How to Bake Cookies- A Step By Step Guide To Perfect Cookies
Posted by Wilton | Aug 6, 2020
Step 1: Preparing your cookie sheet
Other must-have cookie tools.
Step 2: Preparing your cookie dough recipe
How to make cookies soft and chewy, how to make chocolate chip cookies from scratch.
How to make gooey chocolate chip cookies
Best chocolate chips for chocolate chip cookies, easy sugar cookie recipe.
Step 3: Bake your cookies
How to tell when cookies are done, why are my cookies flat, step 4: how to store cookies, how to freeze cookie dough, how to bake frozen cookie dough, how to keep cookies fresh.
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About The Author
Since 1929, the Wilton Team of bakers has been inspiring the joy of creativity in everyone, everywhere, every day. From big milestone celebrations to simply baking in the kitchen with your loved ones, the Wilton team is here to be your trusted guide, your secret ingredient, ready to help you shine with tips, tricks and solutions that enable you to be your most creative self. No matter where you are on your baking journey, Wilton is here to help you bake your world happy.
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The Chemistry of Baking Cookies
Use Science to Bake Perfect Chocolate Chip Cookies
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Baking cookies seems simple, especially if you cook pre-made cookie dough, but it's really a set of chemical reactions. If your cookies never turn out perfect, understanding their chemistry may help improve your technique. Follow this classic chocolate chip cookie recipe and learn about the ingredients and the reactions that occur throughout the mixing and baking process.
Chocolate Chip Cookie Recipe
- 3/4 cup granulated sugar (sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11 )
- 3/4 cup brown sugar (caramelized sucrose)
- 1 cup unsalted butter ( a fat )
- 1 large egg (consists of water, protein , fat, emulsifier , and albumin)
- 1 teaspoon vanilla extract (for flavor)
- 2-1/4 cups all-purpose flour (contains gluten)
- 1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 , which is a weak base)
- 1/2 teaspoon salt (NaCl)
- 2 cups semi-sweet chocolate chips
- You'll get the best results if you use room temperature eggs and butter. This helps the ingredients mix into the recipe more evenly and means your cookie dough will be room temperature and not cool when you put the cookies in the oven. The fat in the recipe affects the texture of the cookies and browns them , which influences flavor as well as color. Substituting a different fat in place of butter affects the flavor of the cookies and also the texture since other fats (lard, vegetable oil, margarine, etc.) have a different melting point from butter. If you use salted butter, it's usually best to reduce the amount of added salt.
- Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It's important to preheat the oven because if you put the cookies in the oven and the temperature is too low, the dough can spread rather than firm up. This affects the thickness of the cookie, its texture, and how evenly it browns.
- Mix together the sugar, brown sugar, butter, vanilla, and eggs. Mostly, this is to blend the ingredients so the composition of the cookies will be uniform. For the most part, no chemical reaction occurs at this point. Mixing the sugars with the eggs dissolves some of the sugar in the water from the eggs, so the crystals won't be as large in the cookies. Brown sugar adds caramelized sugar flavor to the cookies. While it doesn't matter what color of eggs you use (white or brown), the size matters, just like measuring all of the other ingredients! If you substitute an egg from a different bird than a chicken, the recipe will work, but the flavor will be different. You don't want to over-mix the ingredients because beating eggs for too long affects the protein molecules in the egg white . Real vanilla and imitation vanilla (vanillin) contain the same flavor molecule, but real vanilla extract has a more complex flavor because of other molecules from the plant.
- Mix in the flour (a little at a time), baking soda, and salt. You can sift the ingredients together to make sure they are evenly distributed, but sprinkling the salt and baking soda onto the mixture works too. The flour contains gluten , the protein that holds the cookies together, makes them a bit chewy and gives them their substance. Cake flour, bread flour, and self-rising flour could be substituted for all-purpose flour in a pinch, but aren't ideal. The cake flour might produce fragile cookies with a finer "crumb"; the bread flour contains more gluten and could make the cookies tough or too chewy, and the self-rising flour already contains leavening agents that would make the cookies rise. The baking soda is the ingredient that makes cookies rise. The salt is a flavoring, but also controls the rising of the cookies.
- Stir in the chocolate chips. This last to ensure the other ingredients are properly mixed and to avoid smashing the chips. The chocolate chips are flavoring. Don't like semi-sweet? Switch it out!
