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How to Write an Argumentative Essay (With Features & Structure)
How To Write An Argumentative Essay : The Virtue’s English Dictionary (Encyclopaedic Edition) defines an Essay as a literary composition intended to prove some particular point or illustrate a particular subject. We all had at one time and the other written an essay. Did we ever consider the type and format of such writings? Of course there could be more than one type of essay writing incorporated or employed in a single writing.
Essays can be argumentative, expository, narrative and descriptive. These are the four main types of essay. There could be combination of two or more of these four types of essay employed in one essay. For instance, elements of descriptive essay can be found in an argumentative essay. This does not make it any less an argumentative essay.
Narrative Essay tells a story. There is usually a central point at which the writing is centered. The story could be from personal experience and of course can be figurative. Narrative essay gives an account of an event in a well-structured plot.
Descriptive Essay is a writing that attempts to describe an event, experience, object, person, place, idea or anything capable of being described. In other words, the essay attempts to characterize a given event, idea, person or place.
An expository essay attempts to explain, explicate, elucidate, illustrate, uncover and clarify a given concept or event.
This article is targeted at discussing how to write an argumentative essay.
Argumentative essay from the word “ Argument ”, according to Virtue’s English Dictionary (Encyclopaedia Edition) defines argument as a subject of a discourse or writing; a reason offered for or against something; a debate, controversy, discussion and a process of reasoning. Therefore argumentative essay can be defined as a debatable writing which upon choosing a stance, attempts to persuade and convince the mind of the readers into finding reasons with the points established by the writer.
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Table of Contents
How to write an argumentative essay step by step
The goal of an argumentative essay is to convince the mind of the readers that your position is preferable and should be considered. In order to produce a logical and sound argumentative essay, it is important that the writer be well abreast with the features of an argumentative essay. This guides the writer not to derogate from the argumentative genre of essay intended, and also to render a logically structured and sound essay.
For a writing to be considered argumentative, it has to conform to a particular format and fulfil certain requirement, otherwise one may be writing any other type of essay in the thought of an argumentative one. This would lead us to discussing the features of an argumentative essay together with the structure.
Also see: How to introduce yourself in a debate
Features of Argumentative Essay
The main five features of an argumentative essay are:
a. Introduction and Thesis
b. Opposing and Qualifying Ideas
c. Evidence in Support of Claim
d. Style and Tone of Language
e. Compelling Conclusion
a. Introduction and Thesis: An argumentative essay must begin with introduction. This is simply to give the general introduction of the topic to be discussed. The introduction shall then include the thesis which is the writer’s point of view.
b. Opposing and Qualifying Ideas: While writing an argumentative essay, the writer has to state and acknowledge the possible points and ideas of the opposing side which are certainly not in his favour. Acknowledging those points and ideas enable lay a grounded foundation of his own points by juxtaposing the sides. This also has a way of arousing the interest of the readers to finding reasoning with your points.
c. Evidence in Support of Claim : A good argumentative essay should has a strong evidence to support the claims asserted. Evidence in the context of an argumentative essay is simply the information sourced for and logically analyzed for the purpose of justifying a stated claim. A writer is expected to source for articulated, logical and statistical points to support the claims asserted.
d. Style and Tone of Language : The language and tone of an argumentative essay must be persuasive and convincing. The tone must be confident enough to lure or compel the mind of the readers into finding reasons with the argument of the writer.
An argumentative essay should be well paragraphed. Paragraphing contributes to the logicality of the structure as well as suggest the appropriate intended tone of the writer.
Style is the manner of expression and choice of words employed by the writer, whereas tone is the attitude of the writer towards the topic and the audience.
e. Compelling Conclusion : An argumentative essay should have a compelling conclusion. Compelling here means that it has to be sound and convincing. The conclusive point should resolve the thriving issues implicated in the course of the argument.
