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Citing an Article Written for a Database (APA)
Some database articles are not contained in a journal, magazine, book, or newspaper. These articles are written exclusively for the database such as Today's Science or Opposing Viewpoints . The following format and examples can help you cite an article written for a database.
Format: Author Last Name, Author First Initial. (Year). Article title . In Title of Database , publisher. DOI/URL
Example: Erick, T. (2016). The carbon solution: Underground storage . In Today's Science , Infobase Learning.
Issues and Controversies:
Example: Human trafficking . (2010, November 17). In Issues and Controversies , Infobase Learning.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context (only some articles):
Example: Health care disparities. (2021). In Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection , Gale.
If there is no author listed for the article (which can be common especially in a database like Opposing Viewpoints), you can just skip adding the author's name.
For the article title, capitalize only proper nouns and the first word of the article title and subtitle. Also italicize the article title (APA considers it standalone).
For the database name, capitalize all the significant words in the title and italicize.
List the most specific information you have for the date (this could be just a year, or can be as specific as Day Month Year). If you do not have a date, list n.d. for no date.
Always list the DOI if given. DOI is preferred rather than a URL.
If a DOI is not given, but the source can be found in a library database, then there is no need to include a URL (simply cite the entry the same way you would a print entry). However, if a DOI is not given, and the source is not in a library database - rather found on the internet - then include a URL (to help people find it).
URLs should be as specific as possible (i.e. take the reader directly to the page you used). So use the full URL (https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/28/us/politics/william-barr-house-judiciary-hearing.html) rather than the home page (https://www.nytimes.com).
Present DOI’s and URL’s as hyperlinks beginning with http:// or https:// (Links can be ‘live’ if your writing is going to be viewed electronically or online). For DOI, the URL should begin with https://doi.org/ . DOI example: https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126
Double space entries. If an entry runs more than one line, use a hanging indent which indents any additional lines beyond the first (there is a button in Microsoft Word and other programs to do this; do not use the tab button or the space bar).
Acceptable abbreviations can be found on pp. 306-7 of the APA manual.
- How to Cite an Article Written for a Database in APA This worksheet will walk you through how to cite an article written for a database in APA format.
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- Formatting the Author & Title
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- Last Updated: Mar 3, 2023 11:18 AM
- URL: https://libguides.sccsc.edu/APA
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APA Database Citation
This article will show you how to write APA database citation. Actually, the format for citing database information is the same as the usual way of citing a particular reference (e.g. journals, magazines, newspapers). You will know more about this in the next part of the article. For now, take a look first at the guide in citing the authors.
Table of Content
- 1.1 One Author
- 1.2.1 Two to Seven Authors
- 1.2.2 More than Seven Authors
- 1.3 Corporate Author
- 1.4 No Author
- 2 In-Text Citation
- 3.1 Journal from a database
- 3.2 Magazine from a Database
- 3.3 Newspaper from a Database
Citing the Author
Multiple authors .
Note: In listing the authors, follow the same order as it is written in the source.
Two to Seven Authors
More than seven authors, corporate author.
This part covers everything you need to know about in-text citation and reference list for databases. You will find here the elements, guidelines, formats and specific examples that will certainly help you in citing databases the APA style.
- Year of Publication
- Page or paragraph range
- In-text citations are usually written with the last name of the author and year of publication inside a parenthesis. But if the last name of the author is included within the text, only the year of publication is enclosed in a parenthesis.
(De Waal, 2001)
De Waal (2001) found…
- For direct quotations, include the name of the author, year, and page number or the paragraph number.
(Spinger, 1999, p. 7)
According to Springer (1999, p. 7)
- For works with no date, use n.d.
Silva (n.d.) posited…
- Year or Date of Publication
- Title of Article
- Title of Resource
- Volume number (issue number, if available)
- Include as much reference information you can get from the source.
- For articles from a private database, locate the URL from the web.
- Write the homepage’s URL when citing an article which is also available from other sources.
- Italicize the title of newspapers, magazines, and journals.
- The date is written in this order: year, month day.
- Include the URL or DOI. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string used by scholarly publishers to provide persistent link to content in the internet.
Journal from a database
Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Online Journal , Volume number (issue number if available), pages. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ or doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000
Example: Martin, J., & Tokada, K. (2007, December). Face recognition in chimpanzees. Behavioral Sciences Journal 21 (4), 39-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.121.6.1145
Magazine from a Database
Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Online Magazine , Volume number (issue number if available), pages. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ or doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000
Example: China’s export prospects: Fear of the dragon. (2010, January 9). The Economist . Retrieved from http://academic.lexisnexis.com
Newspaper from a Database
Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Online Newspaper , pages. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Example: Spending at Humana trims profit. (2012, May 1). New York Times , p. B2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
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How do I cite articles from a database in APA?
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Answered By: Paul Lai Last Updated: Jun 01, 2016 Views: 1081
There are three main types of journal articles: print, online with a digital object identifier (DOI), and online without a DOI. See below for example reference entries and in-text citations.
References for all three of these types should begin with the same basic information: the author name(s), the publication year, the title of the article, the title of the journal, and the volume, issue, and page numbers.
Journal article references will typically use a DOI number or the webpage URL. If an article from a common academic research database does not have a DOI number, no DOI or URL is needed for the reference entry.
Remember to insert a hanging indent for each reference entry. See the Academic Skills Center's tutorials to learn how to create a hanging indent .
In-text citations for journal articles include the same basic information that all in-text citations include: author's last name, publication year, and when needed, the page number. This information appears either narratively (as part of the sentence) or parenthetically.
For more details on giving credit to your sources in APA and formatting your document properly, take a look at the Writing Center's APA webpage .
For tips on citing electronic sources , see some of the Writing Center's other resources.
See more common reference entry examples on the Writing Center's website.
Would you like a current or future assignment to be reviewed by the Writing Center? If so please visit the Writing Center's Paper Reviews webpage and make an appointment with us!
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Other questions about your doctoral capstone or the form and style review? Email the form and style editors at [email protected] .
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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Database
- General Style Guidelines
- One Author or Editor
- Two Authors or Editors
- Three to Five Authors or Editors
- Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- Article in a Reference Book
- Edition other than the First
- Government Publication
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Journal Article with 3-7 Authors
- Journal Article 7 or more Authors
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Basic Web Page
- Web page from a University site
- Web Page with No Author
- Entry in a Reference Work
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- Secondary Sources
- Citation Support
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Formatting Your Paper
Do you need to include the full URL?
