Pros and Cons of Globalization – CSS Essay
Note: The topic “Pros and Cons of Globalization” came in the CSS Essay Paper – 2021. The admin attempted the following essay and cleared this exam.
Please be clear that we have broken the paragraphs for clarity. However, this is not recommended in essay writing. You have to follow the proper structure of essay writing .
Globalization is defined as the free flow and movement of people, ideas, information, and goods across borders.
It was in the second half of the twentieth century that the world witnessed a conspicuous shift from Nationalism and Mercantilism to Globalization and International Liberal Economic Order.
The main motive behind free trade and globalization was mutual interests and gains. Countries opened up their borders. Ultimately, it marked the beginning of a new era defined by the free movement of goods and people across the border.
Primarily, it was the end of World War II that marked the setting up of global institutions like the United Nations, the International Court of Justice, the World Trade Organization (erstwhile General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), etc.
It was believed that these institutions will help in maintaining peace in the world and avoid another major global war or conflict.
In short, from the latter half of the 20 th century till the present, the world remained largely globalized.
Since we have witnessed the entire period of globalization, we can fairly analyze the pros and cons of globalization from hindsight.
So, is globalization good? Does it provide a win-win situation for every country? Are there some drawbacks or cons of globalization too? Let’s dig into details to find answers.
5 Major Pros of Globalization
Globalization offers multiple advantages acknowledged by everyone and denied by none. Following are a few major pros of globalization.
1. Globalization offers Mutual Cooperation & Development
In the past, when the world was non-globalized and nationalism was prevailing, there was a lack of cooperation between states. Even, countries were suspicious of each other. The focus was on self-development and progress. States never cooperated with each other for mutual progress and development.
With the advent of globalization, today’s states are cooperating with each other in the field of education, science, and technology. Moreover, states are working on the basis of mutual intelligence sharing for enhanced security.
For instance, in the recent pandemic crisis, how China has sent medical supplies and teams across borders and oceans clearly highlights the essence of globalization. Those states that were missing ventilators, vaccines, etc got help from other states in fighting Covid-19.
This is an example from recent times. For other example, the spread of Information and Communication Technology across the world is also a hallmark of globalization.
There are multiple regional-level and global-level organizations active today. For example, SAARC, ASEAN, SCO, UNO, WTO, etc all work for the mutual interests of the member countries.
Hence, mutual cooperation and the development of countries are among the most prominent advantages of globalization.
2. Globalization offers more Peace in the World
It is no denying the fact that globalization has brought peace to the world. Though we do witness wars and conflicts even today, those are not on such large scales as in the pre-globalized world.
The pre-globalized world had witnessed two great wars in the 20 th century and many even before that. While the states were not interconnected, they remained suspicious of each other’s strengths, motives, and activities. They lacked mutual interests and goals.
Today, the role played by global institutions in the maintenance of world peace is commendable.
Moreover, in today’s globalized world, states are working on common interests and are dependent on each other. With mutual dependency, they are pursuing common economic interests in the form of trade. With each other’s help, states are advancing in science and technology.
Such interdependency has altogether dismissed the chances of any major global conflict in the future.
Moreover, globalization has enhanced people-to-people contact. When people from different cultural backgrounds meet each other and learn about other cultures, it creates a feeling of harmony and goodwill among them. This ultimately promotes peace among nations.
3. More Employment Opportunities for Individuals in a Globalized World
In today’s globalized world, there are multiple employment opportunities for individuals. To explain this fact, we see that multiple multinational companies are working with their branches installed across borders. These companies employ manpower from third-world countries. Thus, those who couldn’t find jobs in local companies or in other public sectors get better employment opportunities.
Moreover, today people also find opportunities to find lucrative jobs across borders. For instance, the report says that 2.7 million Pakistani expatriates are living in Saudi Arabia and working there. It is entirely due to the globalized world that these Pakistani got a chance to better living.
Moreover, educated people also find better opportunities for better employment across borders.
Thus, with enhanced employment opportunities, globalization can actually lift people out of poverty.
4. Market Competition keeps the Prices Down
Another major benefit of globalization and free trade is that the prices of commodities remain down.
As globalization has eradicated monopolies with multiple multinational companies competing for markets, these companies try to keep their product prices down to beat the competitors.
Ultimately, it benefits the locals residing in the country who can access the goods at a lower and justified price.
5. Better Educational Opportunities for Students
In today’s globalized world, where people can freely move across borders, students get better educational opportunities.
Today, one can search and apply for any foreign university via the internet.
Moreover, the internet and information technology have also introduced (esp. during Covid-19 times) E-learning and online classes.
So, students do not actually have to move abroad but attend classes from the comforts of home.
4 Prominent Cons of Globalization
As we have discussed some prominent pros of globalization, let us also highlight some major cons of globalization.
1. Exploitation of Poor States by the Rich States
One major argument that goes against globalization is the exploitation of poor states or the global South by rich states or the global North.
This exploitation occurs in the following many ways.
Globalization is said to be a new version of colonialism. During colonialism , rich states exploited poor states by taking their raw materials and dumping finished goods in their markets for financial gains.
This is equally true for globalization. Big multinational companies hire skilled labor from poor countries by paying them better. This results in the closure of local companies in poor states as they cannot hire the same skilled labor for the same wages.
Moreover, small companies in some poor countries cannot compete with bigger multinational companies in global markets.
We can say that globalization further fosters unequal relations between countries or companies.
Furthermore, when big companies install their set-up in third-world countries, apart from exploiting its resources and manpower, it also spoils the atmosphere of that country with the emission of carbon.
In short, globalization has resulted in the exploitation of the poor by the rich in multiple ways.
2. Globalized world poses threats to Cultures | Cultural Assimilation
As with globalization comes great intermingling of people through the cross-border movement of people.
Through this process, different cultures come in close contact. This often results in cultural assimilation where people of one culture tend to adopt the norms and values of the other major culture.
Thus, it poses a great threat to the smaller culture as it might wither away for good.
For instance, if we take the example of Pakistan, the people of Pakistan are adopting western culture, learning their (English) language, adopting their lifestyle, dressing like them, and largely becoming oblivion to their own unique cultural norms and values . This is happening because of globalization.
3. Emerging Non-Traditional Security Threats
This can be best understood from the recent Covid-19 pandemic spread across the world. Ironically, it was China who sneezed first and the rest of the world caught a cold.
Today’s globalized world is more prone to be affected by any pandemic or viral disease within a few days. With the free flow of people and goods across the open borders can travel any sort of virus freely.
For instance, the spread of the Swine Flu, Ebola Virus, and Covid-19, to name a few, was the result of well-interconnectivity in the world.
Similarly, there is also a threat to the economy due to the interconnected world.
As we have seen in 2008, how the impacts of the Great Recession in the United States were felt all over the world. Thus, an economic disturbance in one state causes a disturbance in the whole world’s economy today.
4. Growing Terrorism
Globalization also offers terrorists a healthy atmosphere to spread and grow. Today, terrorist networks are fast spreading and growing.
With open borders and free movement, these terrorists can move anywhere with ease.
It was only possible because of globalization that terrorists planned and attacked the twin towers of the USA in 2001 from Afghanistan (as it is believed).
Moreover, the spread of ISIS, the Taliban, and various other terrorist organizations is also a fallout of globalization. These terrorist outfits are recruiting people from across the world with great ease in today’s globalized and connected world.
Although there are multiple pros and cons of globalization and some of them have been discussed in this write-up, overall the pros of globalization outweigh the cons.
Today, we cannot even think of going back to the pre-globalized world ridden with conflicts and lack of development.
However, today, world communities together with mutual cooperation can work on eliminating the drawbacks of globalization.
We can only hope for a better future for the world through mutual cooperation of states and the strengthening of globalization.
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Essay on “Pros and cons of Globalization” [CSS 2021]
“pros and cons of globalization” .
Essay on the topic “Pros and cons of Globalization”
Pros and cons of Globalization
I. Introduction II. Some aspects of Globalization III. Pros of Globalization
- Increased economic integration and growth
- Access to a wider range of goods and services
- Job creation and increased wages
- Improved living standards
- Increased competition
- Cultural exchange and understanding
- Spread of technology and knowledge
- Access to foreign markets
- Reduction of poverty
- Increased political and economic cooperation
IV. Cons of Globalization
- Loss of jobs and declining wages in some industries
- Widening income inequality
- Environmental degradation
- Loss of cultural identity
- Loss of control over economic policy
- Spread of diseases
- Exploitation of workers
- Loss of small businesses
- Dependence on foreign markets
- Threat to national security
Pros and cons of Globalization (CSS Essay 2022)
The term “globalization” refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by advances in communication, transportation, and technology. Globalization has led to the growth of international trade and investment, and the spread of ideas and information. It has also brought benefits such as greater access to a wider range of goods and services, and the spread of technology and innovation. However, globalization has also been criticized for its negative impacts, including increased inequality, loss of cultural diversity, and negative environmental effects. In this paper, we will explore the pros and cons of Globalization.
One of the key aspects of globalization is the increasing flow of international trade. As countries have become more interconnected, they have also become more reliant on each other for the production and exchange of goods and services. This has led to the growth of international trade, with countries specializing in the production of certain goods and services, and then exporting them to other countries. For example, many developing countries have become major exporters of manufactured goods, while developed countries have become major exporters of services.
Another important aspect of globalization is the increasing flow of international finance. As countries have become more interconnected, they have also become more reliant on each other for the flow of capital. This has led to the growth of international financial markets, with investors able to buy and sell stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments on a global scale. This has made it easier for companies to access capital and has also made it possible for people to invest in foreign markets.
Globalization has also had an impact on culture. As people have become more interconnected, they have been exposed to different cultures, and have adopted some of the customs and values of other countries. This has led to a growing cultural homogenization, as people around the world have become more similar in terms of their values, beliefs, and ways of life.
Overall, globalization has brought many benefits, such as increased trade, improved access to capital, and greater cultural exchange. However, it has also had its downsides, such as increased competition, job displacement, and the loss of cultural diversity. As countries continue to become more interconnected, it will be important for them to find ways to manage the negative effects of globalization, while also continuing to reap the benefits.
Pros of Globalization
Increased economic integration and growth:.
Globalization has led to increased trade and investment among countries, resulting in higher economic growth and increased prosperity.