There are basically four parts of an argument. They include:
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a. Claims: Claim is simply as assertion stated as a fact and backed up with evidence. It is also known as thesis. It fact includes the writer’s position in an argumentative essay. Assertion of claim directs the readers mind to the writer’s position, purpose and line of argument. Typical example of claim – “ Gold Values More That Silver”
b. Counterclaim: Counterclaim is also known as counterargument. It is the point of view of the opposing side of an argument which is capable of weakening the argument of the writer. The writer is however expected to raise these points and discredit them in his own favour by marshaling out points which is capable of rendering them wrong, inapplicable or invalid.
The writer is advised not to avoid those points which seem to be against his line of argument as this can leave doubts in the mind of the readers or audience. The writer is expected to acknowledge them and criticize them to his or her own advantage.
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c. Reasons: An argumentative essay should incorporate points and facts which are the suggested reasons why the writer’s line of argument should be considered. Therefore, a reason is a kind of justification for the writer’s claims.
d. Evidence: Evidence includes objectively verifiable facts which demonstrates and strengthens the writer’s claim. They are those verifiable facts which the writer can show in order to establish his point of view for the purpose of tilting the mind of the audience into affirming the claims asserted, and finding reasons with the writer’s line of argument.
Evidence can be factual, logistical and or statistical but in all, it has to be verifiable.
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Writing a Compelling Argument
On writing a compelling argument, the writer must be meticulous in considering the points on which his or her argument should base, otherwise one may end up antagonizing his or her own point of view. Employment of fallacies should be avoided as much as possible. The writer should be careful not to make hasty generalization. Understanding the opposing point of view is a key element because this goes a long way guiding the writer in preparing the evidence and defence. For an argument to be compelling, the writer must clarify and resolve every point raised in order that questions would not be created in the minds of the audience. The writer’s point must be realistic, practicable and obtainable.
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It is advised that the conclusion be as explicit as possible and at the same time, concise and precise. In other words, conclusion should be straight to the point and exhume confidence.
In all, an argumentative essay must be suggestive and convincing, otherwise the purpose of the essay would be entirely defeated.
Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka ACMC , is a Law Student and a Certified Mediator/Conciliator in Nigeria. He is also a Developer with knowledge in HTML, CSS, JS, PHP and React Native. Samuel is bent on changing the legal profession by building Web and Mobile Apps that will make legal research a lot easier.
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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.
What is an argumentative essay?
The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.
Please note : Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises or tests, such as the GED or GRE.
Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.
The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.
- A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay.
In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important ( exigence ) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.
- Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion.
Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.
- Body paragraphs that include evidential support.
Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis ( warrant ).
However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.
- Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).
The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.
- A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.
It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.
A complete argument
Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.
The five-paragraph essay
A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.
Longer argumentative essays
Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.
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American author Rita Mae Brown wrote a brochure called "Language Exerts Hidden Power, Like a Moon on the Tides" (2014). One interpretation of the title could be that language choices affect persuasiveness and credibility when communicating.Similarly, effective argumentative essays use specific linguistic methods to defend a position on an issue.What works better when trying to convince someone of something —…
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American author Rita Mae Brown wrote a brochure called "Language Exerts Hidden Power, Like a Moon on the Tides" (2014). One interpretation of the title could be that language choices affect persuasiveness and credibility when communicating.
Similarly, effective argumentative essays use specific linguistic methods to defend a position on an issue.
Argumentative Essay Definition
What works better when trying to convince someone of something — using demands or reason? An argumentative essay relies on evidence and logic to prove that a viewpoint is valid or invalid or to convince an audience to take action. Statistics aren't always available to support beliefs (and that's where logic is helpful). Still, they need to be corroborated to be viewed as credible.
Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence
The two types of evidence used to support a thesis (claim) in an argumentative essay are qualitative and quantitative:
- Qualitative evidence is data that describes a group or theme. It answers "why" or "how" questions. Examples of qualitative data include photographs, diary entries, audio/video recordings, documents (ex: public records, calendars, articles), and case studies.
- Quantitative evidence counts or measures the amount of something. It asks "how many," "how often," or "how much." Some examples of quantitative evidence are height, temperature, amounts of time, distance, and length.