- Drop rounded teaspoons of the dough about two inches apart on an ungreased cookie sheet. The size of the cookies matters! If you make the cookies too big or put them too close together, the interior of the cookie isn't don't by the time the bottom and edges brown. If the cookies are too small, they may not brown enough by the time the middle is done, giving you rock-hard cookies. There's no need to grease the cookie sheet. While a light spritz of non-stick spray might not hurt, greasing the pan adds fat to the cookies and affects how they brown and their texture.
- Bake the cookies 8 to 10 minutes or until they are light golden brown. Which rack you put the cookies on depends on your oven. Usually, the center rack is fine, but if your cookies tend to get too dark on the bottom, try moving them up one rack. The heating element in a conventional oven is on the bottom.
Chemistry During Baking
If the ingredients are high quality, measured carefully, and mixed as they should be, chemical magic happens in the oven to make great cookies.
Heating sodium bicarbonate causes it to decompose into water and carbon dioxide :
2NaHCO 3 → Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2
Carbon dioxide gas and water vapor form the bubbles which make cookies rise. Rising doesn't just make cookies taller. It also opens up space to keep the cookie from becoming too dense. Salt slows down the decomposition of baking soda , so the bubbles don't get too big. This could lead to weak cookies or to cookies that fall flat when they come out of the oven. The heat works on the butter, egg yolk, and flour to change the shape of the molecules. The gluten in the flour forms a polymer mesh that works with the albumin protein from the egg white and the emulsifier lecithin from the egg yolk to form the dough and support the bubbles. Heat breaks the sucrose into the simple sugars glucose and fructose, giving each cookie a shiny, light brown crust.
When you take the cookies out of the oven, the hot water gases in the cookie contract. The chemical changes that occurred during baking help the cookie keep its shape. This is why undercooked cookies (or other baked goods) fall in the center.
Chemistry After Baking
If the cookies aren't devoured immediately, the chemistry doesn't end with baking. The humidity of the surroundings affects cookies after they have cooled. If the air is very dry, moisture from the cookies escapes, making them hard. In a humid environment, cookies can absorb water vapor , making them soft. After cookies have completely cooled, they can be placed into a cookie jar or other container to keep them fresh and delicious.
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Also known as Biscuits (UK, Canada)
What are cookies.
Cookies are baked treats. A cookie is a small sweet, crispy or cake-like pastry most often made with flour, sugar, liquid and fat. They are characterized by:
- High sugar content
- High fat content
- Low moisture
Origin and varieties
The cookie’s name is derived from the Dutch word koekje, meaning “little cake.” The earliest cookie dates as far back as 7th century A.D. in Persia, where sugar was first cultivated. In England and the British colonies, cookies are also called biscuits. Germans call them Keks, or Plätzchen, and Spaniards call them galletas. In Italy, there are several forms of cookies, including amaretti and biscotti. The most popular cookie flavor in America is chocolate chip.
How are cookies produced?
There are three main stages to cookie dough production:
- Creaming – The fat or shortening is creamed with the sugar to entrap air cells and create a fluffy texture. Other ingredients like salt, dry eggs, and baking powder are also added at this stage to improve homogenization of the dough.
- Incorporation of liquids – The addition of liquids at this stage helps disperse and homogenize the dough, and aeration continues.
- Incorporation of dry ingredients – The last stage of flour addition, or folding in of the flour, gently introduces the flour into the dough without destroying the air cells. Adding flour at the last stage also prevents a gluten matrix from forming, thereby producing a short bite for the cookie. This results in a short bite for the cookie.
Cookies are produced according to varied formula compositions, in many different shapes and sizes, and by various manufacturing procedures. The main components are flour, water, fat, sugar and chemical leavening.
Flour used for cookie production is around 8-10% protein and milled from soft red winter wheats with low water absorption capacity. This has a strong effect on the cookie spread and structure. Flour particle size and damaged starch also have effects on cookies. Flours with smaller particle size produce cookies with less spread, due to the increased presence of damaged starch. Damaged starch absorbs more water than intact starch, thus leaving less water available for the cookie to flow. High levels of damaged starch are detrimental to cookie quality.