When you are citing a subscription database do NOT include the full long URL. Rule: Subscription Database Don't : Since a subscription database item is only available if the reader has access, you should not include the long URL of the item. Do: Do include the homepage URL of the database to show the reader the name of the publisher and how one would be able to access the item if they obtained a subscription to the database.
Bad Example: Tuggy, M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury . Elsevier. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/ content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016324?scrollTo=%23heading80
Good Example: Tuggy , M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury . Elsevier. www.clinicalkey.com
See: APA blog What to Use—The Full Document URL or Home Page URL?
- Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style®
Point-of-Care Database Records
- Authors: If the entry does not list author(s) names, you should use the corporate author (i.e. Dynamed).
- Dates: Look for the last updated or last revised date usually posted at the top or bottom of the record
- Retrieved: Include the date you accessed the information
(Author Surname, Year/last updated)
Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update if not known, put n.d.). Title of specific document . Publisher. Retrieved date from [if needed] URL database homepage
In-Text Citation: DynamedPlus
DynamedPlus (2017, July 18). Diabetes mellitus type 2 in children and adolescents. EBSCO. Retrieved August 3, 2017 from www.dynamed.com
In-Text Citation: Epocrates
(Shah & Kantharia, 2017)
Shah, A.N., & Kantharia, B.K. (2017, January 23). Acute atrial fibrillation. Epocrates, Inc. Retrieved August, 2, 2017 from www.epocrates.com
Example: Pediatric Care Online
In-Text Citation: Pediatric Care Online
(Pediatric Care Online, 2017)
References: Pediatric Care Online
Pediatric Care Online. (2016, May 18). Kawasaki Disease. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved August 2, 2017 from https://pediatriccare.solutions.aap.org
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Articles in Databases - Format & Examples
Use this format for full-text articles found in databases like Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, PsycARTICLES, etc.
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Article from Database
NOTE: If an article from a database includes a DOI, provide the DOI link as you would for any online journal article. If the article does not include a DOI, the reference will look like a print version of the article. The 7th edition of American Psychological Association Publication Manual states, “Do not include the database name or URL.”
Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal italicized, Volume number italicized (Issue number), Page numbers.
Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal italicized, Volume number italicized (Issue number if non-consecutive pagination), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL to the journal’s homepage
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ERIC Database References
This page contains a reference example for a work of limited circulation from the ERIC database.
Jacobs, G. M., Teh, J., & Spencer, L. (2019). A proposal for facilitating more cooperation in competitive sports (ED573929). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED573929.pdf
- Parenthetical citation : (Jacobs et al., 2019)
- Narrative citation : Jacobs et al. (2019)
- The ERIC database includes materials of wide circulation (e.g., journal articles) as well as materials of limited circulation (e.g., manuscripts submitted by authors).
- Use this format to cite works in ERIC that are of limited circulation.
- For works of wide circulation, use the format for the work type (e.g., the journal article reference format).
- ERIC assigns document numbers to the works in the database. Include this number in parentheses after the title of the work.
This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.
Thursday, February 23: The Clark Library is closed today.
APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Films/Videos/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Journal article from library database with doi - one author, journal article from library database with doi - multiple authors, journal article from a website - one author.
Journal Article- No DOI
Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.
- APA 7th. ed. Journal Article Reference Checklist
If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.
When an article has one to twenty authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has twenty-one or more authors list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.
Cite author names in the order in which they appear on the source, not in alphabetical order (the first author is usually the person who contributed the most work to the publication).
Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize or use quotation marks for the titles of articles.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.
If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Volume and Issue Numbers
Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers.
Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.
If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)
Do not include the name of a database for works obtained from most academic research databases (e.g. APA PsycInfo, CINAHL) because works in these resources are widely available. Exceptions are Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations, and UpToDate.
In the Body of a Paper
Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.
Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.
The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.
- APA 7th ed. Sample Paper
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Smith, K. F. (2022). The public and private dialogue about the American family on television: A second look. Journal of Media Communication, 50 (4), 79-110. https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.x
Note: The DOI number is formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.xIf.
(Author's Last Name, Year)
Example: (Smith, 2000)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)
Example: (Smith, 2000, p. 80)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.
Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including 20 authors. When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author.
Note : For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."
Reference List Examples
Two to 20 Authors
Case, T. A., Daristotle, Y. A., Hayek, S. L., Smith, R. R., & Raash, L. I. (2011). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3 (2), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010
21 or more authors
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 77 (3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more Authors/Editors
(Case et al., 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL
Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1 (30). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4
Example: (Flachs, 2010)
Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)
Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, in this case you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. If there are no page or paragraph numbers and no marked section, leave this information out.
Journal Article - No DOI
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number.
Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463 (2), 433-434.
Example: (Jungers, 2010)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)
Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)
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- Last Updated: Mar 1, 2023 9:06 AM
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Citations - APA Style: Citing Periodical Articles from Databases in APA 7 Format
- Citing Periodical Articles from Databases in APA 7 Format
- Citing Electronic Books and Chapters APA 7 Format
- Citing Electronic Images and Streaming Video APA 7 Format
- About the DOI
- Article titles are in lower case type, except for the first word, first word of the subtitle, and proper nouns.
- Journal (Magazine, etc.) titles have the main words capitalized and appear in italic type , and the volume number is written in italics , too.
- An aggregated database is one that pulls material from many different sources.
Periodical Articles - General
Articles from journals, magazines, and newspapers.
APA style calls for references to be typed double-spaced, in hanging indention, as shown in the examples. Periodical titles should be written in italics. Citations for articles from databases should include the DOI if available; omit it if not. If the article is from a website other than a library database, include the DOI or the URL
General Format for Articles
For magazines, give specific issue month and day. Examples:
Article was found on a library database, but by rule, the article with no DOI is cited as if it were in print.
Example of journal article with no doi, example of an article with 21 or more authors, with doi, newspaper articles, example from article on new york times, articles found in literature resource center, literature resource center articles that were formerly reprinted in gale reference books.
These reprints appear in the Literature Resource Center and can be identified by the phrase Reprint In after the title of the journal where the article first appeared.
Although APA rules say that, in general, articles from academic databases should not include a URL or the name of the database, there is an exception for databases that have unique content. An example is an article reprinted in a Gale reference book, and then presented in database form.