Access to a wider range of goods and services:
Globalization has made it possible for people to access a wider range of goods and services, including those that may not be available in their own countries.
Job creation and increased wages:
Globalization has led to the creation of jobs in a variety of industries, particularly in the manufacturing and service sectors. It has also led to increased wages in many countries, as workers have been able to take advantage of the increased demand for their skills.
Improved living standards:
Globalization has contributed to improved living standards in many countries, as people have been able to access better education, healthcare, and other essential services.
Globalization has increased competition among businesses, forcing them to become more efficient and innovative in order to survive. This has led to improved products and services for consumers.
Cultural exchange and understanding:
Globalization has facilitated the exchange of ideas and cultures among different countries, promoting understanding and tolerance among people from different backgrounds.
Spread of technology and knowledge:
Globalization has facilitated the spread of technology and knowledge across the world, leading to improved productivity and innovation.
Access to foreign markets:
Globalization has made it easier for businesses to access foreign markets, allowing them to expand their operations and increase their revenues.
Reduction of poverty:
Globalization has contributed to the reduction of poverty in many countries, as increased trade and investment have led to economic growth and job creation.
Increased political and economic cooperation:
Globalization has promoted political and economic cooperation among countries, leading to increased stability and security on a global scale.
Cons of Globalization
Globalization can also lead to a loss of sovereignty and control over national affairs, as decisions made by international organizations and multinational corporations can have a significant impact on a country’s economy and society. It can also lead to a homogenization of cultures and the loss of diversity, as global influences can overpower local traditions and practices. Globalization can also contribute to human rights abuses, as some companies may prioritize profits over the well-being of their workers and the communities in which they operate.
Loss of jobs and declining wages in some industries:
Globalization has led to the outsourcing of jobs from developed countries to developing countries where labor is cheaper. This has resulted in job losses and declining wages in some industries in developed countries.
Widening income inequality:
Globalization has led to increased prosperity in many countries, but it has also contributed to the widening gap between the rich and the poor. This has resulted in increased income inequality in many countries.
The increased trade and economic activity associated with globalization has led to environmental degradation, as more natural resources are consumed and waste is produced.
Loss of cultural identity:
Globalization has facilitated the spread of Western culture, leading to the erosion of traditional cultures and values in some parts of the world.
Loss of control over economic policy:
Globalization has made it more difficult for governments to control their own economic policies, as they are increasingly influenced by global economic forces.
Spread of diseases:
Globalization has facilitated the spread of diseases across the world, as people and goods move more easily from one country to another.
Exploitation of workers:
Globalization has led to the exploitation of workers in some countries, as companies seek to maximize profits by paying low wages and providing poor working conditions.
Loss of small businesses:
Globalization has led to increased competition from larger, multinational corporations, making it difficult for small businesses to survive.
Dependence on foreign markets:
Globalization has made many countries dependent on foreign markets for their economic growth, leaving them vulnerable to economic shocks in other parts of the world.
Threat to national security:
Globalization has made it easier for terrorists and other non-state actors to operate across borders, posing a threat to national security.
In a nutshell , globalization has brought many benefits to the world economy, including increased trade and investment, greater access to a wider range of goods and services, and the spread of technology and innovation. However, it has also led to increased inequality, both within and between countries, as well as a loss of cultural diversity and negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it is important for countries to carefully consider the potential pros and cons of globalization and take steps to address its negative effects.
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Essay on Globalisation
List of essays on globalisation, essay on globalisation – definition, existence and impact (essay 1 – 250 words), essay on globalisation (essay 2 – 250 words), essay on globalisation – in india (essay 3 – 400 words), essay on globalisation – objectives, advantages, disadvantages and conclusion (essay 4 – 500 words), essay on globalisation – for school students (class 6,7,8,9 and 10) (essay 5 – 600 words), essay on globalisation (essay 6 – 750 words), essay on globalisation – for college and university students (essay 7 – 1000 words), essay on globalisation – for ias, civil services, ips, upsc and other competitive exams (essay 8 – 1500 words).
The worldwide integration of people, services and interests is what globalisation is all about. Since the last decade, there has been a tremendous focus on globalisation with everyone trying to have a reach at even the remotest locations of the world. This has probably been possible due to the advancement in technology and communication.
Audience: The below given essays are especially written for school, college and university students. Furthermore, those students preparing for IAS, IPS, UPSC, Civil Services and other competitive exams can also increase their knowledge by studying these essays.
The word ‘Globalization’ is often heard in the business world, in corporate meetings, in trade markets, at international conferences, in schools, colleges and many other places. So what does globalization symbolize? Is it a new concept or did it exist earlier? Let’s see.
Globalization refers to the integration of the world nations by means of its people, goods, and services. The statement – ‘ globalization has made the world a small village ’ is very true.
Countries inviting foreign investment, free trade and relaxation in the visa rules to allow seamless movement of people from one country to another are all part of globalization.
In a nutshell, globalization has reduced the distance between nations and its people.
Many among us refer to the current period that we live in as ‘The Era of Globalization’ and think that the process of globalization has started only recently. But the real fact is that globalization is not a new phenomenon . The world was moving towards globalization from a very long time. The term globalization was in existence since mid-1980s. But it was only from the early 21 st century that globalization picked up momentum due to the advancements in technology and communication.
Impact of Globalization:
Globalization has more positive outcomes than the negative ones. The impact of globalization on the developing countries such as India, China and some African countries are overwhelming. Foreign investments have created a lot of employment opportunities in the developing countries and have boosted their economy. Globalization has also enabled people to interchange their knowledge and culture.
Although the world is not completely globalized, we can very well say that globalization is the best way to achieve equality among nations.
In simple words, globalization means the spreading of a business, culture, or any technology on an international level. When the boundaries of countries and continents matter no more, and the whole world becomes one global village in itself. Globalization is an effort to reduce the geographical and political barriers for the smooth functioning of any business.
There are four main factors that form the four pillars of globalization. These are the free flow of goods, capitals, technology, and labors, all across the world. Although, many of the experts that support globalization clearly refuse to acknowledge the free flow of labor as their work culture.
The international phenomenon of global culture presents many implications and requires a specific environment to flourish. For instance, it needs the other countries to come to a mutual agreement in terms of political, cultural, and economic policies. There is greater sharing of ideas and knowledge and liberalization has gained a huge importance.
Undoubtedly, globalization helps in improving the economic growth rate of the developing countries . The advanced global policies also inspire businesses to work in a cost-effective way. As a result, the production quality is enhanced and employment opportunities are also rising in the domestic countries.
However, there are still some negative consequences of globalization that are yet to be dealt with. It leads to greater economic and socio-cultural disparities between the developed and the developing countries. Due to the MNC culture, the small-scale industries are losing their place in the market.
Exchanges and integration of social aspect of people along with their cultural and economic prospects is what we term as Globalization. It is considered as a relatively new term, which has been in discussion since the nineties.
Initial Steps towards Globalization:
India has been an exporter of various goods to other countries since the earlier times. Hence Globalization, for India, is not something new. However, it was only around in the early nineties that India opened up its economy for the world as it faced a major crisis of severe crunch of foreign exchange. Since then, there has been a major shift in the government’s strategies while dealing with the PSUs along with a reduction in the monopoly of the government organisations perfectly blended with the introduction of the private companies so as to achieve a sustainable growth and recognition across the world.
The Measurement of Success:
The success of such measures can be measured in the form of the GDP of India which hovered around 5.6% during the year 1990-91 and has been now around 8.9% during the first quarter of 2018-19. In fact, in the year 1996-97, it was said to have peaked up to as high as 77.8%. India’s global position is improved tremendously due to the steady growth in the GDP thus furthering the impact of globalization on India. As on date, India is ranked as the sixth biggest economy in the world. This globalization leading to the integration and trade has been instrumental in reducing the poverty rate as well.
However, given the fact that India is the second most populated country of the world, after China, this growth cannot be considered as sufficient enough as other countries such as China have increased their growth rates at much faster pace than India. For instance, the average flow of FDI in India, over the past few years has been around 0.5% of the GDP while for countries such as China it has been around 5% and Brazil has had a flow of around 5.5%. In fact, India is considered among the least globalized economy among the major countries.
Summarily, there has been a tremendous increase in the competition and interdependence that India faces due to Globalization, but a lot is yet to be done. It is not possible for a country to ignore the developments and globalization occurring in the rest of the world and one need to keep the pace of growth at a steady rate or else you may be left far behind.
The twentieth century witnessed a revolutionary global policy aiming to turn the entire globe into a single market. The motive of globalization can broadly define to bring substantial improvement in the living condition of people all around the world, education, and shelter to everybody, elimination of poverty, equal justice without any race or gender consideration, etc. Globalization also aims to lessen government involvement in various development activities, allowing more direct investors/peoples’ participation cutting across border restrictions thus expected to reap reasonable prosperity to human beings.
Main Objectives of Globalization:
The four main aspects of globalization are; Capital and Investment movements, Trade and Transactions, Education and Spread of knowledge, along with Migration and Unrestricted Movement of People.
In simpler terms, globalization visualizes that one can purchase and sell goods from any part of the world, communicate and interact with anyone, anywhere in the world and also enables cultural exchange among the global population. It is operational at three levels namely, economic globalization, cultural globalization, and political globalization. Right from its inception, the impact of globalization has both advantages and disadvantages worldwide.
Advantages of Globalization:
As the word itself suggests, this policy involves all the nations across the globe. The lifting of trade barriers can have a huge impact especially in developing countries. It augments the flow of technology, education, medicines, etc., to these countries which are a real blessing.
Globalization expects to create ample job opportunities as more and more companies can extend their presence to different parts of the world. Multinational companies can establish their presence in developing countries. Globalization gives educational aspirants from developing and underdeveloped countries more quality learning opportunities. It leads not only to the pursuit of best higher education but also to cultural and language exchanges.
Globalization also enhances a faster flow of information and quick transportation of goods and services. Moreover one can order any item from anywhere merely sitting at home. Another plus point of globalization is the diminishing cultural barriers between nations as it offers free access and cultural interactions . Also, it has been observed that there is a considerable reduction of poverty worldwide due to globalization . In addition to this, it also enables the effective use of resources.
Disadvantages of Globalization:
Globalization turned out to be a significant threat to the cottage and small-scale industries as they have to compete with the products of multi-national companies. Another dangerous effect of globalization is the condition of weak sections of the society, as they are getting poorer and the rich are getting richer. The situation leads to the domination of economically rich countries over emerging countries and the increase of disparity.
