in this case, which is civil. But Trump is under indictment in four separate criminal cases.

He has been charged in Florida for his handling of classified documents upon leaving office; in Washington D.C. over his efforts to undo his loss in the 2020 presidential election; in Georgia over his efforts to reverse the election results in that state; and in New York over hush money payments he made to a porn star.

Trump has pleaded not guilty in all four cases.

Reporting by Jack Queen Editing by Noeleen Walder and Bill Berkrot

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