Articles in Literature Resource Center Taken Directly from Journals
Journal articles show the title of the journal followed by a volume and issue number in parentheses. There is no "Reprint in" statement:
Articles which have not been reprinted in a reference book are cited like any other periodical article without a DOI:
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How to Cite a Database
Last Updated: June 2, 2021 References
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Whether you are writing a term paper or an important research article, it's important to cite all of your sources. These citations should always include databases. Only the American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) have formal guidelines for citing entire databases or datasets. If you only need to cite an article retrieved from a database, however, you can use your style guideline's basic format for citing a journal article. Add in the database title, URL, or date at the end.
Citing a Whole Database in APA
- Pew Research Center.
- Pew Research Center. (2002).
- Pew Research Center. (2002). Global Indicators Database
- Pew Research Center. (2002). Global Indicators Database [database].
- Pew Research Center. (2002). Global Indicators Database [database]. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/database/ .
- If the database was unpublished, you can write “Unpublished Raw Data” instead of the URL or DOI.
Referencing a Medical Database
- Peristats [Internet].
- Peristats [Internet]. White Plains (NY):
- You can leave this information out if you can’t find it.
- For example, Peristats is published by the March of Dimes Foundation. Therefore the citation might look like this: Peristats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Foundation.
- Peristats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Foundation. 2007 –
- Peristats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Foundation. 2007 – [cited 2017 Oct 1].
- Use only the first three letters of the month to abbreviate it. Instead of January, for example, use Jan.
- Peristats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Foundation. 2007 – [cited 2017 Oct 1]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.org/peristats/documents.aspx .
- So if you were citing Peristats in your paper, it might look like: (March of Dimes 2017).
Citing an Article from a Database
- In MLA, you would cite: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages.
- In Chicago, you should write: Author(s), “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume, number (Year): page numbers.
- In CSE, the format is: Author(s). Year. Article title. Shortened journal title . Volume(issue):pages.
- When doing in text citations, always cite the author, not the database. For example, use (Smith), not (JSTOR).
- Clark, Kenneth. “Mona Lisa.” The Burlington Magazine, vol. 115, no. 840, 1973, pp. 144–151. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/877242. Accessed October 1, 2017.
- The DOI should be located under the title of the journal article.
- If you are using an URL, choose the “stable” or “permanent” URL, which should be listed under the title.
- Glynn, I. (1999). Two millennia of animal spirits. Nature , 402, 353. Accessed October 1, 2017. DOI:10.1038/46428.
- Krause N. 2017. New Surfactants for Chemistry in Water. Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry 7. DOI:10.1016/j.cogsc.2017.06.009.< www.sciencedirect.com > [accessed 2017 Oct 1].
- Some databases will tell you how you can cite them. This may be under a section called “citations.” ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- If you can't find certain pieces of information, such as a date or place of publication, you can leave it out. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/citedata
- ↑ http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/c.php?g=96245&p=626239
- ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7273/
- ↑ http://norris.usc.libguides.com/c.php?g=293796&p=1956190
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/04/
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Journal Citation
How to Cite a Journal Article in APA
Journal articles are one of the most important sources of information for research papers. Often times, they will serve as your main source of information, as journal articles contain information that is specific to a topic. This page will show you how to cite journal articles in APA style, updated for the 7th edition.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
APA Journal Article Citation
In-text apa citation for journal articles, reference page apa citation for journal articles, how to cite a journal article in apa (print), how to cite a journal article with multiple authors in apa, how to cite a journal article on a database in apa, troubleshooting.
This guide will help you create journal citations in APA format. Check out this hyperlink if you are looking to create APA books citation .
This section will help you create in-text APA citations for journal articles.
In-text citations refer to the crediting of articles within the body of a work, separate from the reference page at the end of a document. An in-text citation comes after a paraphrase or a direct quote. For any APA in-text citation in your own paper, you must include a full citation in your reference page as well.
Paraphrasing in APA
For an in-text APA journal citation that is not a direct quote, or an APA parenthetical citation , all you need to provide is the author’s last name and the year of publication.
You may provide a page number (preceded by “p.” for one page or “pp.” for multiple pages) as well if the passage or idea you are paraphrasing is on a certain page or set of pages, but this is not necessary for APA journal citations.
Narrative In-Text Citation Example:
According to Currie (2001), there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that early intervention programs can be effective.
Parenthetical In-Text Citation Example:
Research suggests that the absence of behavior problems is just as important to future success as the development of cognitive skills (Currie, 2001, p. 215).
Short quotes in APA
A short quote in APA style must be fewer than 40 words. When using a direct short quote for APA citation of journal articles, you must list the author, the year of publication, the page number(s), and use quotation marks. You can embed this information within the sentence or cite it at the end of the sentence, or use a mixture of both as long as all the components are used in your APA journal citation.
According to Currie (2001), “the difficulty of overcoming poor endowments later in life—through job training programs for high school dropouts, for example—makes early intervention appear attractive as well” (p. 216).
Long quotes in APA
A long quote in APA citation style (also called a block quote in APA ) has 40 words or more. Like short quotes, for APA citation of journal articles, you must also cite the author, year of publication and the page number(s) for long quotes, and this information can be embedded within the sentence surrounding the quote, cited at the end of the sentence, or a mixture of both.
Unlike short quotes, long quotes in an APA citation of journal article require you to start the quote on a new line with a ½ inch indent from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout the quote, and if you haven’t already embedded all the citation information in the sentence preceding the quote, include it at the end of the quote in parentheses after the closing punctuation mark. Do not use any quotation marks around a long quote for journal APA citation.
Currie’s (2001) study found the following:
Equalizing early endowments through early childhood intervention programs may be a superior approach to the problem of unequal allocations, both because it avoids many of the moral hazard problems that arise when society attempts to compensate those with poor outcomes and because early intervention to equalize allocations may be a more cost-effective way of promoting equity than compensating for unequal outcomes. (pp. 215-216)
Citing Multiple Authors in APA
- 2 authors: Give the information for the first author followed by a comma, then use an ampersand (&) and list the information for the second author.
- 3 to 20 authors: Separate the author names with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the final author’s name. In APA citations of journal articles, never list more than 20 authors.
- 21+ authors: List the first 19 names separated by commas. After the 19th author, add a comma, then an ellipsis (…), followed by the final author’s name.
Citing Group/Corporate Authors in APA
For a corporate author in an APA citation of a journal, use the publishing company in place of the author’s name in the citation. Place the name of the publishing company at the beginning of the citation just as you would the author’s name with proper capitalization.