The actions of multi-national companies are deplorable and always facing criticism from various social, government and world bodies as they are incompetent in offering decent working conditions for the workers. Irrational tapping of natural resources which are instrumental in causing ecological imbalance is another major accusation against multi-national companies.
Globalization is also blamed to have paved the way for human trafficking, labor exploitation and spread of infectious diseases too. In addition to all these, if any economic disaster hit a country and if they subsequently suffer from economic depression, its ripples are felt deeply in other countries as well.
Despite all its disadvantages, globalization has transformed the entire globe into a single market irrespective of its region, religion, language, culture, and diversity differences. It also leads to an increase in demand for goods, which in turn calls for more production and industrialization. Our focus should be to minimize the risks and maximize the positive outcome of global policy, which in turn can help for a sustainable long-standing development for people all around the world.
Globalization is the procedure of global political, economic, as well as cultural incorporation of countries . It lets the producers and manufacturers of the goods or products to trade their goods internationally without any constraint.
The businessman fetches huge profit as they easily get low price workforce in developing nations with the concept of globalization. It offers a big prospect to the firms who wish to deal with the global market. Globalization assists any nation to contribute, set up or amalgamate businesses, capitalize on shares or equity, vending of services or products in any country.
How does the Globalization Work?
Globalization benefits the international market to the entire deliberate world like a solitary marketplace. Merchants are spreading their extents of trade by aiming world as a worldwide community. In the 1990s, there was a limit of importing some goods that were already mass-produced in India such as engineering goods, agricultural products, toiletries, food items, etc.
But, in the 1990s the rich countries pressurize the WTO (World Trade Organization), World Bank (affianced in improvement financing activities), and IMF (International Monetary Fund) to let other nations spread their trades by introducing market and trade in the deprived and emerging countries. The process of liberalization and globalization in India began in the year 1991 below the Union Finance Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh.
After numerous years, globalization has fetched major uprising inside the Indian marketplace when international brands arrived in India such as KFC, PepsiCo, Mc. Donald, Nokia, IBM, Aiwa, Ericsson, etc., and began the delivery of an extensive variety of quality goods at low-cost rates.
The entire leading brands presented actual uprising of globalization at this time as a marvellous improvement to the economy of an industrial sector. Rates of the quality goods were also getting low owing to the cut-throat war happening in the marketplace.
Liberalization and globalization of the businesses in the Indian marketplace is submerging the quality of imported goods but influencing the local Indian businesses badly in large part causing the job loss of illiterate and poor labors. Globalization has remained a goldmine for the customers, but it is also a burial ground for the small-scale manufacturers in India.
Positive Influences of Globalisation:
Globalization has influenced the education sectors and students of India predominantly by making accessible the education material and enormous info on the internet. Association of Indian universities with the overseas universities has fetched a massive modification in the education business.
The health industries are too influenced enormously by the globalization of health observing electronic apparatuses, conventional drugs, etc. The trade globalization in the agricultural sector has provided a range of high-quality seeds possessing disease-fighting property. But, it is not beneficial for the underprivileged Indian agriculturalists owing to the reason of expensive seeds as well as agricultural equipment.
Globalization has given an enormous rebellion to the occupation sector by increasing the growth of trades related to the handloom , cottage, artisans and carving, carpet, jewellery, ceramics, and glassware, etc.
Globalization is definitely required by the people and nation to progress and turn into an established society and country. It benefits in expanding our visualization and thoughts. It also aids in endorsing the philosophy that we fit in a huge crowd of persons, i.e., the humankind. Once the two nations congregate, they flourish by sharing their beliefs, thoughts, opinions, customs, and behaviors. People come to know new things and also acquire a chance to discover and get acquainted with other values.
Globalization has provided many reasonably priced valued goods and complete economic welfares to the emerging nations in addition to the employment. But, it has also given growth to the crime, competition, terrorism, anti-national activities, etc. Thus, along with the pleasure it has supplied some grief too.
Globalization is a term that we hear about every now and then. Question is; do we really know what it is all about? Globalization is defined as the process of integration and interaction among people, cultures and nations who come together in order to get things done easily through contact. Globalization began with the migration of people from Africa to different parts of the world. Global developments have been achieved in various sectors through the different types of globalization. The effects of globalization have been felt in every part of the world and more people continue to embrace it. Globalization has some of its core elements that help in the process.
Types of Globalization:
Globalization does not just transform a sector unless the strategies are related to that specific sector. The first type of globalization is financial and economic globalization whereby interaction takes place in the financial and economic sectors especially through stock market exchange and international trade. The other type is technological globalization which involves the integration and connection of different nations through technological methods like the internet. Political globalization transforms the politics of a nation through interactions with adoption of policies and government that cut across other nations. Cultural globalization is basically the interaction of people from different cultures and sharing. Ecological globalization is the viewing of the earth as one ecosystem and sociological globalization is on equality for all people.
Elements of Globalization:
Globalization works with characteristic elements. Trade agreements is one of the components that significantly benefits the economic and financial globalization. These trade agreements have been designed to promote and sustain globalization by preventing barriers that inhibit trade among nations or regions. Another element is capital flow that is concerned with the measures of either a decline or a rise in domestic or foreign assets. Migration patterns is a socio-economical and cultural element that monitors the impacts of immigration and emigration actively. The element of information transfer involves communications and maintains the functioning of the markets and economies. Spread of technology is an element of globalization that facilitates service exchanges. Without these elements, globalization would have faced many challenges, which would even stagnate the process of globalization.
Impacts of Globalization:
The impact of globalization is felt differently among individuals but the end result will be either positive or negative. Globalization has impacts on the lives of individuals, on the aspects of culture, religions and education. The positive impacts of globalization include the simplification of business management through efficiency. In business, the quality of goods and services has increased due to global competition. Foreign investment has been facilitated by globalization and the global market has been able to expand. Cultural growth has been experienced through intermingling and accommodation. Interdependence among nations has developed and more people have been exposed to the exchange program between nations. Improvement of human rights and legal matters has improved through media and technology sharing. Poverty has been alleviated in developing countries due to globalization and also employment opportunities are provided. Through technology, developments have been positively influenced in most parts of the world.
Although globalization has positive impacts, the negative impacts will remain constant unless solutions are sought. One of the negative effects of globalization is job insecurity for some people. Through globalization, more innovations are achieved, for e.g., technology causes automation and therefore people get replaced and they lack jobs. Another negative impact is the frequent fluctuation of prices of commodities that arises from global competitions. On the cultural side, the fast food sector has become wide spread globally, which is an unhealthy lifestyle that was adopted due to globalization. Also, Culture has been negatively affected for people in Africa because they tend to focus more on adopting the western culture and ignore their cultural practices.
Possible Solutions to the Negative Impacts of Globalization:
Globalization has impacted the society negatively and some of the solutions might help to mitigate the impacts. When adopting cultures from other people, it is important to be keen on the effects of the culture on the people and the existing culture being practiced. For example, Africans should not focus more of the western culture such that they ignore their own culture.
In conclusion, it is evident that globalization results in both negative and positive consequences. The society should embrace the positive and mitigate the negative impacts. Globalisation is a dynamic process which involves change, so flexibility among people is a must.
The buzzword befitted to describe the growth of Modern Indian economy is ‘Globalization’. But what exactly is Globalization? Globalization can be defined as integrating the economy of a country with the rest of the countries of the world. From the Indian perspective, this implies encouraging free trade policies, opening up our economy to foreign direct investment, removing constraints and obstacles to the entry of multinational corporations in India, also allowing Indian companies to set up joint ventures abroad, eliminating import restrictions, in-short encouraging Free Trade policies.
India opened its markets to Global Trade majorly during the early Nineties after a major economic crisis hit the country. New economic reforms were introduced in 1991 by then Prime Minister Shri. P V. Narasimha Rao and Finance Minister at the time, Dr. Manmohan Singh. In many ways, the new economic policies positively contributed to the implementation of the concept of Globalization in India.
1. Economic Impact :
Globalization in India targets to attract Multinational Companies and Institutions to approach Indian markets. India has a demography with a large workforce of young citizens who are in need of jobs. Globalization has indeed left a major impact in the jobs sector. Indian companies are also expanding their business all over the world. They are driving funds from the bigwigs of the Global economy.
The Best example in today’s time is OYO Rooms, a budding Indian company in the hospitality sector. OYO Rooms recently made headlines when it declared to raise a fund close to $1 Billion from Japan’s Soft Bank Vision Fund. Globalization has also led the Indian Consumer market on the boom. The Giant of FMCG (fast-moving consumer goods) sector WALMART is also enthusiastic and actively investing in the India market.
2. Socio-Cultural impact on the Indian Society:
The world has become a smaller place, thanks to the social networking platforms blooming of the internet. India is a beautiful country which takes immense pride in “Unity in Diversity” as it is home to many different cultures and traditions. Globalization in India has left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural aspect of Indian society.
Food chains like McDonald’s are finding its way to the dining tables. With every passing day, Indians are indulging more and more in the Western culture and lifestyle. But Globalization in India has also provided a vibrant World platform for Indian Art, Music, Clothing, and Cuisine.
The psychological impact on a common Indian Man: The educated youth in India is developing a pictorial identity where they are integrating themselves with the fast-paced, technology-driven world and at the same time they are nurturing the deep roots of Indian Culture. Indians are fostering their Global identity through social media platforms and are actively interacting with the World community. They are more aware of burning issues like Climate Change, Net neutrality, and LGBT rights.
India has taken the Centre Stage amongst the Developing Nations because of its growing economy on the World Map. Globalization in India has brought tremendous change in the way India builds its National and International policies. It has created tremendous employment opportunities with increased compensations.
A large number of people are hired for Special Economic Zones (SEZs), Export Processing Zones (EPZs), etc., are set up across the country in which hundreds of people are hired. Developed western countries like USA and UK outsource their work to Indian companies as the cost of labour is cheap in India. This, in turn, creates more employment. This has resulted in a better standard of living across the demographic of young educated Indians. The Indian youth is definitely empowered in a big way.
