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Radhicka Kapoor

February 21st, 2022, the mounting challenge of youth unemployment in india.

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Last month, India’s job crisis gained world attention when young applicants rioted against the alleged lack of transparency in the recruitment process of Indian Railways – one of the biggest employers in the country. Despite having a very large working-age population, and even during periods of marked economic growth, India has long suffered from intractable youth unemployment, which has been made worse by the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on key labour statistics, Radhicka Kapoor draws out the structural nature of the problem, and suggests reforms needed to correct this anomaly if India is to reap its long-promised demographic dividend. 

The violence that erupted recently in the populous states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) as angry job aspirants protested against the Ministry of Railways’ recruitment examination has brought India’s job crisis to the centre of the economic policy debate in the country. However, this crisis is not new. It has been long in the making.

In 2017–18, the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), a household employment–unemployment survey providing annual estimates on key labour market indicators, reported a 45-year high in India’s open unemployment rate of 6.1%.  What was particularly alarming was that this statistic was largely a consequence of high unemployment amongst the youth, i.e. those in the 15–29 age bracket. The aggregate youth unemployment rate stood at 17.8% and has remained at above 15% in the period 2017–2020.

While the youth unemployment rates observed over the last three years are considerably higher than those witnessed ever before, it is noteworthy that even in earlier employment–unemployment surveys, the unemployment rate amongst the youth has been significantly greater than all other age groups (Figure 1).

essay on youth unemployment in india

Source: Data from PLFS and NSS Employment–Unemployment Surveys (several years)

What is more, a disaggregated analysis of trends across the youth by education levels shows that unemployment rates rise with education levels. In 2018–19, before the pandemic struck, the unemployment rate amongst the educated youth (defined as those having secondary education and above) stood at 24.5% compared to 7% amongst those with primary education only.

Given these statistics, it is no surprise that the fact of highly-qualified candidates applying for low-level jobs was one of the drivers of the recent disturbances in U.P. and Bihar. Amongst the 12.5 million candidates, who had applied for the 35,281 job openings in ‘non-technical popular categories’ (typically considered low-end jobs), many had college degrees. In fact, some of the protesting applicants felt that the Railways were biased towards candidates with college degrees, shortlisting them even for jobs where the minimum requirement was lower. The widespread joblessness amongst the educated youth, therefore, created fears amongst the less educated that they would be crowded out of even low-end jobs.

The phenomenon of higher unemployment amongst the educated youth is not a recent phenomenon. A time series analysis of earlier employment–unemployment surveys shows that the educated youth have typically reported a higher unemployment rate than other age- and educational-groups.  As far back as1959, Professor K.N. Raj had pointed to the high open unemployment rate amongst the educated youth and cautioned that India’s future lay in the quality of jobs generated for its youth.   The challenge has dramatically exacerbated over time as the Indian economy has failed to generate adequate employment opportunities outside the agriculture sector for its rapidly rising young population, which has been becoming increasingly educated over time.

However, it is important to note that the clamour for Railways’ jobs is not just about the disillusionment amongst the youth due to their inability to find jobs. It is also about their inability to find ‘good jobs’ that offer them security of tenure, earning stability, access to social protection schemes and career advancement opportunities. In 2018, too,19 million candidates had applied for 63,000 vacancies with the Indian Railways .

Given the nature and quality of youth employment, this is unsurprising.  Using the most recent PLFS data for the pre-pandemic period (2018–19), it is observed that over one-fourth of employed youth were engaged as casual labour (Figure 2). One-fifth were working as unpaid family workers/helpers in their household enterprises – they were working full- or part-time but did not receive any regular salary or wages in return for the work performed. Only 10% were engaged in regular salaried work that provided access to social security benefit (referred to as regular formal employment).

Jobs which provided security of tenure were few and far between. Amongst the youth engaged in regular salaried work, over 78.3% had no written contract and a mere 11.3% had contracts for more than three years. In contrast, in the older cohort of 30–59 years, the quality of regular salaried work was comparatively better, with the share of regular salaried workers who had no written contracts was 65.6%, while the share of those who had contracts for more than three years was 26.5%.

essay on youth unemployment in india

Source: Data from PLFS (2018-19)

Note:* a person who is casually engaged in others’ farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and, in return, receives wages according to the terms of the daily, or periodic, work contract is considered casual labour..

Given the precarious nature of their job contracts, it is unsurprising that post-pandemic the youth have borne a disproportionate burden of the job losses. Many of them have found themselves pushed to work as unpaid family helpers with the share of this group of workers in 2019–20 rising to 25.3% – a 3.5 percentage point increase over the previous year.