It is natural to be confident about opinions. While researching topics, be aware of bias. Don't "cherry-pick" evidence to make an opinion look more substantial than it is, or it will be quickly discredited by someone knowledgeable on the subject.
Types of Logic and Common Logical Fallacies
When taking an exam and required to write an argumentative essay, there may not be any sources available to defend a position. Using logic to formulate an argument helps guarantee it will be understandable and reliable.
Logic uses pathways to determine "good" and "bad" reasoning by examining parts of a declarative sentence to decide whether it's true or false. A logical argument is consistent (doesn't contradict itself), sound (supports its conclusion by using valid points), and complete (provable within itself).
A declarative is a sentence that makes a statement about something.
Rhetorical fallacies (also called logical fallacies) are reasoning mistakes people often make. Watch out for these logical fallacies:
- Straw-man Argument : Twists an argument into an overly simplified version of itself. An example of a straw man fallacy is saying evolution isn't real because humans evolved from monkeys, and monkeys still exist.
- Bandwagon Fallacy: Connects validity with popularity. Just because three out of four people prefer a particular soap brand doesn't mean it cleans the best.
- Faulty Causality Fallacy: Implies that because two things share a connection, one caused the other to happen. False logic would conclude that because someone wore a new shirt when they got into a car accident, the new shirt caused the accident.
- Argument From Authority Fallacy: This can happen when someone in a position of power makes claims about subjects outside their area of expertise. For example, if a veterinarian specializing in livestock wants to perform surgery on someone's pet boa constrictor, they should probably get a second opinion .
The terms "argumentative" and "persuasive" are often used interchangeably, but they are technically two different types of essays. Both argumentative and persuasive essays use evidence and logic to defend a position.
However, a persuasive essay also uses emotion to appeal to the audience. For example, if the topic were gun control, an argumentative essay would examine the issue and present facts to prove its claim. A persuasive essay would present facts and include how safe (or unsafe) guns make people feel.
Argumentative Essay Topics
Argumentative essays can be written about any polarized subject, meaning an issue that contains opposing ideas. Typical argumentative essay topic ideas fall into many categories, including current events, politics, history, and culture. Here are a few topic ideas:
- Should we look at old media through the eyes of the time or era it was created?
- Is it unethical to eat meat?
- Should the United States have used atomic bombs on Japan?
- Should parents limit screen time?
- Should the United States accept more refugees from the southern border?
Argumentative Essay Format
An effective argumentative essay is made up of five key components:
- A claim statement that can be proven or disproven. (What are the opinions that surround this issue?)
- Reasons that support the claim because they are supported by evidence. (What led someone to think this way?)
- Verifiable evidence that backs the position. (What proves the claim is valid?)
- Acknowledgement of the opposing viewpoint or counterclaim. (What does the opposite side think?)
- Rebuttals that explain how the counterclaim is incorrect. (How is their logic faulty?)
Qualifying the other side means parts of the opposing argument can't be dismissed entirely. In this case, list concessions that recognize their validity but focus on the areas they are incorrect. Words like "but" and "except" are commonly used in connection with concessions.
An argumentative essay will look like a typical essay and include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Follow the standard and begin the introduction with a hook, such as a shocking statistic or anecdote, to engage the reader.
The conclusion will usually reiterate the thesis, summarize the essay in response to the evidence provided, and possibly ask the audience to act on the issue's behalf. However, there are a couple of variations to experiment with.
When something is reiterated, it is repeated to emphasize it or make it more clear.
The Aristotelian Method is classic and straightforward. It uses a clear pathway of logic and reason to state its case. To use this form in an argumentative essay, the first thing to do is introduce the argument. Secondly, spell out its reasons. Next, explain and refute the opposing viewpoint, then provide proof. Finally, form a conclusion.