Wheat flour of particle size greater than 150 μm is better for cookie production. 1 If there is a desire to limit cookie spread, as in the case of Marie biscuits or Oreo® cookies, hard wheat flours of medium-high protein may be used. In addition, if a tough structure is needed in rich cookie formulations, bakers may use chlorinated flour.
Water absorption is the amount of water taken up by flour to achieve the desired consistency or optimal end result. Water absorption levels will vary from 50-54% in a cookie formula. 2
Cookies are thought to consist of a continuous glassy sugar matrix with ungelatinized starch granules embedded within, together with an undeveloped gluten network with fat. Sweetener composition plays an important role in the softening properties of cookies. 3 The sweetener level in cookie dough is 17-30% on a solid basis. 3 Sweeteners regularly used in cookie production include sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, invert sugar or corn syrup.
The particle size of the sugar affects cookie spread as well. The smaller the crystals, the more rapidly the crystals dissolve, contributing to a larger aqueous phase and increasing spread. 4
Cracking that occurs on the top surface of the cookie is referred to as cookie top grain. It is an important aspect of cookie quality. Good top grain (many surface cracks) results from recrystallization of sucrose at the cookie surface during baking. 1
Fat or shortening acts as a lubricant and contributes to the plasticity of the cookie dough. Its main function is as an aerating agent, entrapping air cells during mixing. These air cells act as nuclei for the chemical leaveners that produce the carbon dioxide during baking. Therefore, the creaming step during the making of cookie dough is crucial to the volume of the cookie and its texture.
Fat also prevents excessive development of the gluten proteins during mixing, making cookies less tough and resulting in a shorter bite. Fat imparts desirable eating qualities and contributes to texture and flavor of the product. It also influences dough machinability during processing. 5
Fat or shortening is added, usually at 50% ( chocolate chip cookie ) to 80% (oatmeal raisin cookie) on a flour basis.
Chemical leavening 6
Chemical leavening is the combination of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and acidic agents with water to generate carbon dioxide gas in controlled volumes and rates. Ammonium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate may be used instead of sodium bicarbonate.
For cookie baking, chemical leavening will be pre-blended with the flour and any other dry, minor ingredients. This blend is added to the cookie batter in the final stages of mixing. Chemical leavening will begin to react upon hydration; therefore, timing and the choice of leavening are key to proper cookie aeration and gas retention. The usage level for cookies is usually 0.5-1% of flour weight.
The FDA suggests not eating raw cookie dough, as microorganism contamination in flour could make people sick. 7 When making cookie dough for consumption, use heat-treated flour.
A typical commercial chocolate chip cookie formula (based on baker’s percent ):
- Granulated sugar: 40%
- Brown sugar: 40%
- Corn syrup: 10%
- Shortening: 65%
- Salt: 1.5%
- Dry eggs: 5%
- Baking powder: 1%
- Vanilla: 2%
- Pastry flour: 100%
- Chocolate chips: 65%
- Cream the sugars, corn syrup, shortening, salt, dry eggs, and baking powder at 1 st speed. Scrape, then increase to 2 nd speed for 3 minutes.
- Mix the water and vanilla, and slowly add it in at 1 st speed. Scrape, and then mix at 2 nd speed for 2 minutes.
- Mix the pastry flour and chocolate chips in a separate container and add it into the mixer. Mix at 1 st speed for 15 seconds; scrape down and mix at 2 nd speed for 15 seconds. Do not over-mix at this stage, or you will develop the gluten network and produce a tougher cookie.
- Transfer cookie dough into depositor. Deposit cookies onto sheet pans with liners.
- Bake in the oven at 350 o F for 13-15 min, or until cookies are golden brown on the bottom.
- Remove the cookies from the oven and transfer onto a cooling shelf immediately; otherwise you will overbake the cookies, as they continue cooking on the pan.
- Cool for 1 hr before packaging.
- Cookies can be stored frozen for extended shelf life.
- Frozen cookies can be thawed and served without reheating.
- Sheweta B., Mudgil D.,Khatkar B.S. Effect of flour particle size and damaged starch on the quality of cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51.7 (2012):1342-8.
- Bakerpedia. Water Absorption | Baking Processes. https://bakerpedia.com/processes/water-absorption/ . Accessed 25 July 2017.