Significantly, the two states, Bihar and U.P., where the violence was witnessed account for the largest share of youth in India – Bihar accounted for 7.9% and U.P. for 17.2%  of all 15–29 year olds in India. However, both states perform particularly poorly in terms of quality of employment. In Bihar, a mere 9.6% of the youth had regular salaried jobs. In U.P., the corresponding share was 15.2%. What is more, 58.4% and 65.7% of the youth in Bihar and U.P. respectively were self-employed, working predominantly in agriculture. The lack of adequate employment opportunities outside the agriculture sector, which is reflected in the low shares of employment in the industrial sector (particularly the manufacturing sector which accounts for only 4.75% of total employment  in Bihar and 11.1% in U.P.), have compelled many frustrated job-seekers to look for government jobs.

The above facts pertain to only those individuals who are in the labour force and are actively seeking employment. They, therefore, provide only a partial view of the extent of challenges faced by the youth in India. A key statistic to examine for this cohort is the share of youth who are Not engaged in Education, Employment or Training (NEET), i.e. those who are not engaged in any productive activity.

In 2018–19, an alarming 34.5% of the youth were in the NEET category. Significantly, this ratio has been over 30% in all employment–unemployment surveys since 1999–2000 suggesting that almost one-third of India’s young are idling away their lives indulging in what Craig Jeffrey described as  “timepass” (just passing time) . These trends appear to be a consequence of multiple factors.

One, there are not enough quality jobs being created for the young. Two, they have very few incentives or they face too high constraints to be in education and training. And three, the transition from school to work is by no means smooth.

There is no silver bullet for addressing these challenges. However, as India’s young seem dangerously out of patience in their wait for decent and gainful employment, policy support to young people including employment services, active labour market programmes (such as hiring subsidies) and entrepreneurship schemes need to be examined urgently.  The inability of young adults to secure  good jobs at the cusp of their career is not only demotivating and discouraging for them but can also  lead  to a scarring effect on their career with a higher likelihood of being unemployed later in life and a wage penalty. For society, growing youth unrest may be the price to pay.

Banner Image: Photo by Aarón Blanco Tejedor on Unsplash .

The views expressed here are those of the author and not of the ‘South Asia @ LSE’ blog, the LSE South Asia Centre, or the London School of Economics and Political Science.

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About the author

essay on youth unemployment in india

Dr Radhicka Kapoor is a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER). Prior to joining ICRIER, she worked at the Planning Commission and at the International Labour Organization, Geneva. Her broad areas of research interests include poverty and inequality, labour economics and industrial performance. She holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the London School of Economics, a Masters degree from Cambridge University and a Bachelor's degree from St. Stephens College, University of Delhi.

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  • Published: 11 August 2022

Youth Employment and Unemployment in India: Issues and Challenges

  • Alakh N. Sharma 1 , 2  

The Indian Journal of Labour Economics volume  65 ,  pages 237–267 ( 2022 ) Cite this article

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The issue of youth employment is a global challenge. In India it has emerged increasingly as a daunting challenge over the years. This paper looks into various dimensions of the youth employment and unemployment in terms of their labour market characteristics. The challenge is particularly analysed in terms of ongoing demographic transition, regional diversities and changing pattern of labour markets. It also provides some policy pointers to address the challenge.

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Source : Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections, 2020, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India

essay on youth unemployment in india

Source: PLFS, 2019–20, NSSO

essay on youth unemployment in india

Source: EUS and PLFS, NSSO, 1983, 1993–94, 2011–12 and 2019–20

essay on youth unemployment in india

Source : EUS and PLFS, NSSO, 2011–12 and 2019–20

: Occupation/skill level is divided into four broad categories using NCO (National Classification of Occupations) at one digit:

I: Typically involves the performance of simple and routine physical or manual tasks (NCO code 9- Elementary Occupations or unskilled such as domestic helpers, cleaners, street vendors and garbage collectors etc.).

II: Typically involves the performance of tasks such as operating a machinery and electronic equipment, driving vehicles, maintenance and repair of electrical and mechanical equipment and manipulation, ordering and storage information (NCO code 4-8, low skilled as clerical jobs, service workers, shop and market sales workers, craft and related trade workers, etc.).

III: Typically involves performance of complex technical and practical tasks that require an extensive body of factual, technical and procedural knowledge in a specialized field (NCO code 3, as professional and technical associates); and.

IV: Typically involves the performance of tasks that require complex problem solving, decision making and creativity based on an extensive body of theoretical and factual knowledge in a specialised field (NCO 2 as professional and Technicians).

The concept of skill level was not applied in the case of NCO code 1 as legislators and managers as skills for executing task and duties of these occupations varied to such an extent that it was not feasible to link them with any of the four broad skill levels. (OECD. OECD Employment Outlook 2014; National Classification of Occupations, 2015, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India 1.).

The skills are defined based on two classifications, one by using number of years of formal education, and another, based on occupations (1 digit NCO – 04) in India.