Citing a Source with No Authors in APA
If no author is given, to create the APA citation of a journal, use the title of the article in place of the author information. Then, provide the publication date and publication name without repeating the article title.
This section will help you create an APA reference page or an APA bibliography .
How author names are structured in APA
Author names, if available, will always come first in your reference page for APA citation for journal articles. Start your reference page citation with the last name of the first author followed by a comma, followed by the author’s capitalized first initial and a period. Then list the author’s middle initial, if one is provided, followed by a period.
Rowling, J. K.
- 2 to 20 authors: Use a comma between all of the author names. Place an ampersand (&) before the final author’s name.
- 21 or more authors: List the names of the first 19 authors and use a comma between all of the names. After the 19th name, place an ellipsis (…) and then the final author’s name.
Structuring dates in APA
- Dates follow the author in APA citation for journal articles and should be in parentheses.
- List the year first followed by a comma.
- Then, list the month, fully spelled out (not abbreviated) and properly capitalized.
- Then, without using a comma after the month, list the numerical date.
- If any of this information is missing from the reference, simply omit it.
Structuring journal article titles in APA
- The article title follows the date.
- Only capitalize the first letter of the first word of the article.
- Do not italicize or underline the title of the article.
- Follow the article title with a period.
Structuring the journal name in APA
Follow the rules for journal article titles in APA citations.
- The name is capitalized throughout, just as the publication capitalizes the title
- The name should be italicized and followed by a comma.
Structuring volume and issue numbers in APA
- The volume and issue numbers follow the publication title.
- After the comma following the italicized title, put the volume number in italics.
- Then, omitting the space, put the issue number in parentheses without italics.
- Place a period after the closing parentheses, again omitting the space after the parentheses.
Structuring website addresses (URLs) and DOIs in APA
- URLs and DOIs for a journal article come after the volume and issue number. After the period following the issue number, put a space followed by the full URL or DOI with no period at the end.
- Since URLs can potentially change and DOIs cannot, APA journal citation style recommends using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) instead of a website URL when possible.
- A DOI in your reference should be formatted like this: https://doi.org/xxxx
- If a source has a DOI, it should be included; it doesn’t matter if you viewed the print or online version.
- In previous editions of APA, an APA website citation always included “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a URL. Since APA 7th edition, you no longer need to include this.
Yu, H., & Leadbetter, J. R. (2020, July 15). Bacterial chemolithoautotrophy via manganese oxidation. Nature, 583 (7816), 453–458. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2468-5
How to Cite an Online Journal Article in APA
The following examples show you how to format an online journal citation in APA style.
For an APA citation journal article from a database, you are not required to include the database information. This is because APA format includes a link to the website or the DOI instead, since database information can change over time. Simply follow the format for an APA citation journal from online as described above.
Here is a video that covers journal article citations in APA style:
Solution #1: What to do if you cannot find a journal article’s DOI
The DOI can typically be found on the first page of an article. For an online journal, the DOI is usually at the top of the webpage below the article’s title. It is a unique combination of numbers, letters, periods, which might appear in any of the forms below:
Sometimes, an article does not have a DOI, particularly if it is an older resource. Articles found on JSTOR may just have a stable URL instead of a DOI. If it cannot be found, use the URL in its place.
Corrigan, P.W. (2000) Mental health stigma as social attribution: Implications for research methods and attitude change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7 (1), 28-67. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2000-13942-004
Solution #2: How to cite another text cited within a journal article
If you wish to use a quote or information from an article that is cited as coming from another source, use the reference information provided to find the original source. Find the quote within the source and reference its original author and location. If you cannot locate it, you must still cite both sources, identifying the original author and its location within the secondary source.
Solution #3: How to find the volume and issue number of a journal
The volume and issue number can typically be found on the front cover of a journal. Within the pages of an article, they also might be listed in the top or bottom corners of the page. For an online journal, the volume and issue number are listed after the title of a journal.
Some other formats it might be found in:
vol. 18, no. 4
vol. 18, iss. 4
Published May 9, 2019. Updated July 16, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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Journal articles are the content within journals, which are a type of literature and are released periodically, are peer-reviewed, and provide some of the most up-to-date studies — basically, a great source for research. They typically focus on a particular topic and contain peer-reviewed articles written by experts in order to educate and inform other experts on the subject. Journals may contain several articles, similar to chapters in a book or articles in a magazine. Articles usually have an abstract, or a short summary of the article, at the beginning and a list of references at the end.
A “scholarly” article is an article that comes from an academic, peer-reviewed source. Because academic journals and non-academic magazines have a lot of structural similarities, the term “scholarly” differentiates this type of article from magazine articles. A scholarly article is typically written by experts for experts, and is peer-reviewed by other experts in the field.
A “peer-reviewed” article is one that has been reviewed by a board of experts in the field for quality and accuracy of the information before publishing. A “peer-reviewed” article is a more trustworthy source because it has been checked and approved by experts and is not based on opinion, low-quality research, or obsolete data.
Articles exist both in print and online and can be found at most academic libraries. Online articles can usually be found using academic databases, which contain structured sets of data or information. Many databases charge a fee to use the database and/or to access full articles. Most university library websites will provide information for accessing different academic databases.
Do not include the publisher and place of publication when citing a journal article in APA style. Publisher names are used for book-type references, reports, computer software and mobile apps, and data sets. Do not include the publisher’s location in references. Instead, the name of the journal will be included, which will provide the reader with sufficient information for locating the source.
To format a journal article in APA style, you will need the author name, publication year, title of the article, journal title, volume number, issue number, page range, and/or DOI (digital object identifier) or URL (uniform resource locator). The format for a journal article having just one author is given below:
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. URL or DOI
Note that the first name and middle name, following the author’s surname, are abbreviated and separated by a space. The title of the article should be set in sentence case. The first word of the subtitle, if present, should be capitalized. The name of the journal should be set in title case. Set the journal title and the volume number in italics, including the comma that separates them. An example is given below:
Rancière, J. (2016). Un-what? Philosophy & Rhetoric, 49 (4), 589–606. https://doi:10.5325/philrhet.49.4.0589
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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- How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite an article from an academic journal, you need an in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the name(s) of the author(s), the publication date, the article title and journal name, the volume and issue numbers, the page range, and the URL or DOI .
Different citation styles present this information differently. The main citation styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
You can use the interactive example generator to explore the format for APA and MLA journal article citations.
Table of contents
Citing an article in apa style, citing an article in mla style, citing an article in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.
In an APA Style journal article reference , the article title is in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name appears in italics, in title case.