The Toulmin Method helps disprove an argument or discuss a complex issue. Start by stating the claim clearly and concisely. Next, use evidence to ground the reasons. After that, express the warrant, or assumption, that connects the claim to the reasons. Back the claim with a specific example.
The Rogerian Method is used when both sides have valid points, or the audience could support either side. Begin with an explanation of the issue. Next, discuss how the other side thinks, including their valid points. Then, assert the claim and proof. Summarize the argument by compromising to bring both sides together—end by offering an equalized conclusion.
While disproving the other side, avoid insults and a superior tone. All these will accomplish is making the argument look weak. In addition, avoid using absolutes such as "always" or "never" because they are rarely the case, so credibility will be lost.
Argumentative Essay Outline
A strong thesis statement is the cornerstone of an effective argumentative essay. If you want your position taken seriously, you need to provide a rational argument. One way to organize thoughts into a coherent claim is to brainstorm. Questions to ask include:
- How does this affect me and others?
- Why is this important?
- Are there any solutions to this issue?
- What will happen if nothing (or something) is done about this?
Similar to how a math problem can be checked by solving it in reverse, the validity of reasoning can be checked by anticipating how the other side will disagree. Arguments while alone in the shower — it's your time to shine! Go through reasons one by one and challenge them to answer "because" in a credible way.
Once everything is figured out, use the outline to play around with the argumentative essay structure. It's much less frustrating to spend some time on the organizational flow of an essay before writing than to realize halfway through constructing the essay that something should have been put in a different spot, and it saves time while proofreading, so win-win. Formulate the outline to look like this:
B. Introduce Topic and Relate it to the Hook
II. Body Paragraphs (number of paragraphs included and organized to suit your needs)
A. Summarize Main Points
B. Restate Thesis
C. Final Thought Based on Evidence Presented/Call to Action
Argumentative Essay Example
The included sample argumentative essay is an abbreviated example of an asserted claim formatted into the Aristotelian Method:
A new mid-range sofa costs between $1000 and $3000. 1 Most likely, a person protects their investment by applying a stain guard, but having a pet cat can pose its own threat. It's frustrating when a cat decides to start scratching on the furniture, and some people decide the best way to avoid it is to have their cats declawed. However, declawing cats is painful for them and can eventually lead to health and behavioral issues.
The reader knows what to expect from the article because the thesis claim clearly explains its stance.
While declawing cats used to seem like an easy solution for problem scratching behavior, veterinarians have become more outspoken about its negative aspects for the past decade or so. To declaw a cat, they remove a portion of the cat's bone, which is comparable to removing the tips of a person's fingers. According to the American Association of Feline Practitioners, it results in lasting nerve pain that can increase over time, cause infection, or interfere with their ability to walk .2 Rather than performing life-altering elective surgery on a pet, other options are available. Trimming the cat's nails and teaching it to use a scratching post will usually protect belongings from a cat's natural scratching behavior.
The body paragraph includes a claim , evidence , and reason.
A valid argument can be made that some cats are stubborn and refuse to use a scratching post . However, it's a pet owner's responsibility to take the time to try to figure out what is causing a cat to act out destructively. The cat could have an undiagnosed health issue, or it could just take a bit of extra work to persuade the cat to choose the scratching post over the arm of the expensive couch. A point to consider is the possibility that the declawed cat will not want to use its litterbox because scratching the litter causes discomfort, so the pet owner could be creating an even bigger behavioral problem down the road. 3
The body paragraph anticipates the opposing side's counterclaim . The author offers a rebuttal using evidence .
Indeed, a cat can't claw furniture if it doesn't have claws. However, there are multiple ways to steer a cat's inborn desire to scratch in a suitable direction. Making sure the cat has ways to keep itself occupied to prevent boredom and using a pheromonal diffuser to lower its stress level could deter the cat from scratching things it shouldn't. The alternative is to commit to caring for a cat with long-term nerve pain and potentially worse behavioral difficulties.
The conclusion offers solutions and restates the thesis claim as a consequence.
What words were used in the sample argumentative essay to avoid using certainties that could weaken the author's credibility? Are there any logical fallacies?