(i) Skill based on formal years of schooling: In the Indian context, the skills necessary to perform the tasks and duties of a given job can be acquired not only through formal education but also through informal training and experience. The four skill levels thus defined for NCO – 04 vis-à-vis the skill levels defined in ISCO – 88 are as.

I: Up to 10 years of formal education and/or informal skills;

II: 11–13 years of formal education;

III: 14–15 years of formal education; and.

IV: More than 15 years of formal education.,

(ii) Skill based on occupations or task performed: In keeping with the skill levels defined above to suit the Indian conditions, the following four divisions are classified in tune with the defined skill levels to accommodate occupations (NCO code 1 digit) same as given in Table 6 as.

I: Typically involves the performance of simple and routine physical or manual tasks (NCO code 9- Elementary Occupations or unskilled such as such as domestic helpers, cleaners, street vendors and garbage collectors etc.); II: Typically involves the performance of tasks such as operating a machinery and electronic equipment, driving vehicles, maintenance and repair of electrical and mechanical equipment and manipulation, ordering and storage information (NCO code 4-8, low skilled as clerical jobs, service workers, shop and market sales workers, craft and related trade workers etc.);

III: Typically involves performance of complex technical and practical tasks that require an extensive body of factual, technical and procedural knowledge in a specialised field (NCO code 3, as professional and technical associates); and.

IV: Typically involves the performance of tasks that require complex problem solving, decision making and creativity based on an extensive body of theoretical and factual knowledge in a specialised field (NCO 2 as professional and technicians).

Skill Mismatch: The skill-mismatch arises by the difference between type (i) and type (ii), when workers skill level based on education is higher than skill level based on occupation (workers are overeducated); when workers skill level based on education is lower than the skill level based on occupation (workers are undereducated), and if no difference in both level of skills (workers have matching skill). Source: (OECD. OECD Employment Outlook 2014; National Classification of Occupations, 2015, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India).

This is shown by India Skill Report 2021, prepared by Wheebox, in partnership with Tagged, CII, AICTI, AIU and UNDP.

Informal employment consists of those working in the informal enterprises or households, excluding regular workers with social security benefits, and the workers in the formal sector without any employment/social security benefits provided by the employers (NCEUS 2007 ).

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Youth Unemployment in India

 “A man willing to work, and unable to find work, is perhaps the saddest sight that fortune’s inequality exhibits under the sun. ” “You take my life when you take the means whereby I live. ” These observations by Thomas Carlyle and William Shakespeare respectively reflect what youth unemployment means to me.

As I reflect on youth unemployment, several thoughts and examples cross my mind. Here are a few: Almost every week one reads in newspapers in India, my country, about farmers committing suicide due to a high level of indebtedness on the one hand and lack of farm unemployment on the other. Many are in their youth. There was a very touching story about a young man who lost his job due to the global meltdown. He did not have the heart to tell his family, friends or neighbors about the sad development.

He would therefore, leave his home everyday at the normal time in the morning with his brief case, spend the day in a garden and return in the evening. There is an increasing number of young patients visiting psychiatrists for clinical depression caused by unemployment.

In recent times, many college graduates have volunteered to work absolutely free in private companies. 

Their objective, in the absence of a paying job, is to get some experience and add to their resumes so that when the opportunities of paying jobs arise, they have a better chance than others. – Youth unemployment is an area of very serious concern to South Asia, India (which is the largest country in South Asia) and to me and my generation. The impact of unemployment among the young is described here in the first part of this essay. 

GDP Impact: It is an established economic reality that the size of the workforce directly impacts a country’s GDP. Not only does the work force produce manufactured goods or services or agricultural produce in direct proportion, but also brings in its wake increasing purchasing power, which in turn, fuels economic growth. Thus unemployment contributes to a reduction in the potential which exists in spurring a country’s GDP. 

Psychological effect: George Bernard Shaw wrote, “A man who has no office to go to- I don’t care who he is- is a trial of which you can have no conception. ” Young men and women, who have put in a decade or two in schools and colleges, have dreams and aspirations. These are dreams of securing satisfying jobs following their years of struggle, meeting basic necessities of life (food, clothing, shelter and healthcare), graduating to a life of comfort and dignity and, eventually, enjoying the luxuries of life.

The trauma of seeing their dreams shattered week after week, month after month, can and does lead to deep psychological scars that are very difficult to face at such a young age. These can impact any individual’s self esteem and can lead to clinical depression, as “mind unemployed is mind un-joyed”. Christian Nevell Bovee) Family Support: In a country like India, where the retirement age is low and there is no social security net, very often a family depends on a son or a daughter graduating from school or college to take up employment in order to support the entire family.