Young lads below the age of 20 are now aspiring to become part of global organizations. Indian culture and morals are always strengthening their roots in modern world History as the world is now celebrating ‘International Yoga Day’ on 21st June every year. Globalization in India has led to a tremendous cash flow from Developed Nations in the Indian market. As a positive effect, India is witnessing the speedy completion of Metro projects across the country. Another spectacular example of newly constructed High-end Infrastructure in the country is the remarkable and thrilling ‘Chenani-Nashri Tunnel’, Longest Tunnel in India constructed in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Globalization has greatly contributed in numerous ways to the development of Modern India.
As there are so many pros we cannot turn a blind eye to the cons of Globalization which are quite evident with the Indian perspective. The worst impact is seen in the environment across Indian cities due to heavy industrialization. Delhi, the capital of India has made headlines for the worst ever air pollution, which is increasing at an alarming rate.
India takes pride in calling itself an Agriculture oriented nation, but now Agriculture contributes to fragile 17% of the GDP. Globalization in India has been a major reason for the vulnerable condition of Indian Farmers and shrinking Agriculture sector. The intrusion of world players and import of food grains by the Indian Government has left minimal space for Indian farmers to trade their produce.
The impact of westernization has deeply kindled individualism and ‘Me factor’ and as a result, the look of an average Indian family has changed drastically where a Nuclear family is preferred over a traditional Joint family. The pervasive media and social networking platforms have deeply impacted the value system of our country where bigotry and homophobia are becoming an obvious threat.
One cannot clearly state that the impact of Globalization in India has been good or bad as both are quite evident. From the economic standpoint, Globalization has indeed brought a breath of fresh air to the aspirations of the Indian market. However, it is indeed a matter of deep concern when the Indian traditions and value system are at stake. India is one of the oldest civilizations and World trade has been the keystone of its History. Globalization must be practiced as a way towards development without compromising the Indian value system.
Globalisation can simply be defined as the process of integration and interaction between different people, corporations and also governments worldwide. Technology advancement which has in turn advanced means of communication and transportation has helped in the growth of globalisation. Globalisation has brought along with it an increase in international trade, culture and exchange of ideas. Globalisation is basically an economic process that involves integration and interaction that deals also with cultural and social aspects. Important features of globalisation, both modern and historically are diplomacy and conflicts.
In term of economy, globalisation involves services and goods, and the resources of technology, capital and data. The steamship, steam locomotive, container ship and jet engine are a few of the many technological advances in transportation while the inception of the telegraph and its babies, mobile phones and the internet portray technological advances in communications. These advancements have been contributing factors in the world of globalisation and they have led to interdependence of cultural and economic activities all over the world.
There are many theories regarding the origin of globalisation, some posit that the origin is in modern times while others say that it goes way back through history before adventures to the new world and the European discovery age. Some have even taken it further back to the third millennium. Globalisation on a large-scale began around the 1820s. Globalisation in its current meaning only started taking shape in the 1970s. There are four primary parts of globalisation, they are: transactions and trade, investments and capital movement, movement and migration of people and the circulation of knowledge and information. Globalization is subdivided into three: economic globalisation, political globalisation and cultural globalisation.
There are two primary forms of globalisation: Archaic and Modern Globalisations. Archaic globalisation is a period in the globalisation history from the period of the first civilisations until around the 1600s. Archaic globalisation is the interaction between states and communities and also how they were incepted by the spread by geography of social norms and ideas at different levels.
Archaic globalisation had three major requirements. First is the Eastern Origin idea, the second is distance, the third is all about regularity, stability and inter-dependency. The Silk Road and trade on it was a very important factor in archaic globalisation through the development of various civilisations from Persia, China, Arabia, Indian subcontinent and Europe birthing long distance economic and political relationships between them. Silk was the major item from China along the Silk Road; other goods such as sugar and salt were also traded.
Philosophies, different religious beliefs and varying technologies and also diseases also moved along the Silk Road route. Apart from economic trade, the Silk Road also was a means of cultural exchange among the various civilisations along its route. The cultural exchange was as a result of people’s movement including missionaries, refugees, craftsmen, robbers, artists and envoys, resulting in religions, languages, art and new technologies being exchanged.
Modern globalisation can be sub-divided into early modern and Modern. Early modern globalisation spans about 200 years of globalisation between 1600 and 1800. It is the period of cultural exchange and trade links increasing just before the modern globalisation of the late 19 th century. Early modern globalisation was characterised by Europeans empires’ maritime of the 16 th and 17 th centuries. The Spanish and Portuguese Empires were the first and then we had the British and Dutch Empires. The establishment of chartered companies (British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company) further developed world trade.
Modern Globalisation of the 19 th century was as a result of the famed Industrial Revolution. Railroads and steamships made both local and international transportation easier and a lot less expensive which helped improve economic exchange and movement of people all over the world, the transportation revolution happened between 1820 and 1850. A lot more nations have embraced global trade. Globalisation has been shaped decisively by the imperialism in Africa and in Asia around the 19 th century. Also, the ingenious invention in 1956 of the shipping container has really helped to quicken the advancement of globalisation.
The Bretton Woods conference agreement after the Second World War helped lay the groundwork for finance, international monetary policy and commerce and also the conception of many institutions that are supposed to help economic growth through lowering barriers to trade. From the 1970s, there has been a drop in the affordability of aviation to middle class people in countries that are developed. Also, around the 1990s, the cost of communication networks also drastically dropped thus lowering the cost of communicating between various countries. Communication has been a blessing such that much work can be done on a computer in different countries and the internet and other advanced means of communications has helped remove the boundary of distance and cost of having to travel and move from place to place just to get business done.
One other thing that became popular after the Second World War is student exchange programmes which help the involved students learn about, understand and tolerate another culture totally different from theirs, it also helps improve their language skills and also improve their social skills. Surveys have shown that the number of exchange students have increased by about nine times between 1963 and 2006.
Economic globalisation is differentiated from modern globalisation by the information exchange level, the method of handling global trade and expansionism.
Economic globalisation is just the ever increasing interdependence of economies of nations worldwide caused by the hike in movement across borders of goods, services, capital and technology. Economic globalisation is basically the means of increasing economic relationships between countries, giving rise to the birth of a single or global market. Based on the worldview, Economic globalisation can be seen as either a negative or positive thing.
Economic globalisation includes: Globalisation of production; which is getting services and goods from a source from very different locations all over the world to gain from the difference in quality and cost. There is globalisation of markets; which is the coming together of separate and different markets into one global market. Economic globalisation includes technology, industries, competition and corporations.
Globalisation today is all about less developed countries and economies receiving FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) from the more developed countries and economies, reduction in barriers to trade and to particular extent immigration.
Political globalisation is going to on-the-long-run drop the need for separate nation or states. Institutions like the International Criminal court and WTO are beginning to replace individual nations in their functions and this could eventually lead to a union of all the nations of the world in a European Union style.
Non-governmental organisations have also helped in political globalisation by influencing laws and policies across borders and in different countries, including developmental efforts and humanitarian aid.
Political globalisation isn’t all good as some countries have chosen to embrace policies of isolation as a reactionary measure to globalisation. A typical example is the government of North Korea which makes it extremely difficult and hard for foreigners to even enter their country and monitor all of the activities of foreigners strictly if they allow them in. Citizens are not allowed to leave the country freely and aid workers are put under serious scrutiny and are not allowed in regions and places where the government does not want them to enter.
Intergovernmentalism is the treatment of national governments and states as the major basic factors for integration. Multi-level governance is the concept that there are many structures of authority interacting in the gradual emergence of political globalisation.
Cultural globalisation is the transmission of values, ideas and meanings all over the world in a way that intensify and extend social relations. Cultural globalisation is known by the consumption of different cultures that have been propagated on the internet, international travel and culture media. The propagation of cultures helps individuals to engage in social relations which break regional boundaries. Cultural globalisation also includes the start of shared knowledge and norm which people can identify their cultures collectively; it helps foster relationships between different cultures and populations.
It can be argued that cultural globalisation distorts and harms cultural diversity. As one country’s culture is inputted into another country by the means of globalisation, the new culture becomes a threat to the cultural diversity of the receiving country.
Globalisation has made the world into one very small community where we all interact and relate, learn about other cultures and civilisations different from ours. Globalisation has helped improve the ease of doing business all around the world and has made the production of goods and services quite easy and affordable. Globalisation isn’t all good and rosy as it can be argued that Globalisation is just westernisation as most cultures and beliefs are being influenced by the western culture and belief and this harms cultural diversity. Nevertheless, the good of globalisation outweighs the bad so globalisation is actually a very good thing and has helped shape the world as we know it.
Economics , Globalisation
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Pros and cons of globalization Essay || CSS Essay 2021 || MCQSTRICK
"Globalization was promoted 20 years ago as a policy that would lift all boats in both rich and poor countries. Consumers in the United States and Europe would have their selection of low-cost things created by individuals hundreds of miles away who were paid far less than they were. And, over time, trade barriers would fall, allowing more corporations to expand and earn economic benefits as geopolitical collaboration flourished."
Without a doubt, globalisation has benefited many poor countries, who now have access to our markets and can export low-cost goods. Multinational firms and Wall Street have benefited from globalisation. Globalization, on the other hand, has not benefited working people (blue or white collar), and has resulted in America's continued deindustrialization.
Globalization is a difficult topic to grasp. Before coming to any judgments, it is vital to weigh the advantages and disadvantages.
Globalization supporters claim that it has the ability to make the world a better place to live in by addressing long-standing issues such as unemployment and poverty.
1. Tariffs, value added taxes, subsidies, and other barriers between nations are meant to be reduced by free trade. This isn't correct. There are still a lot of roadblocks in the way of free trade. "The problem is that the large G20 countries have added more than 1,200 restrictive export and import policies since 2008," according to the Washington Post piece.
2. Proponents argue that globalisation represents free trade, which promotes global economic progress by creating jobs, increasing company competitiveness, and lowering consumer prices.
3. Price reductions are meant to be achieved through international competition. This does not always work since countries manipulate their currencies to gain a competitive edge.
4. It also allows poor countries to thrive economically by bringing in foreign capital and technology, and by spreading prosperity, it creates the circumstances for democracy and respect for human rights to flourish. This is an ethereal aim that most countries have yet to realise.
5. Supporters argue that globalisation and democracy should coexist. It should be just about business, with no colonial overtones.