Argumentative Essay - Key takeaways
Unlike a persuasive essay that uses emotion to sway its audience, an argumentative essay uses logic and reason to state its case.
Evidence used to support your opinion in an argumentative essay can be grouped as qualitative or quantitative.
A logical argument is consistent and uses valid points.
Effective argumentative essays contain five key components: a claim, reasons, evidence, a counterclaim, and a rebuttal.
Ask yourself questions and challenge your beliefs to construct a compelling argument.
1 Benedetti, Ginevra. "How Much Should I Spend on a Sofa? Price Up the Perfect Sofa to Last You a Lifetime." H omesandgardens. 2021.
2 American Association of Feline Practitioners. "2017 Declawing Statement ." C atvets. 2017.
Frequently Asked Questions about Argumentative Essay
--> what is an argumentative essay.
An argumentative essay relies on evidence and logic to prove that a viewpoint is valid or invalid or to convince an audience to take action.
--> What are the five parts of an argumentative essay?
The five parts of an argumentative essay are its claim, reasons, evidence, counterclaim, and rebuttal.
--> What is an example of an argumentative essay?
An example of an argumentative essay is "The Pleasure Principle" by Phillip Larkin
--> What are some topic ideas for an argumentative essay?
An argumentative essay can be written about any polarized subject, such as:
- Should we look at old media through the eyes of when it was created?
--> How do you format an argumentative essay?
An argumentative essay can be structured into three formats:
Final Argumentative Essay Quiz
Argumentative essay quiz - teste dein wissen.
According to Aristotle, which of the following is NOT a way to present an argument
Which other type of argument would be most closely related to logos?
Which of the following is not a necessary component of a good argument?
There is only one possible answer or solution
How many steps are there in the basic structure of an argument?
How is the Rogerian method of argument different from the others?
The Rogerian method of argument does not try to convince the audience of their stance, and instead looks for common ground.
What is the foundation of the argument when writing an essay?
Of the following, which is not a recommended strategy for removing bias from an argument?
Only talk about unimportant things
What is required to find support for an argument?
Research on the subject
Which step to the basic argument structure is missing?
Which method of argument is best used to show the facts of an argument?
In a Toulmin-style argument, what is necessary to support the claim?
Grounds (or evidence)
Which component of an Artistotelian argument appeals to the emotions of the audience?
What is the definition of an argument?
An argument is a reason for either supporting or challenging a topic under discussion.
What is missing if an argument is based solely on someone's opinion?
What is the goal of the Rogerian method of argument?
To find common ground, or consensus on the subject
What is an emotional argument?
An emotional argument is a means by which an audience might be persuaded of a particular argument by appealing to commonly held emotions.
How could you avoid an emotional argument?
Avoid emotional arguments by focusing on evidence and concrete details of the argument.
Which is an example of a negative emotion?
Which of the following is most closely related to emotional arguments?
True or false, it is possible to use a combination of ethos, logos and pathos in one single argument.
Which of the following is NOT a cognitive faculty?
What does an emotional argument add to an argumentative essay?
It makes the topic feel more personal to the audience
Why might you want to avoid emotional arguments?
Avoid emotional appeals in instances where the audience might have extremely opposing views and/ or emotional exhaustion
What are the two things to do/ consider before crafting your emotional argument?
- Identify your intended audience
- Understand commonly held emotions on the topic
Which emotional appeal technique uses words and phrases that appeal to the five senses of your audience?
Vivid details and imagery
What should you do if you cannot identify an opportunity for an emotional argument in your essay?
Which prewriting exercise involves mapping out your argument, either with word trees or word association?
Which philosopher outlined the three methods of persuasion?
Finish the sentence: Emotional arguments are an effective tool for writing ________ essays.
Which of the following focuses most on the reader?
What is an Argumentative Essay?
An Argumentative essay relies on evidence and logic to prove that a viewpoint is valid or invalid or to convince an audience to take action.