- Kulp K., Olewnik M., Lorenz K., Collins F. Starch functionality in cookie systems. Starch – Stӑrke 43.2 (1991):53-7.
- Kiyoshi K., Toh M., Hagura Y. Effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie. Food Chemistry 145 (2014):772-6.
- Jissy J., Leelavathi K. Effect of fat-type on cookie dough and cookie quality. Journal of Food Engineering 79.1 (2007):299-305.
- Bakerpedia. Chemical Leavening | Baking Processes. https://bakerpedia.com/processes/chemical-leavening/ . Accessed 24 July 2017.
- US Food and Drug Administration. Consumer Updates – Raw dough’s a raw deal and could make you sick. US FDA Home Page. 28 June 2016. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm508450.htm . Accessed 14 July 2017.
GoodThis is a very good article. Thank you for sharing. I look forward to publishing more such works. There are not many such articles in this field. article . The way how you explain this strategies. Is very professional.
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How to Make Cookies From Scratch
Have you ever wondered how other people get their homemade cookies to look and taste so good? It's all down to the right ingredients, techniques, and tools. Here's what you need to know to make cookies from scratch.
Vanessa Greaves is a Senior Editor at Allrecipes with nearly two decades of experience helping home cooks gain confidence in the kitchen. A self-taught cook who grew up reading cookbooks for fun, Vanessa lives and breathes the challenges faced by busy everyday cooks to get dinner on the table.
Cookies come in all shapes, sizes, and flavors — but one thing they have in common is they depend on the right ingredients, techniques, and tools to make them the best they can be. Because there are so many different kinds of cookies, we can offer general guidelines on how to make cookies — but you should always follow the instructions for the particular cookie recipe you're making.
Let's get straight to our top 10 tips for making better cookies, then we'll look at how to make cookie dough and we'll trouble-shoot common cookie-making problem. Finally, we'll take a deeper dive into choosing the right cookie ingredients and highlight some essential cooking-making tools you'll need.
How to Make Cookies: 10 Quick Tips
- Find a trusted cookie recipe and follow the instructions. Once you feel comfortable with making a type of cookie, you can start to put your own personal spin on it.
- Unless your recipe says otherwise, you'll always use large-size eggs, unsalted butter and nuts, and pure extracts of vanilla or almond.
- Successful baking relies on the correct ratio of ingredients, so be sure to measure accurately .
- Most cookie recipes call for all-purpose flour . For the best results, lightly spoon flour into a dry measuring cup and level with a knife. Do not sift unless the recipe specifically says to do so.
- Unless you are baking with non-stick pans and cookie sheets, use parchment paper for stick-free baking and easy clean-up.
- Chill dough for cut-out cookies , and soften it up at room temperature for a few minutes before rolling out.
- Leave at least two inches of space between cookies so they don't spread into each other.
- Adjust baking times to achieve the cookie texture you crave. A little less time produces chewier cookies; a little more time makes them crispy.
- Bake bar cookies in the pan size indicated in the recipe so bar cookies don't turn out too tall or too short.
- Cool cookies completely before decorating .
How to Make Cookie Dough
There are a couple of important steps to making cookie dough that make all the difference: ingredient temperature and the mixing itself.
Have all ingredients at room temperature before mixing the dough, unless your recipe specifically says otherwise. This helps all the different kinds of ingredients come together evenly. After you mix the dough, you can chill it for 30 minutes before baking so it holds its shape better as it bakes. Rolled and cut-out cookies should be refrigerated before baking for sharper, clearer edges. Drop cookies , such as chocolate chip or oatmeal cookies , can be at room temperature before baking; the spoonfuls of dough will spread and flatten out to the desired result.
- Room temperature butter is best for creaming together butter and sugar.
- Chilled butter is best for cutting butter into flour.
How to Mix Cooke Dough
Mixing cookie dough doesn't require as delicate a touch as mixing cake batter or quick bread, but it's still important to get it right. Some cookie recipes require a creaming step in which the fat and sugars are beaten together until light-colored and fluffy. Other cookie recipes require a sandy texture, so the fat is cut into the flour. Over-mixing can incorporate too much air into the dough, resulting in flat, overly spread-out cookies. Always read through and follow the recipe instructions.