6. There is now a global market for businesses and customers who want to buy products from various countries.
7. Instead of fragmented power sectors, a global power is gradually being established. Politics is blending, and the decisions that are being made benefit individuals all over the world.
8. There is a greater exchange of information between two countries that have nothing in common. True
9. There is cultural interaction, with each country learning more about the cultures of others. True
10. Because we have common financial interests, corporations and governments are attempting to solve environmental issues for one another. – True, they talk more than they try.
11. We have become more open and tolerant of one another on a social level, and people from other parts of the world are no longer regarded strangers. In many circumstances, this is correct.
12. Most individuals consider speedy travel, mass communications, and rapid information transmission via the Internet to be advantages of globalisation. True
13. Labor can go from one country to another to sell their abilities. True, but this could exacerbate existing labour issues and put downward wage pressure on workers.
14. Developing countries will benefit from sharing technologies. True for tiny countries, but stronger competitors like China have made stealing our innovations and intellectual property a major issue.
15. Transnational corporations that invest in the construction of factories in other nations provide jobs for the people of those countries, allowing them to escape poverty. True
16. As a result of globalisation, governments have been able to agree to free trade agreements like as NAFTA, the South Korean Korus, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). True, but these agreements have cost the United States a significant number of jobs and have invariably increased our trade imbalance.
1. A common criticism of globalisation is that it has enriched the wealthy while impoverishing the poor. "It's great for executives, owners, and investors, but it's horrible on employees and the environment."
2. Globalization is supposed to be about removing all barriers to commerce, yet there are still a lot of them. In Europe, for example, value added taxes (VATs) on imports are as high as 21.6 percent in 161 nations. The United States does not have a value-added tax (VAT).
3. The most serious issue confronting industrialised countries is the loss of jobs, which are being relocated to lower-cost countries." According to conservative estimates from the Economic Policy Institute's Robert Scott, awarding China most favoured nation status resulted in the loss of 3.2 million jobs, including 2.4 million industrial employment.
4. Employers in wealthy countries, such as the United States, are threatening to export employment unless workers accept salary cuts. Many middle-class workers, who have little clout in this global game, have developed a fear culture as a result.
5. Large multinational firms have the capacity to avoid paying taxes by using tax havens in other countries.
6. Multinational firms are accused of social injustice, unjust labour conditions (including slave labour salaries, living and working circumstances), environmental apathy, natural resource mismanagement, and ecological devastation.
7. Previously limited to economic activity, multinational firms are increasingly influencing political decisions. Many people believe that companies are on the verge of governing the world as a result of globalisation.
8. According to some experts, globalisation is also causing the spread of communicable diseases. Travelers are spreading deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS to the farthest reaches of the earth.
9. Globalization has resulted in labour exploitation. Inhumane working conditions are common among prisoners and underage labourers. To produce low-cost goods, safety standards are disregarded. Human trafficking is on the rise as well.
10. In industrialised countries, social welfare schemes or "safety nets" are under severe strain due to budget deficits, job losses, and other economic consequences of globalisation.
11. The world is being swept by an economic tsunami known as globalisation. We won't be able to stop it, but there are many things we can do to make it more equitable.
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Globalization & Nationalism
Does globalization diminish the importance of nationalism written by tammam o. abdulsattar.
Globalization, nationalism, and the relations between them have been the subjects of debate among scholars in the international relations discipline. Both concepts have an important position in our contemporary world. Their importance lies in the creation of modern societies and nation-states, and their role in a world in which interdependence has increased. As a matter of fact, nationalism has had a great deal of difficulty surviving in this world, and some would argue that it has become less important. However, others would say that nationalism is benefiting from globalization and is becoming more important than ever. Therefore, to explore the effects of globalization on nationalism and to address their relationship, this essay is going to look at the concepts of globalization and nationalism, how both concepts come to interact with each other, and what the key aspects are of this interaction.
Globalization is defined as the elimination of barriers to trade, communication, and cultural exchange. The world today has become very different from what it was previously, because of globalization. With advances in technology and communications, the world becomes deterritorialized (Robertson, 1996), the constraints of geography shrink and the world becomes more singular and unified (Waters, 2011). Talking about the positive or negative effect of globalization, some see it as a power that destroys the heritage and culture of different ethnic groups around the world. For them, globalization is a nightmare that is happening in the present and will continue for generations. Some effects of globalization can be seen through, for example, wearing Adidas clothing, listening to iPods, watching Western television series, eating McDonalds, drinking Starbucks or Coca Cola, and even speaking a language that includes Americanized English slang (Godfrey, 2008). This illustrates the cultural dominance of the West over the rest of the world. Cultural imperialism is one of the dominant faces of the west. As technology and science developed in the west, other regions of the world started borrowing this technology and thus the ideas and values that originated in the west became the standards of the whole world. In the words of Peter Evans, “Products and ideas developed in rich countries shape the value and ideas of citizens of poor countries” (Evans, 1971, 638)
This dominance has caused some national groups to fight back against globalization and the evil they believe it introduces (Godfrey, 2008). Globalization as a concept refers to “the compression of the world and intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole… both concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the 20th century” (Robertson, 1992. P.8). This quote shows how the world has become a single place that is connected in one way or another. According to Giddens, “globalization is identified as the intensification of worldwide social relations which links distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.” (Giddens, 1990). Therefore, everything is linked to each other in such a way that it is difficult to not be part of it.
While globalization is not a new phenomenon, recent globalization has involved some real changes in terms of scale, speed, and cognition. In terms of scale, the number of economic, political, and social linkages between societies is greater. In terms of speed, globalization involves a compression of time and space. In terms of cognition, there is an increased perception of the globe as a smaller place (Kinnvall: 2002 quoted in Kinnvall: 2004). Thus changes in the world have transformed social, economical, and political relations into faster and more intensive processes that generate transcontinental or inter-regional flows and networks of activity (Held and McGrew, 2003:16).
The term ‘nationalism’ refers to the feelings of attachment to one another that members of a nation have, and to a sense of pride that a nation has in itself (Kacowicz, 1998). Nationalism is in itself an international ideology, which can be used to promote and defend a particular culture and way of life (Godfrey, 2008). An example of nationalism is when a person moves out of their home country, yet still cheers for their home country’s sports teams and continues to stay up to date with the local news. Nationalism is the foundation of modern society and social solidarity; it is also used by politicians to promote national unity and patriotism. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 established the nation-state, membership of which became the identity that is the basis of modern society. Nationalism is proclaimed to be the goal of states that seek to further their interests in peace or war, in order to galvanize public opinion in support of their aims.
According to Riggs, “People become capable of exercising sovereignty only when they enjoy some sense of solidarity based on shared values and customs. This solidarity is reified into the concept of a nation.” (Riggs, 2002). Nationalism contributed to the major wars of the 21st century, for example through border disputes that arise from the division of ethnic groups by territorial borders . Thus, nationalism has a long history, even before globalization, and it has always been something that people fight for.
One variant of nationalism, economic nationalism, in many ways harms the states that practice it. One of the main manifestations of economic nationalism is protectionism, which is costly for the global economy in general (Campe, 2008). As the world becomes interdependent, the fate of one state is linked and attached to the fate of another state. This is in many ways the basic feature of globalization; therefore, a state that wants to cut any ties with other states is going to fall behind.
When it comes to the relationship between globalization and nationalism, it can be said that there have been three major arguments that addresses this relationship. The first argument says that globalization has diminished nationalism, through increased interdependence and weakening the national barriers between countries. In addition, the compression of time and space allows people to interact more rapidly, thus national differences have disappeared or at least have become less important and noticeable. The second argument maintains that globalization and nationalism have a mixed relationship in which one leads to the other and one promotes the other. This argument stresses that the system of nation-states was established before globalization, and each state has contributed to the emergence of a global system. However, under globalization, the nation-state is still functioning and promoting the global system. The third argument says that globalization has increased nationalist sentiments. This essay will examine all these three arguments, and based on the evidence, will conclude with a clear answer to the question in the title favoring one of the arguments mentioned above.
In the first argument, in which globalization seems to diminish nationalism, John Kusumi argues that, “Globalization is the anti-thesis of nationalism as it suggests that there are no boundaries just one globe” (Godfrey, 2008). The importance of nationalism diminishes, as “we live in a world that is simultaneously shrinking and expanding, growing closer and further apart, national borders are increasingly irrelevant.” (Attale: 1991, quoted in Lerche: 1998). Thus, with globalization, nationalism has lost the power to keep the people of one nation together and draw a red line between different nationalities.
Furthermore, Hobsbawm argues that the peak of nationalism has passed, and that its strength, power, and relevance are not the same as they were in the 19th century. In the past, there were clear national borders, a strong traditional and national sense among the people of one nation, and fewer ways of contacting others. But in our current world, everything has become fast and integrated, to the degree that you cannot identify people and their nationality. Increased contact between people due to the integration of world societies is often associated with more stereotyping and hatred of others, and increased conflict (Butt, 2012). As more people of different nationalities come together and interact, more disputes will be generated. For example, in multi-cultural education programs, there is an ongoing struggle for the presentation of identity claims. According to Giddens 1991, “living with a calculative attitude to the open possibilities of action, positive and negative, with which, as individuals and globally, we are confronted in a continuous way in our contemporary social existence” (Robertson, 1996). Such interaction can be seen as an effect of globalization on nationalism in which one cannot live with others.
On a cultural level, the world has shifted from national cultures to mixed cultures across the globe, resulting in a homogenized global culture rather than nationalism. The TNCs, which act globally, play a role in establishing the global market, which makes the fate of one state dependent on other states’ economic fates. The development of a global community, through interdependence, new technologies, and even media productions, challenges the nationalist thinking. Globalization thus “Possesses many threats to nationalism from participation in international organizations, loss of parts of state’s sovereignty, to advanced technologies, and easy mobility of people around the globe.” (Campe, 2008)
Another issue is that immigration is janus-faced, in which one face supports the argument of diminishing nationalism, while the other face supports the increasing sense of nationality. The first face is that through growing immigration, globalization introduces risks and security challenges to nationalism (Natalie, 2010). From a cultural and traditional point of view, when more people immigrate to another country, they will affect the social structure and thus they will change the demography of that country, which results in decreasing the sense of nationality. The second face is described by Godfrey: “Migration of people from the 3rd World to the Western nations is a result of globalization which resulted in racial and cultural tensions in many parts of Europe and America (Godfrey, 2008). Therefore, such changes and challenges have affected
The protective framework of the small community and of tradition replacing these with many larger impersonal organizations. The individual feels bereft and alone in a world in which he or she lacks the psychological support and the sense of security provided by more traditional settings” (Giddens: 1991 quoted in Kinnvall: 2004).