How are an argumentative and persuasive essay different?
An argumentative and persuasive essay are different because, in addition to using logic and evidence, a persuasive essay uses emotion to sway its audience.
What are the five parts of an argumentative essay?
All of the above
True or False: You should always use words like "all" or "everyone" to show the audience you have a strong argument.
False: Using certainties in your argument is an opportunity for the other side to discredit your reasoning.
What should you do if the other side has valid points?
If there are valid points to the opposing view, acknowledge (qualify) them using concessions.
What are the three argumentative essay formats?
True or False: If most people agree with something, it's a valid argument.
False: Relying on popularity to prove validity is a logical fallacy known as the Bandwagon Fallacy.
True or False: You should allow evidence to disprove the other side rather than sarcasm or insults.
True: Using an unprofessional tone when disproving a different viewpoint damages your credibility.
What is it called when someone twists your argument into a simplified version of itself?
A Strawman Fallacy twists an argument into a simplified version of itself.
How does asking yourself questions and questioning your beliefs help?
Asking yourself questions and questioning your beliefs helps you write a compelling claim.
What is an ethical argument?
An argument based on ethics that evaluates whether an idea is morally right or wrong
What are ethics?
Moral principles that guide a person's behavior and beliefs
What are ethical principles?
Rules which govern behavior and decision-making
What are two types of ethical arguments?
Ethical arguments based on principles and ethical arguments based on consequences
Which of the following is NOT an ethical argument based on principles?
Physician-assisted suicide is right because it leads to the following positive consequences: individuals have more control over end-of-life decisions and physicians can provide care better aligned with the patient’s quality of life.
Which of the following is an argument based on principles?
Physician-assisted suicide is wrong because it violates Kant’s moral theory about human life.
Which of the following is NOT used to make ethical arguments from principles?
What is the correct reason an ethical argument based on consequences would be effective for a diverse audience?
An ethical argument based on consequences will not alienate audience members who have different moral beliefs.
An ethical argument based on principles would be most effective to which type of audience?
An ethical argument based on principles will be most effective to audience members who share similar moral beliefs.
Which of the following statements is NOT written as an ethical argument?
Public health officials should study the effects of gun control regulations to gain data on how these regulations impact public health.
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How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Easy Guide with Tips and Examples
What Is an Argumentative Essay
Argumentative essays involve a strong stance on an issue to sway the reader toward the author's viewpoint. This differs from a persuasive essay, which relies more on the writer's emotions and views.
This kind of essay typically necessitates a deep study of argumentative essay topics and is structured in three main parts consisting of five paragraphs: one opening, three body, and one closing. Argumentative essays aim to get the reader to agree with the thesis statement, which is backed by evidence, facts, and data. At that point, you should specify your main thought or thesis statement while considering this. It will be the focus of attention for whatever comes after this juncture.
A student is given this kind of paper to practice debating. As a result, it may significantly impact a person's ability to speak in front of an audience later in life. Concentrating on facts and information while writing an argumentative essay rather than your opinions or preferences is crucial. The author may choose to present opposing views equally or to favor one over the other. Nevertheless, the thesis must contain all the main arguments and rebuttals discussed in the paper. It is similar to a political dialogue with oneself in many aspects. Now that you understand what is an argumentative essay let's browse through more interesting details that make up an argumentative essay.
Elements of an Argumentative Essay
The key elements of an argument include the following:
1. Problem Statement - Academic papers often begin with an unanswered question, a contradiction, or an explanation of a crucial concept. This is standard practice in academic writing to grab the reader's attention, highlight the importance of the study, and identify the literature to which the study will add.
2. Literature Review - After stating the problem, describe a gap in the literature that the research is trying to fill. This gap can be an unresolved question, a paradox, a missing piece of information, a theoretical inconsistency, or any other flaw in the existing understanding of the phenomenon in question.
3. The Research Focus - A statement describing the specific emphasis of the research is included after the literature review. This might be expressed in various ways, such as a question, a hypothesis, or—more frequently—a declaration of the research's goals or objectives.