Troubleshooting Cookie Problems
If you have a cookie recipe that you love, but aren't getting the desired results, use these tips to get your perfect cookie:
- How to make cookies flatter: If you want your cookies on the flat side, you can do some or all of the following things: Use all butter, use all-purpose flour or bread flour, increase the sugar content slightly, add a bit of liquid to your dough, and bring the dough to room temperature before baking.
- How to make cookies puffier: For light, puffy cookies, use shortening or margarine and cut back on the amount of fat; add an egg, cut back on the sugar, use cake flour or pastry flour, use baking powder instead of baking soda, and refrigerate your dough before baking.
- How to make cookies chewier: Try melting the butter before adding it to the sugars when mixing. Remove cookies from the oven a few minutes before they are done, while their centers are still soft but are just cooked through. The edges should be golden. Use brown sugar, honey, or molasses as a sweetener. Let cookies cool on the pan for several minutes after baking before transferring to cooling rack.
- How to make cookies crispier: For crisp, crunchy cookies, use all butter and a proportion of white sugar. Use egg yolks in place of a whole egg. Cookies should be baked completely. Let cool on the baking sheet for one minute before transferring to a cooling rack.
Cookie Ingredients: What They Are and What They Do
Using the correct ingredients in their proper ratios is crucial to good baking. For best results, follow the recipe and measure ingredients correctly . Here's an overview of the most common cookie ingredients and how to use them.
Most cookie recipes call for all-purpose or pastry flour. If you use bread flour with its high gluten protein content, or cake flour, which is high in starch, you'll end up with cookies that tend to spread less when you bake them. Recipes for shortbread cookies or other cookies with a crumbly texture usually have a higher flour-to-liquid ratio.
More: Get the inside scoop on different types of wheat flour and gluten-free flour , including coconut flour .
Leaveners are the ingredients that make baked goods puff up. In cookie recipes, the two most common leaveners are baking soda and baking powder.
- Baking soda is simply bicarbonate of soda. It neutralizes the acidity of the dough, allowing the cookies to brown in the oven.
- Baking powder is a combination of bicarbonate of soda plus cream of tartar, an acidic ingredient. Since baking powder already contains its own acid, it will not reduce the acidity in the dough, and the resulting cookies will be puffier and lighter in color.
More: Learn how to use baking soda and baking powder in your recipes for best results.
Fats are all about flavor and spread — what a cookie tastes like, and whether it keeps its shape or flattens as the fats heat and liquify in the oven. In general, more fat in the recipe produces flat, crispy cookies, while less fat produces puffier, cake-like cookies. The kind of fat you use also makes a difference. Cookies are made primarily with butter, margarine or shortening, and each behaves differently. Note that whipped spreads are not suitable for baking.
- Cookies made with butter tend to spread out because it melts at body temperature — a much lower temperature than other solid fats — resulting in a "melt-in-your-mouth" burst of flavor. In fact, butter is an essential flavor agent in certain cookies, such as shortbreads. If cookies spread more than you'd like them to, try lowering the amount of butter, sugar, or baking soda in the recipe.
- Cookies made with shortening won't spread as much and will hold their shape better because shortening has a much higher melting point than butter.
- Cookies made with margarine will spread about the same amount as cookies made with butter because margarine has a only a slightly higher melting point than butter.
More: Learn more about the difference between using butter and margarine in your baking recipes.
Like fats, sugars liquefy when they heat in the oven. The type and amount of sugar both play a big role in cookie-making.
- White sugar makes a crisper cookie than does brown sugar or honey.
- Brown sugar makes a moister, chewier cookies. Most chocolate chip cookie recipes contain both brown and white sugars.
- Decreasing sugar in a cookie recipe makes it spread less, but the cookies turn out drier and less flavorful depending on how much sugar you leave out.
More: Find out how to bake with different sugars and sugar substitutes .
Eggs and Liquids
Cookie Tools: Baking Sheets and More
Different kinds of baking sheets produce different results.
- Thin baking sheets might allow the bottoms to brown too fast.
- Insulated baking sheets allow air movement and help cookies bake evenly, but they can be expensive.
- Rimless cookie baking sheets allow cookies to easily slide off the sheet when they're used with a liner (see below).
- Semi-thick rimmed baking sheets — also called jellyroll pans — are available just about everywhere, and are a fine multipurpose baking choice.