The second argument is that globalization and nationalism have a mixed relationship in which one has led to the other and one promotes the other. Some see globalization as the result of nationalism, because each nation has participated and gives something to the globe in a successful collective action (unknown, Nationalism and Globalization, 2009). This suggests that each independent nation has in one way or another been involved in making up the globe as it is now. This could have happened through the interaction of trade in old days. Thus, without the existence of nationalism, globalization would not be happening.
Moreover, globalization has promoted nationalism, as in the case of Western social science, where it becomes a cultural resource in different global regions. For example, the work of Durkheim on the theme of civil religion was influential in the establishment of the new Turkish Republic in 1920 (Robertson, 1996). This shows that what has happened or been generated in a specific region or country has influenced other regions or countries in a positive way. which deepened the sense of nationalism. Let’s not forget the fact that nationalism was first established in Europe in the Westphalia Treaty of 1648 (Vensatd, 2012). Therefore, both globalization and nationalism can live together in harmony and benefit from each other. According to Natalie, “Their coexistence is not a battle in which only one is destined to emerge as the winner and the other as losers; it is rather a mutually beneficial coexistence of two compatible tendencies” (Natalie, 2010). Some examples of this relationship can be detected in Georgia, where nationalist forces have been seeking greater globalization through integration in the Euro-Atlantic structure and attracting Foreign Direct Investment. In addition, elites of East European nations also framed their accession campaigns to Euro-Atlantic structure in terms of fulfilling national aspirations, including gaining acceptance, recognition and security guarantees. This implies that nationalism has been acting as “a doctrine that lays down the basic rules of the game for any movement seeking to gain or hold political power” (Benner, 2001). In this respect, culture politics serves power politics and therefore nationalism and globalization can and do coexist together. (Natalie, 2010)
The third argument says that globalization has increased the sense of nationalism in such a way that national extremism has emerged. According to Douglas Kellner,
Indeed from the late 1980s to the present, there has been a resurgence of nationalism, traditionalism, and religious fundamentalism alongside trends toward growing globalization. the explosion of regional, cultural, and religious differences in the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia as well as explosive tribal conflicts in Africa and elsewhere suggest that globalization and homogenization were not as deep as it proponent hoped and criticized feared. Culture has thus become a new source of conflict and an important dimension of struggle between the global and the local. (Godfrey, 2008)
From the quotation, we see that nationalism in the age of globalization is a response to economic and political problems. As globalization is an external force that is pushing on the localities resulting in a diminishing national sense, localities have responded very strongly to this pressure by adopting a stronger national sense. According to Giddens, “The revival of local nationalism and an accentuating of local identities are directly bound up with globalizing influences to which they stand in opposition” (Giddens: 1994 quoted in Natalie: 2010).
More communication and interactions lead to a greater awareness of your identity and cultural differences, leading to an increased projection of ethnic, cultural, and national differences, leading to more conflict. As an example, some national gangs and groups are formed by students in some European universities (Bloom: 1993 quoted in Butt: 2012). The printing press also has a massive effect, as it allows people to express their culture and nationality to others, which allows others to see far beyond their communities and borders. Moreover, increased migration has led to a rise in right-wing parties as in Europe and Britain (Butt, 2012). All of this is showing one important fact, which is the rise of nationalism as a response to globalization. Usually radical right nationalism is driven by party organization rather than mass movements, and it involves more than racism and neo-fascist ideology: it is a political ideology and cultural authoritarianism (Delanty and O’Mahony, 2002, P.148).
In our global world, being proud of your heritage, culture, and nationality has already become a taboo in many respects (Godfrey, 2008). Globalization increases awareness of social heterogeneity because democracy allows people to participate and freedom of speech is guaranteed, so groups whose identity is based on race, ethnicity, religion, language have become increasingly vocal and have used the global media to make their discontent known. After the Cold War, when the state was weakened by globalization, minorities were able to more effectively assert their identity in reaction to hegemonic cultural forces. To that, most scholars believe that nationalism would only intensify as state faces the growing challenge of globalization. This is to say that when the state is weak, national sense becomes stronger (Hobsbawm, 1992).
Evidence shows that in the former Soviet Union republics, new nationalism was born from insecurity and the search for ethnic purity. Because of globalization, minorities in many countries are mobilizing to demand justice and respect, and established communities often resist these demands (Riggs, 2012). The USSR has collapsed, and many nationalities and minorities were under USSR protection or repression; these minorities breathe freedom after the collapse and thus they demand their right of ruling themselves based on their identity and nationality. According to Delanty and O’Mahony, “Nationalist identity claims as a basis for mobilization. National mobilization thrives on insecurity and uncertainty as categories of group belonging become sharpened in the heat of contestation.” (Delanty and O’Mahony, 2002, P.144) This has led to more conflict as new nationalities were born, “National cultures have produced confrontations between Serbs, Muslims, and Croats, Armenians and Azerbaijanis.” (Godfrey, 2008). So as a response to a weak state that is no longer a promoter and protector of domestic interests but rather a collaborator with outside forces, minorities have raised their national voice (Scholte: 1997 quoted in Lerche: 1998).
In globalization, the powerful countries are those who can have a massive effect on the rest of the globe. Therefore, “The effort of the West to promote its values of democracy and liberalism as universal values to maintain its military predominance and to advance its economic interests would only engender countering responses from other civilizations” (Huntington: 1993 quoted in Lerche: 1998). Again, here we see a response from other nationalities and other civilization that feel inferior or less powerful in the age of globalization due to the social, economic, and political status toward the West.
According to Fuller (1995),
Systems of international marketing and communications create freeways for the mass import of foreign cultural materials, food, drugs, clothing, music, film, books, TV programs, with the concomitant loss of control over societies. Such cultural anxieties are welcome fuel to more radical political groups that call for cultural authenticity, preservations of traditional and religious values and rejection of the alien cultural antigens (Fuller: 1995 quoted in Lerche: 1998).
The author here is clear in pointing out how the global system is designed in a way that makes it possible for others to respond. So, instead of expanding of Western cultural dominance, “We are witnessing a contested and decided encounter between global cultural flows and inherited local identities” (Waters: 1995 quoted in Lerche: 1998). On the other hand, Giddens has also stated that, “The process of globalization has a transformative and uneven effect on all parts of the global system. This suggests that globalization is not simply a one-way process, transmitting Western civilization to the rest of the world. Indeed, experience has shown the quite reverse.” (Giddens, 1992) Thus, rather than destroying local cultures, globalization tends to encourage responses through the rise of localities and nationalist movements around the world.
In light of this argument, someone like Smith 1998 would argue that nationalism is stronger than globalization and therefore it cannot be diminished or made less important. He stated that, “Nations have deep roots and they are based on pre-political, cultural, and ethnic identities and their social and moral significance sustain their power and explain their resistance.” (Smith: 1991 quoted in Natalie: 2010). He added that globalization does not mean the end of nationalism. A cosmopolitan culture that exists today does not have the ability to drive people like nationalism; however, the world is witnessing a rise of extreme nationalism (Smith, A. 1998)
In this view, nationalism emerges as a cultural doctrine, which seeks to preserve and promote the identity, culture, and autonomy of a nation. Smith (1991) supports this view as well as Tamer (1993) when she says that, “National movements are motivated by a desire to assure the existence and flourishing of a particular community to preserve its culture, tradition, language.” (Natalie, 2010, P.170) the point here is that nationalism as a response to globalization has emerged as a cultural protector that wants to bring societies back to their traditions and values. According to Beyer,
In response to the modern developments, religious and nationalist leaders may talk about moral or ethical decline by pointing to modern society lack of morality, loss of ethical values, and increased corruption. Therefore, the solution is to return back to traditional values and religious norms (Beyer: 1994 quoted in Kinnvall: 2004).
Now, having addressed the last argument that argues the rise of nationalism is a response to globalization, within this argument lies the rise of fundamentalism. Fundamentalism as a concept refers to those groups who resist not only globalization but also the structure of the globe as a whole. According to Robertson, “Resistance to contemporary globalization, for example the radical side of the general Islamic movement would be regarded as opposition not only to the homogenized system but to the conception of the world as a series of culturally equal.” (Robertson, 1996) Thus, fundamentalism opposes the idea of a homogeneity of cultures and nationalities and provokes extreme nationalism.
According to Barber 1996, he describes the fundamentalist movement as, “Parochial rather than cosmopolitan, angry rather than loving, zealous rather than rationalist, ethnocentric rather than universalizing, fractious and pulverizing, never integrating” (Barber, 1996). Thus, this quote suggests that globalization seems to be pulling all identity groups on the planet out of their various degrees of isolation, pushing them into the current of the global structure and thereby obliging them to redefine themes in regard to global trends (Lerche, 1998). Here we see how globalization has been a direct cause of the rise of fundamentalism through forcing different nationalities and cultures to integrate together and adapt themselves to the new structure. As a consequence to that, fundamentalism rose up against the force of globalization.
Furthermore, the relationship between globalization and the rise of fundamentalism is shaped by the necessity for societies, regions, civilizations, and sub-national entities to declare their identities for both internal and external purposes because of space-time compression. Therefore, fundamentalism is a reaction to globalization (Robertson, 1996). As I have explained early in this essay, that nationalism is deeply rooted in pre-historical and pre-political processes, fundamentalism as a concept might be similarly misinterpreted by different sides. Some see it as a destructive movement to nations and to the globe as a whole, while some others see it as a just a mode of thought and practice which has become globally institutionalized in which norms of national and cultural self-determination are felt. Eventually fundamentalism makes globalization work. (Robertson, 1996)
The Bulgarian national alliance state that they are in favour of establishing a united nationalist front against globalization, NATO, and the EU in its current form, as well as corrupt Bulgarian politics (Godfrey, 2008). This is an example of the extreme nationalism that strongly supports the argument favoring the rise of nationalism under globalization. Another example is the New Right activists and national anarchists who chose the phrase “globalization is genocide” on their banner at the APEC protest back in September 2007. This again shows how those groups feel about the global system and also shows how strong these movements are becoming. Thus, nationalistic groups who want to preserve their identity fight back against the destructive agenda of globalization. In the end, globalization, as it seeks a global community with no national barriers, actually feeds a growing national sense (Godfrey, 2008).