4. Method and Methodology - The approach and methodology explain how you would answer the inquiry or how you achieved your results. Normally, the argumentative essay introduction and abstract concisely summarize the procedure and methodology. Here you outline your extensive research process, present conclusions, and explain why these steps were essential for the project. You should aim to concisely provide the most pertinent information using a few terms.
5. Results/Evidence - You're informing the reader of what you discovered. Evidence may be arranged according to methodological components, major topics, theories, concepts, case studies, historical eras, laws, literary genres, contexts, geographic regions, or other categories. The discussion must be directly related to the thesis's issue or argument, which is crucial.
6. Discussion and Conclusion - The last part of the storyline involves providing the answer to the inquiry or summarizing the argument and the primary proof used to validate it. This is then followed by a review of the importance of the research and the implications that result from it.
How to Write an Argumentative Essay with Steps
For an argumentative essay to be effective, having more than one opinion isn't enough. A strong stance won't be impactful if improperly organized and supported with sound reasons and facts. With this easy-to-follow guide, let us discover how to write an argumentative essay tailored to your target audience!
In the meantime, you can always ask us - ' write essay for me ' without putting in your effort!
Choose Your Research Sources for Your Argumentative Essay
Researching the available literature in-depth is necessary for an argumentative essay. Additionally, they call for empirical study, where a writer gathers the data through the following techniques.
Present your readers with dependable sources that back up your assertions. It's wise to read material from both sides of the subject. For the most current data, try and use sources released within the last two decades unless there is a distinct reason why not. Here are some good sources to look at:
- Books produced by scholarly presses
- Scholarly journals
- Academic resources such as EBSCO and JSTOR
- Nationally distributed publications like The New York Times
And if you struggle with finding good academic sources, feel free to use our research paper help !
Consider the Argumentative Essay Outline
As the argumentative essay structure is contingent upon its content and argument, each essay will have its particular structural difficulties. However, a fundamental part of the writing process is honing the ability to put forth an argument that is both convincing and lucid. Let's take a look at the argumentative essay format:
Start with the main claim in the introduction – The core thesis you want to support. Establishing your claim is one of the most crucial components of any academic work, whether a movie review essay , a presentation, a dissertation, a research paper, or a thesis. A strong assertion should be audacious, captivating, and, most crucially, debatable.
Present the proofs in the body paragraphs - Facts, data, sources, and examples must be provided as evidence and correctly connected. It is essential to acknowledge that just because there is evidence, it does not necessarily make the proposition true. You must contribute some effort to convince your reader of the relationship between the data and your reasoning.
Find opposing arguments and respond to them - Taking other perspectives into account and looking for potential objections is also essential. We may favor ideas that endorse our views, which can result in one-sided or faulty arguments. If we take the time to actively consider opposing opinions and incorporate them into our own thinking, we can create arguments with more depth and complexity.
Conclusion - The last piece of your argumentative essay outline is the conclusion, which should be an informed summary of the argument, using language that is in line with the reliability of your discoveries. You may use this as a chance to make predictions or recommendations, offer some practical applications, or identify potential further research.
Add Transitions within Argumentative Essay Paragraphs
At this point, you should have at least three strong body paragraphs, each containing 3-5 pieces of supporting evidence and your personal analysis/synthesis. It's a good idea to ensure that the paragraph's topic sentences still reflect the rest of the content. And consider the relationship between these arguments.
If needed, reorganize your paragraphs for the most logical order. To take your entire essay to the next level, add some sentences at the beginning or end of each paragraph to link the argumentative essay ideas together.
Add Bibliography to Your Argumentative Essay
See what bibliographic style your teacher wants you to use. Generally, the instructions will include 'MLA style,' 'APA,' etc., or they will give you their own rules.
These guidelines will specify how to structure your 'works cited' section after your essay with the complete bibliographic information and how to format your citations in the body of your essay.