The in-text citation lists up to two authors; for three or more, use “ et al. ”
When citing a journal article in print or from a database, don’t include a URL. You can still include the DOI if available.
You can also cite a journal article using our free APA Citation Generator . Search by title or DOI to automatically generate a correct citation.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
In an MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article , the article title appears in quotation marks, the name of the journal in italics—both in title case.
List up to two authors in both the in-text citation and the Works Cited entry. For three or more, use “et al.”
A DOI is always included when available; a URL appears if no DOI is available but the article was accessed online . If you accessed the article in print and no DOI is available, you can omit this part.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to create your journal article citations.
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In Chicago notes and bibliography style, you include a bibliography entry for each source, and cite them in the text using footnotes .
A bibliography entry for a journal article lists the title of the article in quotation marks and the journal name in italics—both in title case. List up to 10 authors in full; use “et al.” for 11 or more.
In the footnote, use “et al.” for four or more authors.
A DOI or URL (preferably a DOI) is included for articles consulted online; for articles consulted in print, omit this part.
Chicago also offers an alternative author-date style of citation. Examples of how to cite journal articles in this style can be found here .
The elements included in journal article citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the article, the year of publication, the name of the journal, the volume and issue numbers, the page range of the article, and, when accessed online, the DOI or URL.
In MLA and Chicago style, you also include the specific month or season of publication alongside the year, when this information is available.
The DOI is usually clearly visible when you open a journal article on an academic database. It is often listed near the publication date, and includes “doi.org” or “DOI:”. If the database has a “cite this article” button, this should also produce a citation with the DOI included.
If you can’t find the DOI, you can search on Crossref using information like the author, the article title, and the journal name.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.
“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .
Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.
Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 6, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-journal-article/
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Electronic Sources
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7 th edition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs; special exceptions, however, are made for resources that are unarchived. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used.
Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
Webpage or Piece of Online Content
If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page . Site name. URL
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist . Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01
If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.
Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page . Site name. URL
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims . https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims
If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).
Title of page . (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/
If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page . Site name (if applicable). URL
National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions . https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions
APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.
Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page
Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantum_mechanics&oldid=948476810
Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.
Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs
Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.
Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi.org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page .
APA 7 also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.
Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned
Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.( Issue), page numbers. DOI
Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23 (2), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20105
Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned
If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time.
Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate . Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-adults-role-of-physical-activity-and-exercise
APA 7 th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.
Online News Article
Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.
If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication . URL
Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post . https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/best-music-of-2019-lana-del-rey-sings-lullabies-about-the-end-of-america/2019/12/06/6e82c5ec-15d8-11ea-a659-7d69641c6ff7_story.html
On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article . Name of publishing website. URL
Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market . BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200506-why-do-flats-dominate-spains-housing-market
Electronic or Kindle Books
It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book . Publisher. URL
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)
Dissertation/Thesis from a Database
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.
Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students (Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author
Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work . URL
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary . Retrieved January 13, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/braggadocio
Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (Ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI
Martin, M. (2018). Animals. In L. A. Schintler & C. L. McNeely (Eds.), Encyclopedia of big data . SpringerLink. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32001-4_7-1
Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL
Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NADAC/studies/37337
Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)
Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.
HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic]. HatchMed.com. https://www.hatchmed.com/blog/2017/1/30/8-ways-to-improve-patient-satisfaction
Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://email@example.com,-86.9233886,17z
Qualitative Data and Online Interviews
If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:
Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-new-yorker-interview/peter-dinklage-is-still-punk-rock
If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:
Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/interview-will-paynter
Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL
Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/carologic/ai-and-machine-learning-demystified-by-carol-smith-at-midwest-ux-2017
Computer Software/Downloaded Software
Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL
Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co. https://www.maplesoft.com/products/MapleCompanion/
E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Online Forum or Discussion Posting
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL
Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1p32dl/
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. URL
Note : If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://twitter.com/mlastyle
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/lirinps/
Instagram Photo or Video
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkWqbBwcf/
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher . URL
Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR . https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/08/11/742293305/a-century-later-the-treaty-of-versailles-and-its-rejection-of-racial-equality
YouTube or other Streaming Video
Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL
Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AMrJRQDPjk&t=148s
Note : The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL
Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/naif_al_mutawa_superheroes_inspired_by_islam#t-4909
Or (if on YouTube)
Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL
Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbdxeFcQtaU
Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast . Publisher. URL
Prime, K. (Host). (2019, March 29). For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab . WNYC Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/whom-cowbell-tolls
- Plagiarism and grammar
- Citation guides
Cite an Online Database
Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
- Citation Machine® Plus
- Citation Guides
- Chicago Style
- Harvard Referencing
- Cookie Notice
- DO NOT SELL MY INFO
APA Style & Citation 7th edition
- What's new with the 7th edition
- Annotated Bibliography
- PowerPoint and APA
- Citations: References
- Citations: In-Text
- Library Databases
- Books and Ebooks
- Media (includes videos)
- Other types of sources
- Numbers, Capitalization, Italics
- Additional Resources
Library Database References
- Business Insights
- Ebook Central
- Films On Demand
- Gale & Opposing Viewpoints
**When using a generated citation, you must double check it for accuracy! It’s not unusual for a database to have an error in a citation!**
Database information is typically not included in most references because sources can be found in multiple platforms. The goal of a citation is to allow the reader to find the source, not to tell them how to find the source . Meaning a particular article may be found in Ebsco, or Gale, on the publisher's website. Database information is only included if they have "original, proprietary content and works of limited circulation" (Business Insights, Proquest dissertations & theses, Cochrane database of systematic reviews). URLs are usually not included because the reader would need to login to access the source, but your professor may request that you include them.
The citation tool above results in this for an article:
Peters, R., & Quinn, M. (2018). Agrowtopia: Cultivating Community, Consciousness and Capital on Campus. Journal of Case Studies , 36 (3). Retrieved from https://bi.gale.com/global/article/GALE|A597895516/48398b0d65e763958fb4d0e51125f445?u=centpenn_itc1#
The correct citation will not include the database information because the article can be found in other databases or through an online search. If there were a DOI, the DOI url would be included. If there were page numbers, they would be included after the issue number. Since there isn't a DOI, or page numbers, and the URL would take the reader to a login page the URL is not included. The reference ends after the volume number.
Peters, R., & Quinn, M. (2018). Agrowtopia: Cultivating community, consciousness and capital on campus. Journal of Case Studies, 36 (3).