In conclusion, this paper has argued that globalization is a double-edged sword, and that there has been a marked rise of nationalism under globalization. With growing globalization and the changes it has brought to the world, minorities, nationalities, and localities have awakened and become more aware of the threat of globalization. This threat exists in the homogenizing nature of globalization, which makes people and nationalities melt down into one. This has led to an increased national sense as a response to the force of globalization in order to protect cultures, traditions, and nationalities form melting or adopting the new structure of the world that is caused by globalization. However, nationalism has created xenophobia in which people fear that their nationality and traditions will disappear in the face of globalization. Therefore, they create or invent traditions or reestablish old traditions in which they maintain their identity. As Deutsch stated, “Xenophobia is written into the heart of nationalism” (Delanty and O’Mahony, 2002, P.167). Thus, fearing the force of globalization has led to an increased sense of nationalism and more defensive means to protect or even invent traditions just to resist globalization.
On the other hand, globalization can be seen as a challenge to nationalism in the way that it increases immigration and the movement of peoples, which might create new sources of tensions and pose new difficulties to the management of cultural and ethnic diversity (Natalie, 2010). Some other threats include participation in international organizations and the loss of parts of a state’s sovereignty over its own territory, as well as regional integration eroding nationalist ideology. This argument might seem convincible and well argued, but evidence shows the opposite. For example, the EU is an international organization and at the same time it strengthens Europe.
In a globalized world, many features of nationalism seem to have been revived. Increasing migration movements fosters xenophobia among people. Mixing cultures and newly emerging hybrid cultures make it hard for people to find their identity and let them turn towards their own culture (Campe, 2008). This means that the force of globalization has pushed nationalism to be raised again and be more important than ever as people realize they are lost without their identity and nationality. Finding an identity is very essential for security reasons in the modern world of insecurities. The tendency toward a strong sense of nationality has been fueled by “fears of diminishing economic resources for the socially insecure.” (Delanty and O’Mahony, 2002, P.156)
It is true that globalization has the potential to contain aggressive nationalism that thrives on isolation and insecurity. It also creates incentives for the resolution and prevention of conflict because of the integration. However, at the same time, it generates nationalistic responses in the form of right wing radicalism or religious fundamentalism that reacts to certain aspects of globalization such as immigration and the restructuring of traditional economies (Sassen, 1998).
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World as a Global Village: Learning to Live Together | CSS Essay
World as a Global Village: Learning to Live Together | CSS Essay Outline
Globalization has led to the economic, political and socio-cultural integration making the world a global village. The prospects of learning to live together are, however, still evolving amid the hurdles persisting to check its course.
2. Aspects of Global Village
Globalization of economy Global integration of politics Global village of socio-cultural integration
3. Contemporary Manifestations of ‘Learning to Live Together in Global Village’
Internet and its global use International Political Community Global Economic Organizations
4. World Learning to Live Together
The case study of Iran and P5+1 Nuclear Deal The Melting of Ice between Cuba and the US The traditional rivals of South Asia and the efforts to live together
5. Hurdles in the Learning of Global Village to Live Together
Criticism on globalization as a threat to national interests Gap between the Global North and the Global South Economic, literary, cultural and technological backwardness Clash of Interests Clash of Civilizations Weak international institutions
6. Ways to Learn to Live Together
Strengthening the global institutions Minimizing the ideological difference between civilizations Pursuing mutual interests and fighting common threats Liberalism of trade Dialogue to be the first choice of conflict resolution
The term global village was coined by Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian philosopher and a public intellectual, in the beginning of the 1960s. He had a vision of technology reducing the size of the globe to that of a village, with information floating freely and simultaneously from one end to the other. McLuhan believed that interconnectivity on such a scale had the ability to heighten human awareness and bring together all political and social functions.
World is called a global village by the virtue of globalization which is a multi-faceted process. Globalization is integration of everything. It can be integration of political, cultural and technological prospects. The most apparent manifestation of globalization is economic and political integration. Similarly, the globalization which plays major role in making the world a global village comes in shape of technological integration.
Global village is attributed with sharing information, products, investments and profits. In political terms global village is featured by presence of an evolved international community at the platform of the UN. The growth of an integrated village brings several benefits to the masses as well as states along with causing trouble for the national interests.
Considering the dimensions of global village, the economic integration has brought the world closer and dependable on each other. Multinational companies, global economic forums and cross-border investments; all play vital role in making the world a global village.
For many, globalization is equated with economic interdependence. At the dawn of the 21st century, the scale and magnitude of global economic interaction appears to be unprecedented The volume of capital flows far exceeds that of the past. The developing world, too, have increasingly become a part of global trade and capital flows Contemporary patterns of economic globalization suggest the emergence of a new international division of labor In short, the world has reached a stage in which one can meaningfully refer to one global economy.
Political integration of the world states which helps to unite global village becomes obvious at the platform of the United Nations. This institution has 193 member states which discuss and decide upon all the important political events of international prospects. International political security, regional and global alliances against terrorism, international treaties on nuclear non-proliferation; all reveal the political integration of the global village.
Another important aspect of global village is socio-cultural integration. It is the mixing of cultural values and customs to evolve the new ones. Apparent manifestation of socio-cultural integration in the global village comes in the shape of fashion, traditions and practices one adopts after getting inspired by another culture through books and movies most of the times.
These all aspects of globalization render the global village to learn to live together. This becomes possible when the world states interact and find mutual interests. Those interests might be political, economic or social.
Multinational organizations and global institutions represent another manifestation of how the world is learning to live together. European Union, for example, represents togetherness of the European nations. Similarly, ASEAN is the association of South East Asian nations for attaining definite economic goals. In South Asia SAARC emerges to be an organization for regional cooperation. IMF and the World Bank bring the world closer in monetary aspects. Muslim states of the world form OIC as their distinct body. NATO is a military alliance of European and American nations. Thus, in all ways, world states practice the art of living together for the obvious reasons.
Recently two important developments in the global political context occurred that reflect how the nations are learning to live together. First came the nuclear deal between Iran and P5+1. Iran and the US had been at daggers drawn since the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The country also went to develop nuclear weapons secretly unless came to the knowledge of international community. This led to the beginning of talks between Iran and the Permanent Five members of the UN Security Council along with Germany.
The deals bore positive results after years of negotiations. This proves how the global states are learning to live together in the global village. Today, Iran is back in the mainstream international transactions. The danger to the global village has been averted.
Second case comes from the continents of America. The United States and the Latin American state of Cuba remained in rift since 1959 when Cuba was revolutionized by the forces of Fidel Castro. The Castro government was unfavorable to the US throughout the years of the Cold War. The US has for long imposed embargo on the island state of Cuba. The ice however melted previous year when the Pope visited both the countries helping them to normalize relations. This visit was followed by initiating diplomatic relations between both the countries after more than 70 years. This case also reveals the willingness and practice of the world to live together in the global village.
Third case study can be made on the South Asian states of India and Pakistan. Both the countries have several territorial disputes along with ideological and historical differences. They have fought two full-scale wars and a number of other skirmishes. But both find no solution in offensive methods. Comprehensive dialogue between both the states has been revived recently which reflects that they are learning to live together as peaceful neighbors though it’s tough.
Living together in the global village brings fruits of harmony, peace, trade and unity. But at the same time smaller states becomes victim of the evils of globalization. For example, World Trade Organization aims at lowering the trade tariffs across the globe. This brings free trade for the global village but not the fair trade. Developing states find it difficult to lower the tariffs on the limited products they export to earn revenue.
Along with this major hurdle there are several other obstacles in the learning of global village to live together. One major hurdle is clash of interests and priorities. Not all the world states prioritize the same things on their respective national agendas. Some times in the wake of global village’s mantra the national interests of the states are at stake. This declines confidence of those states on the virtues of global village.
Clash of civilizations is another theory which undermines the art of learning to live together. The theory given by Huntington speaks for the grounds of clash between the world states in the future would be cultural. This puts stones in the way of global integration.
Further the structural flaws in the international institutions which help in strengthening the hegemony of a few powerful states also impede the process of learning to live together. In order to ensure better working of global village international institutions are to be strengthened ending all the undue influence upon them.
People need to find the common goals and mutual interests in order to learn the art of living together in the global village. States need to collectively fight the common threats at the same time. Preference of liberalism over realism can be more beneficial in achieving this goal.
In compact, nations depend on each other. This level of dependence when reaches its peak, the world begins to become a global village. Hurdles in the way of globalization persists amid the efforts of international community to unite on the points of mutual interests.
Thriving institutions and corporations recognize the benefits of a diverse workforce and acknowledge how communication and technological advancements foster creativity within the team. Every culture contributes its own insight into an issue, introducing new ideas, awakening inspiration and driving success.
Don’t be afraid of differences or change! Make technology your friend, remain mindful of your environment, and recognize the endless benefits of our multicultural society to foster business success within the Village.
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CSS, PMS Essays | Pros and Cons of Globalization for Pakistan | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers
The essay is attempted by Iqra Ali on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS, PMS essays. Sir Syed Kazim Ali has been Pakistan’s top English writing and CSS, PMS essay and precis coach with the highest success rate of his students. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice essay writing techniques and patterns.
- Globalization has transfigured Pakistan socially, politically, and economically into uncharted territory.
- Pakistan has procured a golden opportunity to unleash its true potential due to globalization.
- Globalization has put Pakistan’s sovereignty at stake due to the over-dominance of the world’s superpowers.
What is Globalization?
- Globalization deals with the interdependence of people, companies, and countries economically, socially, and politically on a global scale.
What are the Positive Impacts of Globalization?
- Increasing exports and Foreign direct investments
- Broadening access to goods and services
- Spreading technology and innovation
- Suppressing authoritative governments
- Creating awareness among the public
- Tackling environmental hazards through international laws and policies
- Promoting desi music and art throughout the world
- Increasing education opportunities
- Lifting people out of poverty
What are the Negative Impacts of Globalization?