Revise Your Final Argumentative Essay
As you are editing, look through your work from start to finish. Does everything make sense? Are there any quotations or paraphrases that don't have a context? Are there any sudden changes in the subject? Fix it up!
Verify your thesis statement twice, as your essay's success hinges on the clarity of this statement, and without a clear thesis, it is difficult to write an outstanding essay. Make sure it is:
- Debatable because someone could disagree with this assertion notwithstanding the facts.
- Narrow & specific: Avoids a stance that is too wide to support.
- Complex: demonstrates your profound thought processes by taking into account the qualifiers and/or objections in your argument.
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3 Ways to Approach Argumentative Writing
Classical Approach - This is the most common approach and where you should:
- Introduce your issue. Most lecturers will want you to deliver a strong thesis statement after your introductory paragraph. The goal is to introduce your main points to your audience before delving further.
- Explain the problem in detail. Provide the reasons why a certain course of action or thinking is required to make your case. This will happen throughout several sentences.
- Address the opposition. Briefly describe the opposing viewpoint in a few paragraphs. Make each argument against the adversary.
- Provide your proof. After addressing the opposing viewpoint, explain why your side is superior.
- Present your conclusion. Reiterate your core claim or thesis and highlight the important aspects of your argument in your conclusion. This is a good time to urge your audience to act if you advocate for change. Inform them of the changes they might make.
Rogerian Approach - The Rogerian method works well for argumentative pieces on contentious issues like global warming, gender identity, and philosophical problems. In contrast to other approaches, there is no set framework to adhere to. Instead, it involves giving both sides of an argument equal weight when presenting the facts. A broader view is essential, and finding a compromise is more significant than finding a solution.
Toulmin Approach - Polemical debates can benefit greatly from this tactic. It seeks to reduce pointless debates by locating areas of agreement within a discussion. For instance, if your topic is whether animal testing is banned, you would need to examine the most important points on both sides of the debate. You may discuss the benefits and drawbacks here.
Good Argumentative Essay Topics
Here are some good argumentative essay topics from our dissertation writing services you can consider for your next assignment:
- Are virtual personalities expected to adhere to the same ethical codes as human influencers?
- Should businesses be mandated to offer retraining and educational opportunities for workers that have been laid off?
- Do social media networks bear any responsibility for the harm caused to their users?
- Is remote work a workable solution for contemporary workplaces?
- Is gene editing appropriate to remove inherited illnesses or improve physical characteristics?
- Is it wise to prioritize sustainable agriculture and plant-based diets to lessen carbon emissions?
- Who should be held liable for incidents involving autonomous cars?
- Are gig workers deserving of the same advantages and security as regular workers?
- Does playing violent video games correlate with aggressive behavior in children and adolescents?
- Should corporations be permitted to secure exclusive rights to genes and genetic data for commercial gain?
Read also an informative article about the movie review essay .
Argumentative Essay Examples
Below you can find some good argumentative essay examples from our argumentative essay writer . The first essay talks about the value that comes with the freedom of being able to strike for public workers.
Argumentative Essay Example: Should Public Workers be Allowed to Strike?
Say goodbye to 'stress at work' and welcome the 'freedom to express yourself.' Most public workers are denied their right to expression even after being exposed to bad working conditions and rights violations. These violations deny them the morale to perform well in their duties. Enabling workers to strike motivates them to work since it encourages them to speak out whenever they feel their rights, safety, and/or regulations have been compromised. Countries across the globe should always allow public workers to strike.
The second essay from our dissertation writing services discusses the importance of economic equality in a nation, alongside possible repercussions and potential threats if not met.
At this point, you should be well aware of the argumentative essay definition and the ways you can structure it perfectly. You might even have already composed your argumentative essay and would like to have it evaluated. In this case, don't hesitate to contact us. We can review your academic essays and help you gain the grade you deserve. If you haven't written it yet, our essay writing service can assist you. Even if you want to know how to write an autobiography , all you need to do is submit your essay writing help request, and we'll take care of it in a flash!
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