Baking Sheet Liners
To keep cookies from sticking to the baking sheet, buy an inexpensive roll of parchment paper or invest in a nonstick silicone baking mat to make cookie removal and clean-up easy. Inexpensive parchment paper can be used again and again, and slides right off the sheet onto the cooling rack. Note that silicone baking mats don't slide off cookie sheets as easily as parchment paper. Don't use waxed paper as a baking sheet liner.
Cookie Dough Scoops
When you're baking mass batches of cookies, or when you really want to make sure your cookies come out the same size, use a spring-loaded scoop to measure out the dough quickly and evenly. Scoops come in various sizes, and you'll find yourself using them for more than cookie dough.
Buy an oven thermometer to be sure your oven temperature is calibrated correctly. They don't have to be expensive, and you'll be surprised by how different your actual oven temperature can be from what it says on your oven dial or digital read-out. Generally, cookies are baked in a moderate oven — 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) — for 8 to 12 minutes, depending on the size of the cookie.
- For chewy cookies , allow them to cool on the baking sheet for 3 to 5 minutes before transferring to a cooling rack.
- For crispier cookies , let cookies cool for one minute on the baking sheet before transferring to a cooling rack.
More: This handy temperature conversion chart shows Fahrenheit to Celsius equivalents.
- Ready to get baking? See our complete cookie recipe collection .
- Check out techniques and ideas for decorating cookies .
- Planning ahead? Get tips to freeze cookies and cookie dough .
- Get all the tips and recipes you need to make sugar cookies for any occasion.
- If you want to ship cookies , these recipes won't crumble in the mail .
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How to Make Chocolate Chip Cookies
The article talks about how chocolate chip cookies are a popular kind of cookie and how making them can be either easy or difficult depending on the ingredients used. To make the cookies, fresh ingredients need to be gathered and combined to make the dough, which is then baked in the oven. The article provides a list of ingredients and utensils needed to make the cookies and also provides step-by-step instructions on how to make them. It concludes by saying that baking chocolate chip cookies is a fun and simple activity that can be enjoyed by everyone.
What is your favorite kind of cookies? Chocolate chip cookies are the number one cookie because, it seems like every time you bite into one you’re biting into a piece of heaven. Making delicious chocolate chip cookies can be either an easy or difficult task depending on how you look at it. Using the correct ingredients and using the right amount of each one will you’re certain to have great cookies. Making chocolate chip cookies from scratch requires you to gather fresh ingredients and combining ingredients to make the dough, and to bake the actual cookies.
Time to gather the ingredients! Ingredients needed include 2 ? all-purpose flour, 1tsp. baking soda, 1/2tsp. salt, ? cup sugar, ? cup brown sugar, 2 cups chocolate chips (pick your favorite chocolate brand), 1 cup (2 sticks) softened butter, 2tsp. vanilla extract, and 2 eggs. To prepare the dough, you will need these utensils, a small and large mixing bowl, mixing spoon, measuring cups, and measuring spoons. To bake the cookies, you will need a cookie sheet and baking spray (so that the cookies don’t stick).
Before putting ingredients together and mixing the dough, preheat the oven to 375°F. To create the dough, all ingredients must be combined and mixed together. In the small bowl, combine and mix the flour, baking soda, and salt. In the large bowl, combine and mix the butter, sugar, brown sugar, vanilla extract, and eggs. Next, gradually add flour mixture to the ingredients in the large bowl, and mix until smooth. Finally, stir in the chocolate chips. Once the mix looks satisfactory it’s time to bake it! Make sure the oven has been preheated to 375°F.
Spray or grease your cookie pan then drop rounded tablespoons of dough onto the cookie sheet about 2 1/2 inches apart until the sheet is filled up. Place the cookie sheet with the dough in the oven for about 9-11 minutes or until golden brown. Once the cookies have finished baking, remove them from the oven and let them to cool for about 2 minutes. Baking chocolate chip cookies (or any kind of cookies) is a fun and simple activity, using basic ingredients and supplies. Now that you have just made delicious chocolate chip cookies, bring out a cold glass of milk and share with the family or keep them to yourself, either way enjoy!