In Business Insights there is a good chance you will be retrieving items that are not articles, but reports and other data. These sources do not have the citation tool option. These reports might not be found elsewhere so the name of the database is included, along with the retrieval date if they update over time and are not archived.
Author. (Year, Month day of publication). Title of the report [Type of report]. Database name .
OR , if the content updates and you should include the retrieval date:
Author. (Year, Month day of publication). Title of the report [Type of report]. Retrieved date, from Database name.
GlobalData. (2019, March). Starbucks Corp - Financial and strategic analysis review. Business Insights.
New Constructs. (2022, February 19). Meta Platforms Inc. (FB) [Investment report]. Retrieved March 11, 2022, from Business Insights.
Starbucks Corp. [Company profile]. (2019). Business Insights. Retrieved February 13, 2020, from Business Insights.
McDonald's Corp. (2020). [McDonald's Corp. interim - last 5 periods Income statement] . Retrieved February 18, 2020, from Business Insights.
** When using a generated citation, you must double check it for accuracy! It’s not unusual for a database to have an error in a citation!**
Database information is not included in most references because sources can be found in multiple platforms. The goal of a citation is to allow the reader to find the source, not to tell them how to find the source . Meaning a particular article may be found in Ebsco, or Gale, on the publisher's website. Database information is only included if they have "original, proprietary content and works of limited circulation" (Proquest dissertations & theses, Cochrane database of systematic reviews). URLs are not included because the reader would need to login to access the source.
In Credo, either use the citation tool at the top of the page or find the APA citation following each entry.
Copy and paste the citation, and then make any necessary corrections.
This is how a citation from a reference work is generally structured.
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition). Publisher name.
This is what the copied citation looks like using the citation tools in Credo:
Almost correct, but it does not need the URL in 7th edition APA. This is how it should look:
Posluszny, D., Spencer, S., & Baum, A. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In S. Ayers, A. Baum, C. McManus, & et. al. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
The following example, is if there is no author.
Hormone therapy. (2016). In Merriam Webster's Medical Dictionary . Merriam-Webster.
Book and ebook citations are treated the same. They require the following elements: author(s), year of publication, book title, book edition (if applicable), and publisher name. Ebook Central does not need to be listed as the database.
Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Publisher. DOI or URL
Change the format in the drop-down box to APA. The citation ends after the publisher's name because there is no DOI and the URL will not work without logging in. "Dark Knight" is one of Batman's most well-known nicknames, and the name Batman is also a proper noun, so all three words should be capitalized. You also don't need to include the business structure information (Limited). The corrected citation is:
Brooker, W. (2012). Hunting the Dark Knight: Twenty-first century Batman. I.B. Tauris & Company.
Database information is not included in most references because sources can be found in multiple platforms. The goal of a citation is to allow the reader to find the source, not to tell them how to find the source . Meaning a particular article may be found in Ebsco, or Gale, on the publisher's website. Database information is only included if they have "original, proprietary content and works of limited circulation" (Proquest dissertations & theses, Cochrane database of systematic reviews). URLs are usually not included because the reader would need to login to access the source.
When you click the Cite tool button the popup screen provides citations in a variety of styles. Scroll down to find the APA citation. Copy & paste it into your paper and then correct it for 7th edition style if necessary. Articles should follow this format:
Author's last name, first initial. middle initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume# (issue#), pages-pages. DOI or URL
In the example below, the first word of the subtitle (after the colon) should be capitalized, but the 'of' in the Journal title should not be.
Dury, R. (2016). COPD and emotional distress: Not always noticed and therefore untreated. British Journal of Community Nursing , 21 (3), 138–141. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2016.21.3.138
Business reports are treated differently because these reports might not be found elsewhere; in this situation the name of the database is included. If the information updates over time and is not be archived, include the retrieval date.
Citation example of corrected MarketLine report in Business Source Premier:
MarketLine. (2019, October 28). Company profile: Netflix, Inc. Business source Premier .
[You'll find the date on the first page of the PDF, bottom left.]
Films on Demand does have a Citation tool available directly below the video frame.
HOWEVER--Films on Demand citations for APA are usually incomplete and should not include a URL (APA citations should only have a retrieval date if the content might change).
You can start with the citation from Films on Demand, but you will need to correct it and finish it yourself with help from a style guide, a librarian, and/or your professor.
Here is an example citation from a Films on Demand video:
As you can see, the video director or producer is missing. However, that information is easily available in the database.
In the image below you can see, in the Details section, that the video producer is Java Films.
A correct APA citation for this film would be:
Java Films (Producer). (2014). The mobile revolution [Video].
Many videos in Films on Demand are divided into segments, and sometimes you might only use a segment in a project/presentation.
To cite a segment: Add the segment name and number to the citation
Java Films (Producer). (2014). Disruptive technology [segment 13]. In The mobile revolution [Video].
Articles should follow this basic format:
This is the citation that Gale displays:
Volkow, N. D., & Blanco, C. (2020). Medications for opioid use disorders: clinical and pharmacological considerations. Journal of Clinical Investigation , 130 (1), 10+. Retrieved from https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A612694392/AONE?u=centpenn_itc1&sid=AONE&xid=64436e81.
It should be:
Volkow, N. D., & Blanco, C. (2020). Medications for opioid use disorders: Clinical and pharmacological considerations. Journal of Clinical Investigation , 130 (1), 10-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI134708
The page numbers indicated (10+) weren't correct. Downloading the article you are able to find the page range on the PDF, and there was a doi provided.
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Citing a Database
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- Select style:
- Archive material
- Chapter of an edited book
- Conference proceedings
- Dictionary entry
- DVD, video, or film
- E-book or PDF
- Edited book
- Encyclopedia article
- Government publication
- Music or recording
- Online image or video
- Press release
- Religious text
If you’ve never written a research paper, finding scholarly articles might seem daunting. Luckily, there are library research databases—electronic collections of information that are typically online—to help speed up the sometimes tedious process of finding good, trustworthy sources. In these databases, you can search key terms and build a list of sources to use in your paper or project. Depending on the database, this could include books, journal articles, newspaper articles, magazine articles, videos, images, audio files, and more! Here, we’ve answered some common questions about databases in order to make your experience more straightforward.
Why use a database instead of just searching in a web browser?
If you Google a search term, the most popular sites come up—and there’s no guarantee of accuracy. You might find a ton of peer-reviewed journal articles, or you might find a slew of posts from unreliable sites like Wikipedia. On the othe rhand, most databases have content from sources they have reviewed and deemed as credible and accurate. So if you type a search term into a database, you can be sure that only good, dependable sources come up, which saves you the trouble of having to figure out whether something is verifiable or not.