- Destructing local business
- Exacerbating the dependency of the state’s economy on foreign investment
- Increasing inequality of income distribution
- Empowering multinational companies at the Cost of national sovereignty
- Threatening national political norms of the country
- Exacerbating conflicts among the countries for dominance
- Demolishing the multicultural beauty of Pakistan
- Westernizing the traditional and religious norms and values
- Declining patriotism and national values
Critical Analysis Conclusion
Globalization- the unhampered flow of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures- has transformed the world’s economy, politics, society, and law, except in Pakistan. Although the country has been one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), globalization has not been a choice but an obligation for it under the conditions imposed by international organizations, mainly IMF and World Bank. However, having been hailed with untapped natural and young human resources and its strategic location between energy sources and consumer nations of a population of three billion, Pakistan has procured a golden opportunity to unleash its true potential due to globalization. Free trade opportunities and technological advancements have helped the country grow economically and socially. For instance, the development of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has enabled it to become an essential player in the geo-economic arena in South Asia. The national talent of art, music, and food has also brought international recognition in the contemporary globalized world.
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On the other hand, Pakistan, being an underdeveloped country, has faced multiple challenges due to globalization, among which the threatened sovereignty is the deadliest. Since Pakistan has not made any economic or political policy without the constraints of international organizations and the superpowers it is indebted to, it is being exploited in the international market. The lack of infrastructure, inept leadership, deficient awareness of technology, and the shortage of education are also some hurdles that make the country far less competitive than other globally successful countries. Moreover, the unbridled Westernized culture- promoted vastly by media-is diminishes the essence of traditional and religious norms, taking the country’s norms from collectivism to individualism. The accelerated free movement of drug cartels and terrorists is another negative outcome of globalization in the country. Hence, globalization has made Pakistan a hybrid state, trying to balance liberalism and conservatism. It is high time some strategic changes should be made in the economic and foreign policies of the country so that the best progress could be brought about from globalization leaving behind the drawbacks. As it is aptly said by Mahbub ul Haq- a Pakistani economist, “Globalization is no longer an option; it is a fact. Pakistan must either learn to manage it far more skillfully or drown in the global cross currents.”
In literal meaning, globalization means the transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. Since it is a multidimensional process impacting every walk of life, its elucidation varies widely in the literature. For instance, in the economy, globalization is the process through which national economies- to a greater or a lesser extent- absorb into a single global economy. Likewise, cultural anthropologists define globalization as a global flow of information, commodities, images, etc., to flatten out the cultural differences between nations, individuals, and regions. Global warming is the inclination of national policy-making concerning international organizations on political grounds. According to John B. Larson, an American politician and businessman, “ Globalization is not a monolithic force but an evolving set of consequences – good, bad, and unintended. It is a new reality.” So, it is not wrong to say that globalization is the most globalized term.
Covering a wide range of distinct socio-politico-economic trends, globalization has greatly influenced Pakistan negatively and positively. To begin with the pros, it has revolutionized Pakistan’s economy the most. The free market economy has bolstered the size of the country’s market for exports and Foreign Direct Investment, which has aided development. Like many underdeveloped countries, Pakistan’s economy has remained highly regulated and protected for the first three decades of its establishment. However, constrained by the domestic economic situation, the pressure of international organizations, and the conditions of the world economy, Pakistan started liberalizing its economy in the 1980s. Hence, today Pakistan’s economy is more liberal than it was a few decades ago, with an increasing role of the private sector in economic development. The development of multiple foreign projects in the country- including the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the increasing rate of immigration of Pakistani natives to other countries- is the overt manifestation of the country’s free-market economy, which has not only increased the real capital of the country but also contributed in its institutional developments. Another positive effect of globalization is greater and easier access to products at increasingly cheaper rates. Since liberalization allows multiple national and international companies to sell goods in the country, it has created a competitive environment for the survival and success of businesses. Hence, People have procured the most from free trade since they can buy goods at more affordable rates and, thus, a higher standard of living. Additionally, globalization has increased access to technology and innovation in Pakistan. Through the rapid spread of technology in the region, there is more room for competitive domestic industries to produce quality goods for the locals and export. Putting it briefly, globalization has brought miraculous advancements in the economic progress of Pakistan.
Moving Further, Globalization- through the quick availability of the internet and interstate communication- has turned the wave of the political culture of Pakistan. It has changed the state-centric views of politics and increased democratic cooperation. Although Pakistan has been a democratic country since its inception, the inept leadership, prevailed corruption, and unnecessary military interventions have made it more of an authoritative government, leaving democracy in the name. However, the globalized media approach has made the citizens aware of their rights and enabled them to revolt against authoritarian rulers. Hence, the rules and policies are now more transparent, and the leaders are more accountable for their performance. Along with national awareness, globalization has helped bring awareness to international issues, including environmental problems. The agreements are made through international non-governmental organizations. Being one of the biggest endorsers of environmental policies, Pakistan has helped a lot in managing climate problems. Recently, the country has made a record in the world’s most ambitious afforestation efforts through a Ten Billion Tree Tsunami spread Policy over Five years. As a result, it has gained an exemplary position for saving the environment worldwide, all thanks to globalization. In short, globalization is not the hope of the people yearning for their rights only, but it has also brought significant awareness in sorting out international problems through international collaborations.
Besides, globalization has introduced the culture of Pakistan all over the world, creating a colourful image of the country internationally. The land, of pure-like every society- has its own rich and unique culture, traditions, norms, and way of life. Many deep-rooted desi traditions, cuisines, art, and music, run in the blood of Pakistani nationals. They have preserved their culture throughout history and manifested it worldwide through globalization. The Pakistani music genres of folk music, traditional Ghazals, and synchronized Qawwali and Western music by the world-renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are recognized beyond boundaries. Likewise, border-free travelling has opened the way for students to travel to other counties for higher and more competitive education in many of the world’s best universities. Since there becomes a great chance for people to learn, work, and earn equally without geographical boundaries, globalization-resultantly-has helped alleviate global poverty. Briefly, globalization has not only introduced the culture of Pakistan to the world but has also made education and job opportunities easily available for the state’s people.
“Globalization has changed us into a company that searches the world, not just to sell or to source, but to find intellectual capital – the world’s best talents and greatest ideas .”
-Jack Welch, an American business executive
Although globalization has multiple positive impacts, it is every benefit comes with a caveat. It has posed significant risks to developing countries, including Pakistan, by greatly benefiting Multinational corporations and prosperous governments. First, the threat of globalization leads to the domestic loss of business and jobs. In Pakistan, living depends on tech-based products imported from developed countries. Additionally, foreign-invested companies in the already low-employed country tend to provide international goods, thus, destroying the local business. Thus, the state’s economy depends on foreign direct investments, imports, or even debts with high-interest rates. According to the World Bank, the external debt of Pakistan has been raised to sixty-six million USD from 2002 until 2021. As a result, the country has been bound to make its economic and foreign policies under the obligations of the global economy regulating bodies like the World Bank and the International Monterey Fund. Additionally, globalization has been disastrous for the country’s working class. They are exploited to work at significantly lower wages in both the foreign-invested business within the country and as labour in other countries. Advancement in technology has further aggravated the risk of unemployment for workers. Hence, economic globalization has led to income inequality, making Pakistan more dependent on other powers. As it is aptly said by Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations- UNAIDS, “The widening gap between rich and poor is not just a natural phenomenon . It is a sign that much of what we have been doing, especially in terms of models of economic growth, has been wrong.”
On political grounds, one of the most preponderant demerits of globalization is the threatened sovereignty of the state. National sovereignty is at stake due to unnecessary interventions of international organizations and multinational companies in state affairs. Pakistan is a highly affected victim of politically and economically stable international political alliances due to its significant economic and significant dependency on international organizations and world powers. As a result, the country’s leaders are made to feel that they lack decision-making ability and are persuaded to modify the structure of their government. Consequently, the stronger nations are trying to overrule the land of the pure by being directly or indirectly involved in its political independence as a state. For instance, America has been using the land of Pakistan for its vested interest in the Afghan war and, subsequently, in the war on terror. Hence, globalization has demolished the national political structure of the state and led to an erosion of its national sovereignty, thus, destroying its peace.
Last but not least, globalization has badly impacted the socio-cultural diversity of Pakistan. It has hurt the state’s religious and ethical norms and demolished its multicultural beauty. For instance, the national dress of Pakistan is Shalwar Kameez. However, the Westernization of men’s and women’s dressing is degrading the country’s culture. Likewise, McDonaldization, fast-food culture, is widespread in the streets and shopping malls of the country despite its deep-rooted desi cuisine. Hence, the idea of flattened global culture has now become the imposition of Western values, beliefs, and norms on the rest of the world. Consequently, psychological problems like Xenocentrism- the belief that other cultures are superior to one’s own- and Ethnophaulism- the hatred belief for one’s nation- have drastically increased in the country. All thanks are due to globalization. Above all, it has diminished the importance of nationalism in the already shattered ethnicity of Pakistan. People from all provinces who are ready to kill their countrymen belonging to a sect and culture different from theirs are eager to adopt the Western culture. Hence, globalization creates an imbalance between patriotism and globalism. To put it briefly, globalization has badly ruined Pakistan’s cultural norms and values.
Critically, globalization is a dichotomy with both comforts and harms. However, for Pakistan, the benefits accrued from globalization are nearly nothing. It has been a sour phenomenon for its youth looking for a job since the unemployment rate is continuously growing. Additionally, infrastructure and trade have not exhibited any significant performance after globalization. Poverty incidences are also reported to be increased. Above all, the prevalent Western culture has demolished the religious and cultural norms of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Hence, globalization is not a panacea for whole-lot-of problems that Pakistan faces. Nonetheless, Pakistan must educate and train its people on every ground to benefit from globalization.
In a nutshell, globalization has brought multiple transformations in Pakistan. Despite being a latecomer to be encompassed in the globalized world, the country, with its geographically important location at the crossroads separating South Asia from Central Asia and the Middle East, has gained a lot of political, social, and above all economic benefits from the globalized world. However, it could not actively participate in the growing world trade of goods and services, foreign investment, technological advancements, and skill supply. The serious concern is the underdevelopment of the country’s human resources and the low skill intensity of its labour force. Unless the quality and outreach of education, training, literacy, skills, and health status are significantly improved, the country will remain handicapped in maximizing the benefits of globalization. Therefore, the challenge to be successful in the shrivelled world is not beyond the reach of Pakistan; instead, it can be achieved easily with smart policy-making and determined collective effort.
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