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How To Make Chocolate Chip Cookies Have you ever wanted to make some really delicious and perfectly baked chocolate chip cookies but didn't know how to? Well, it's not as hard as you think it is. There's just a few simple steps that you should follow and your cookies will end up tasting amazing and
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- How to Bake Chocolate Chip Cookies (Process Essay)
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How to Prepare Cookie - Process Analysis Essay
Before we proceed it is essential you understand what cookie is. Well, it is baked food and usually flat, sweet and smaller than standards cakes. Its major contents include sugar, some kind of oil, floor and garnishes such as raisins, chocolate chips, oats as well as nuts. It is incredibly easy to prepare cookies only if you follow the right steps (Dottolo & Dottolo, 2018). Cooking your own snack is of great importance. In the first place, it allows you to blend the food the way you want. Secondly, it is a bit economical. Besides, improves one's creativity. Try out the following cookie recipe. We are quite sure you will enjoy the procedure.
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Ingredients vary from one person to the other. However, some ingredients are common to all. Here come major constitutes that you cannot do without irrespective of the situation:
- Two and a quarter cups of standard floor
- Three-quarter cup of filled brown sugar
- Single teaspoon table salt
- Three-quarter cup of ground sugar
- One-half cup of salty butter. It should be blended soft for better cooking results.
- Teaspoon Baking Powder
- Two large eggs
- Teaspoon vanilla extract
- Two cups slightly sweet chocolate chips
Without the right equipment, cooking cookies remain one of the hardest things you can do. Also, you will be discourages and you may end up hating the whole process. Choose the right equipment and you will be in place bake excellent and good looking cookies (Lille, Nurmela, Nordlund, Metsa-Kortelainen, & Sozer, 2018). Here are essential and simple equipment and tools you need in order to prepare cooks adequately:
- Measuring jar
- Measuring spoon
- Cooling Rack
- Mixing Spoon
- Mixing bowl-it should be large enough to efficient aeration.
- Baking sheet
If you do not have all these equipment's, it is advisable to improvise them. Nonetheless, the improvised device must serve its intended purpose, clean and easy to maintain for hygienic reasons (Usher, 2018). For instance, you might remove a grill from the oven in absence of cooling rack for the same purpose.
To begin with, preheat the oven up to 375 degrees Celsius.
Next, you are expected to spray the cooking tray using non-stick substances. As well, you can try greaseproof paper on top of the cooking surface. This is to prevent sticking out of cookies that result in undesirable shapes. (Lille et al., 2018).
Thoroughly mix the sugar to remove any chunks or bits.
Next, you are to mix the butter and grounded sugar together until you obtain the right texture.
Beat eggs one by one in a single bowl before transferring to the main bowl. This is to avoid contamination in case there are some eggs that are not in good condition. Add sugar-butter mixture into the prepared eggs (Subramaniam & Wareing, 2016).
Use a mixing spoon to beat eggs before mixing with butter-sugar contents.
Then mix measured salt, baking soda, and vanilla altogether. Ensure no lumps in the mixture (Dottolo & Dottolo, 2018). Sieve the floor for further aeration and add to the mixture. Mix them all to make dough.
Scoop a tablespoon of dough and put it on the baking sheet. Continue doing these until all the dough is transferred to the baking surface (Usher, 2018). Try any shape you like. There should be caps between shaped dough in the baking sheet to avoid sticking.
Bake them for approximately 12 minutes. Check the batter for readiness as from 9 minutes. If ready, remove and cool them. Serve with any juice or any drink as you may wish.
Dottolo, A. L., & Dottolo, C. (2018). "Beat Everything": The Recipes. In Italian American Women, Food, and Identity (pp. 153-166). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Lille, M., Nurmela, A., Nordlund, E., Metsa-Kortelainen, S., & Sozer, N. (2018). Applicability of protein and fiber-rich food materials in extrusion-based 3D printing. Journal of Food Engineering, 220, 20-27.
Subramaniam, P., & Wareing, P. (Eds.). (2016). The stability and shelf life of food. Woodhead Publishing.
Usher, J. (2018). Julia Usher| Recipes for a Sweet Life. Cell, 314, 960-2712.
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How to Make Oatmeal Cookies
Have you ever faced a situation when your friends suddenly decided to visit you to make a surprise and you had nothing to do the honors of the table? It happened to me several weeks ago. It was quite a late evening when I received a call from two my closest friends and found out that they were driving to see me.