Another database perk is that they can search through information that isn’t readily available on the open web. This may come as a shock, but the information found by Google, Yahoo!, and other search engines represents only a tiny percentage of information on the Internet! This is because of lot of data is secured, meaning you need an account and password to access it. For example, think about your Facebook page. You and all of your friends can access your posts, pictures, and videos, but it is not readily available on the open web. Relatedly, a lot of content from academic journals, newspapers, etc., require a subscription for access. Databases are often the best way to look through this content.
What databases are out there?
There are a ton of databases out there. Many databases revolve around certain subject areas or fields. PsycINFO connects researchers to behavioral and social science articles, LexisNexis is a major provider of legal, government, and business information, and ERIC is a database that contains education-related articles. Some databases, such as JSTOR and Academic Search Premier, cover a wide range of disciplines and subjects.
Your school and public library should have a list of the databases they subscribe to on their site. If you’re unsure how to access them, ask your librarian for help!
How can I cite information from a database?
Believe it or not, a lot of databases have built-in tools that allow you create or export citations in a few styles, including the two most common ones, MLA format and APA format . One tip: Check to make sure you’re using the same style you’ve used for your other citations. For example, MLA 7 and MLA 8 may be similar, but they aren’t exactly the same and consistency within works cited pages is important.
Anything else I should know?
Searching on a database is a bit different than searching on the web. When searching on the web, we often use keywords. However, when searching on a database, searching by subject headings, or descriptors, is often a more precise and effective way of searching.
Subject headings are assigned to each article or resource that is found on a database. They are specific labels that describe the main ideas of sources. For example, to find an article about how public librarians help patrons find jobs, a researcher might search for articles that contain the following subject headings: Public Libraries, Career Exploration, and Career Education. Use a database’s “thesaurus” to find the specific subject headings or descriptors assigned to sources. You should see a tab or button to access a database’s thesaurus on the main search screen.
Searching for articles from a research database like JSTOR, OVID, or ScienceDirect is slightly different from searching from a normal internet search engine like Google or Bing.
Here are some pointers to help you in your research journey:
- Search using keywords
A search using keywords will usually provide the results for that targeted keyword in bold. This can help you find related articles easily, and it is the first step.
- Subject searching
A search for keywords in the subject field alone will result in articles having those terms in the subject field alone. This will help you in narrowing down your sources.
- Search using phrases
As an extension of the keyword search, you can use particular phrases to find all articles that have that phrase. Type your search phrase within quotations to get narrowed results.
- Use Boolean operators
Boolean operators are connectors that connect two or more search results and help you find relevant information. AND, OR, and NOT are commonly used operators to find information. Operators are rules that you set to find relevant information.
Using AND will retrieve articles that have two or more terms. Using OR will retrieve articles that have either the first search term or the second search term. Using NOT will eliminate articles that have that particular term. A combination of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean operators would help find articles of high quality easily and quickly.
While writing a research paper, it is best to research and source data from scientific and humanities databases. While normal search engines are good at providing results from the general web, specialized databases are recommended to get relevant, high-quality data.
Databases tag and provide labels for types of sources, and this can be searched using the “Thesaurus” feature. When you search using the thesaurus feature, other options such as “Term begins with, Term contains,” and “Relevancy” are available, which help to narrow down your search. The EBSCO database allows you to use Boolean parameters such as AND, OR, and NOT, which help to further narrow down your search when using two or more search terms.
Using the “Explode” option, you can find all related broader and narrower references that are indexed with that search term. The presence of a plus sign “+” next to a search result indicates narrower terms below a search term.
Searching using the “Major Concept” option allows you to find records in which the searched topic is a major point in any article. This is helpful to sift data and find the most relevant and important articles in a database.
A database is an online repository of articles, abstracts, and other data. Typically, you can use your institutional login credentials to log in to these databases and access article(s). Each type of source will have its own required citation information but will include the database and URL or DOI. Use the format below to structure your MLA works-cited list entry for a source from a journal in a database.
Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Publication Name , vol. no., issue no. (if available), Publication date, page nos. xx-xx (if available). Database Name , URL or DOI.
Prakash, Keara. “’Cool’ Edu-tainment Methodologies” Journal of Toddler Methodologies , vol. 1, no. 1, April 2018, pp. 101-23. JSTOR , https://doi.org/10.1426/AKSL.41.8.15.
A citation for a source from a database in a Chicago-style footnote should include the standard information for a journal article (or the original source), including the author’s full name, the title of the article, title of the journal, volume/issue number, publication date, and page number(s).
When a source is accessed through a database, you must also include information about the database at the end of the citation. This usually consists of a DOI (if available) or a URL that links to where the source can be found in the database. If the database requires a subscriber log-in or is similarly restricted, the name of the database can be included at the end of the citation in lieu of a URL.
- Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume #, issue no. # (publication date): page #, database DOI/URL.
- Joel E. Turner, “Viennese Chocolate Cake,” Ambit, no. 209 (2012): 82-86, https://www.jstor.org/stable/44345041.
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How to Cite a Speech in APA Style: Guide with Examples
Published 10 Mar 2023
Citing a speech in APA 7th edition style is one of those challenges that many students face these days when they have to provide support for an argument or an idea. When you are majoring in Law or Political Sciences, dealing with speeches in various formats is inevitable. To learn how to cite a speech in APA format, you must start with a template and see the examples that we provide. Luckily, APA 7 manual style makes it easy to create a reference. The only thing that you have to consider is the type of speech and the format of the original source. It will help your target audience and the college professor to see how to locate the speech and what medium has been used.
How to Cite a Speech in APA: Main Rules
Let us review the information that you have to include when you need to reference a speech in your paper. For example, when you are dealing with an audio recording that represents some speech available online, you must mention the speaker, the date when it has been recorded, and place the speech title in italics. Also, you must use square brackets as this is where you must specify the type of your speech. It should look like [Speech audio recording]. Then you have to add the website's name where the speech can be downloaded (heard) and add the URL. While it is not obligatory as you learn how to cite a speech in APA style, you may specify the timestamp to help your readers find the location as you use the in-text citation. Let's sum things up:
APA Speech Template
Speaker's Last Name, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of your speech . [Speech audio recording]. Website's Name. URL
APA Speech Reference
Luther King, M. Jr. (1968 April 4). I've been to the Mountaintop . [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.learnoutloud.com/Catalog/History/-/Ive-Been-to-the-Mountaintop/16724
(Luther King, 1968, 2:17)
As for the other types and formats of a speech that can be cited in APA style, you may be dealing with a conference, a paper presentation, or deal with the personal communication source. Now, if you have to cite a TED Talk or something that has been uploaded to YouTube, you must use the referencing conventions for video citations since it is a different quote type.