That evening I was a little bit tired and did not have any desire to cook something. Still, it would be impolite if I offered nothing yummy to my dearest friends. I thought for a while and remembered a wonderful recipe of crunchy cookies made by my mom.Later she taught me how to cook them. I have no idea where she took the recipe from. Probably, it was an old culinary book with exclusive recipes.
These are the most phenomenal raisin oatmeal cookies that I have ever made. Frankly speaking, that evening they saved the no-meal situation, and my friends were so satisfied with chewy cookies that they asked me for this wonderful recipe.
Now I am going to share with you how to cook them. This recipe is quite handy for unexpected situations. The only thing is that it is not super easy to cook, because it is kind of tough dough. You know, it is very dense dough, so you need a good mixer for it. If you do not have a mixer, you have to make sure that you will be able to mix the ingredients yourself, so you can handle that type of pressure.
To make yummy cookies, you should start with preparing dough. You are going to cream together two sticks of butter, a cup of white sugar and a cup of brown sugar. If you think that too much sugar is bad for your teeth or health in general, use less sugar or replace a part of it with chocolate. While this is creaming, you need to add two eggs. Eggs are helpful when you need smooth dough and good surface of your cookies. You are going to break the eggs on the side of the dish, while it is supposed to do on a flat surface. It is important to be careful, otherwise eggs can fall down and turn into omelet right on the floor. While mixing, always scrap the dough down the bowl. This will help you to mix well all ingredients and get good dough.
While they are mixing, you are going to put together your dry ingredients in a separate bowl. You should mix your dry stuff. Then it is time to take two cups of flour, one tea spoon of baking soda, and one and a half tea spoons of cinnamon. Normally, you are supposed to add a tea spoon of salt, but I used a salted butter, so I am not going to put any salt. But if you use unsalted butter, just add a half of tea spoon. Now, we are going to add three cups of oats.
I must say that oats are very useful for stomach and a whole organism. They contain a lot of vitamins, useful lipids and amino acids. Consequently, it makes one's skin and hair look healthy and nice. Therefore, even if you use a lot of sugar, chocolate or honey in your cookies, oatmeal make them a healthy food.
Usually, I use quick cook Scotch oatmeal as it "undergoes a process, in order to dry it, which imparts a peculiarly rich and delicious flavor" (Friend Society, 2009). You are going to stir together all of these ingredients, because you are going to add it slowly to the pre-mixture. Now what you are going to do is add about a cup of raisins to this. If you feel like you want to add nuts at this point or chocolate chips you can do that too, but I personally like raisins. You can see how tough the dough is. That is why you need to have a good mixer.
At this point, usually what I do is I refrigerate it for about an hour. So that is what we are going to do. We are going to refrigerate it at least an hour. Do not cook it right away. It cooks better after it comes out of refrigerator and it makes it easier to make balls. After it is cooled about an hour, you take dough and you roll it in balls. You can use ice-cream spoon to take dough or any other spoon available. Then make balls with your hands.
As far as the dough is cooled and tough, it will be very easy to make balls of the needed size. Then take a baking pan, and cover it with wax paper. Put the balls on the paper and flatten them using other side of the spoon. You will have nice tiny scones. Make sure you leave about two inch space between them as they will spread while baking. The appropriate heat of oven is 350°F. If you use less, it will take more time to cook, if you use more, you risk having your cookies burned down. Bake them for about fifteen minutes, then cool it and enjoy with tea or coffee.
You see, the process of cooking complex dishes is often a quick and pleasant process. In addition, take into account that perfect ingredients are not sufficient for making a tasty dish. Cook with love and you will be always satisfied with the result, and, accordingly, your friends and family will appreciate not only a good taste of the meal, but how much you love and care about them. Bon app?tit!
- Friend Society. (2009). Useful hints for labourers: from the publications of the Labourers' Friend Society and republished under their direction First series. London: Cambridge Publisher.
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Write my essay for me frequently asked questions
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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.
A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.
A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.
When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.
Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.
Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.
Descriptive thesis (not arguable)
While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.
This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.
Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)
Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.
This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.
Arguable thesis with analytical claim
While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.
This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.
Arguable thesis with normative claim
Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.
This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.
Questions to ask about your thesis
- Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?
- Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?
- Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?
- Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?
- Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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