Citing a Paper Presentation
When you are asked to cite a paper presentation that is related to an academic conference by turning to APA 7th edition style , you should use the following rules. Remember to include the date by stating the range of days as you can see below:
APA Citation Template
Author's Last Name, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day-Day). Title of the Document [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. URL
APA Citation Reference
Holmes, N. (2015, May 11-15). Social disparity and the challenges of the school attendance problem in Scotland [Paper presentation]. SSNCV 2015: Education in Scotland Open Conference, Aberdeen, UK.
APA Speech in-Text
Note: when you have to cite a published conference that comes from an academic journal or a book that is available in print, the APA 7th manual recommends using the relevant citation rules for each specific source. Using APA how to cite a speech rules means that you should either choose the book citation style or the academic journal referencing system.
Citing Speeches as Personal Communications
There are also specific scenarios when it is not possible to access the speech that has been cited because it has not been recorded and the transcript that you may have has not been a part of the official conference. In such a case, you must turn to the personal communications style that is offered by the APA style format. It is common for those cases when the target audience members are not able to access the piece of cited data themselves. If something belongs to sources that are not retrievable, it does not appear in the list of references. It includes personal communications as well. When dealing with such a reference type, you only have to mention it in your in-text citation.
Personal Communication Citation Example:
The subject of domestic violence in Chicago's suburbs has been researched in the speech (R. Barley, personal communication, June 4, 2022).
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Cite the individual source you found in the database and use the APA format designed for that source. Usually, the database will label the source and tell you what the source type is. Examples of common APA source types include (but are not limited to): Journal article Book Book chapter Magazine article Newspaper article Image Videos
The following format and examples can help you cite an article written for a database. Format: Author Last Name, Author First Initial. (Year). Article title . In Title of Database, publisher. DOI/URL Today's Science Example: Erick, T. (2016). The carbon solution: Underground storage. In Today's Science, Infobase Learning. Issues and Controversies:
For articles from a private database, locate the URL from the web. Write the homepage's URL when citing an article which is also available from other sources. Italicize the title of newspapers, magazines, and journals. The date is written in this order: year, month day. Include the URL or DOI.
References for all three of these types should begin with the same basic information: the author name (s), the publication year, the title of the article, the title of the journal, and the volume, issue, and page numbers. Journal article references will typically use a DOI number or the webpage URL.
APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Database Point-of-Care Database Records Helpful Tip When citing sources that you find from a Point-of-Care Database (e.g. Dynamed, FirstConsult, Epocrates, UptoDate) treat the record as if it was from an e-book entry.
An article that has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as a "Manuscript submitted for publication." The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included: Article in press An article that has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as "in press."
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE. APA (7th) General Format: Author Last Name, Author Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of the Newspaper, firstpage-lastpage. DOI or URL: APA (7th) Example: Piepenburg, E. (2012, October 25). The Book Thief receives a new life on the stage. New York Times, C1.
NOTE: If an article from a database includes a DOI, provide the DOI link as you would for any online journal article. If the article does not include a DOI, the reference will look like a print version of the article. The 7th edition of American Psychological Association Publication Manual states, "Do not include the database name or URL."
The name of the database or archive is provided in the source element (in title case without italics ), the same as a publisher name, and followed by a period. After the database or archive information, also provide the DOI or URL of the work.
The ERIC database includes materials of wide circulation (e.g., journal articles) as well as materials of limited circulation (e.g., manuscripts submitted by authors). Use this format to cite works in ERIC that are of limited circulation. For works of wide circulation, use the format for the work type (e.g., the journal article reference format).
Journal Article From Library Database with DOI - One Author Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number Example: Smith, K. F. (2022).
Literature Resource Center Articles That Were Formerly Reprinted in Gale Reference Books. These reprints appear in the Literature Resource Center and can be identified by the phrase Reprint In after the title of the journal where the article first appeared.. Although APA rules say that, in general, articles from academic databases should not include a URL or the name of the database, there is ...
Add in the database title, URL, or date at the end. Method 1 Citing a Whole Database in APA Download Article 1 State the creator, owner, or organization first. This might be an organization, university, company, or governmental body. Usually, this information is above or below the title.
Paraphrasing in APA. For an in-text APA journal citation that is not a direct quote, or an APA parenthetical citation, all you need to provide is the author's last name and the year of publication.. You may provide a page number (preceded by "p." for one page or "pp." for multiple pages) as well if the passage or idea you are paraphrasing is on a certain page or set of pages, but ...
Citing an article in APA Style In an APA Style journal article reference, the article title is in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name appears in italics, in title case. The in-text citation lists up to two authors; for three or more, use " et al. " When citing a journal article in print or from a database, don't include a URL.
For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Webpage or Piece of Online Content If the page names an individual author, cite their name first: Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist.
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Disseminating ABA technologies depends on an advocacy-based approach to close gaps from research-to-practice. Social justice is both an approach and a framework that can be integrated into our strategic planning for the field. This article describes how to apply social justice guidelines when working with CLD students and families.
The second step to cite sources in APA style is to use in-text citations whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source. An in-text citation should include the author's ...
The correct citation will not include the database information because the article can be found in other databases or through an online search. If there were a DOI, the DOI url would be included. If there were page numbers, they would be included after the issue number.
Believe it or not, a lot of databases have built-in tools that allow you create or export citations in a few styles, including the two most common ones, MLA format and APA format. One tip: Check to make sure you're using the same style you've used for your other citations. For example, MLA 7 and MLA 8 may be similar, but they aren't ...
Note: when you have to cite a published conference that comes from an academic journal or a book that is available in print, the APA 7th manual recommends using the relevant citation rules for each specific source. Using APA how to cite a speech rules means that you should either choose the book citation style or the academic journal referencing system.
Taking another person's perspective provides a means to infer their beliefs and intentions (known as Theory of Mind), which is an essential part of social interaction. In this article, we examined how different subcomponents of perspective-taking change beyond childhood in a large sample (N = 263) of adolescents, young adults, and older adults, and tested the degree to which age-related ...