When that does not happen, the financial woes are unimaginably sorrowful. Social impact: With growing youth unemployment, the divide between the rich and the poor grows, resulting in social tensions which could affect the entire fabric of a community, province or community. 

Law and order: It has been established that educated unemployed are likely to take to crime- blue collar or white collar crimes- more easily than others. This arises out of the theory that they would have, at some stage of their careers, seen good life, even from a distance, and formed their dreams based thereon. When they fail to see these dreams turn into reality, some turn to crime. 

Social Ills: Youth unemployment also leads to other social ills such as addiction to alcoholism, tobacco and harmful drugs, battering of wives and children. These are the outlets to vent frustration caused by unemployment. 

Effect on health: It is equally easy to visualize that lack of steady income could, apart from the above ills, also lead to inadequate nutrition and adversely affect health of the youth and their families. 

Political instability: When unemployment grows in a community, dissatisfaction with the incumbent Government follows. This, in turn, leads to frequent changes in Governments or formation of unsteady coalitions. Neither is healthy for long term stable economic policies and this situation could lead to a vicious circle of political changes.

As President Franklin D. Roosevelt had stated, “Not only our future economic soundness but the very soundness of our democratic institutions depends on the determination of our government to give employment to idle men. ” Youth unemployment (as also underemployment) therefore means to me, “the saddest sight that fortune’s inequality exhibits under the sun”, as stated at the beginning of this essay. 

Causes: Before discussing my solution and approach to reduce youth unemployment and under employment, it is necessary to explain the causes which have led to such an alarming situation in India in particular and globally in general. The growth in population has obviously outpaced the creation of new job opportunities. While countries such as India and China are now growing at close to or above double digit figures annually, this was not the case in the not-too-distant past, when growth rates of the economies and of the population were both comparable, at around 3% per annum.

This is still the case in some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, it is necessary to realize that the growth rates for new jobs are much lower than the GDP rates for a variety of reasons. GDP growth is driven by growth in Agriculture, Manufacturing and Services. 

Developing countries, such as India and China, have shifted their growth focus from Agriculture (which has the highest job creation potential) to Manufacturing and now to Services. While this leads to impressive growth rates in GDP, job creation lags behind. Another reason for the mismatch between growth in GDP and in unemployment opportunities is increased focus on automation.

While some Governments in developing countries do emphasize the need for employment-oriented technologies, entrepreneurs generally prefer automation, especially if the economic trade off is in its favor. 

Growing concern about labor productivity, accuracy, speed, responsibility, quality, consistency, labor unrest and indiscipline began the march towards automation. This was further accentuated by growth in sizes. For example, farms of one acre in size were not ideal for tractors and hence used men and animals.

However, as farm sizes grew, tractors took their place, displacing both. Similar is the case of robotics in the manufacture of cars or air conditioners or other appliances. This shift in technology has been detrimental to creation of job opportunities. The number of jobs per car produced has dropped dramatically over the years. The advent of computers, especially PCs and laptops, with unimaginable processing speeds and memories, has struck another blow to job opportunities.

For example, just four decades ago, millions of company share certificates of investors globally were handled manually and so were payment of dividends, bank transfers, airline tickets, reservations and payment of utility bills. All this is now fully computerized and has eliminated millions of potential jobs. 

The reason for citing these examples is not to criticize new technologies and automationthese are inevitable and in the overall interest of the global economic progress. However, it is necessary to realize this shift and this reality before exploring options to reduce unemployment. As President John F.

Kennedy had mentioned, “We believe that if men have the talent to invent new machines, that put men out of work, they have the talent to put those men back to work. ” Another major reason for youth unemployment is the mismatch between educational curricula and the skills levels expected from new entrants. In many countries, Governments do not play an active role in bridging this divide, nor does Academia on the one hand and industry on the other. Schools, colleges and universities continue to educate young students year after year without realizing that their readiness to “hit the ground running” in the industrial sector is woefully lacking. 

In many cases they not only need retraining but often even unlearning to be appropriately groomed for their industrial careers. There is also a perception that several jobs need prior experience of many years and this is another reason why youth is not given the consideration it deserves. Will passengers trust a pilot in his mid-20s to fly them through turbulent weather or will they prefer a seasoned pilot in his 40s? Will a bank manager like to finance a young graduate out of college for a new venture or an experienced entrepreneur with a track record of two decades? The same considerations apply when a person looks for a tutor for his/her child.

This bias against youth is further accentuated by the fact that many countries do not have a retirement age. With health consciousness, improved health care and longevity, there are many who continue to be in the active work force until they reach 70 (and even beyond). This limits the turnover in job opportunities and as the demographic profile shifts to youth, the imbalance ecomes glaring during the transition period. Yet another major reason for youth unemployment is the rural –urban divide. 

For a variety of social reasons, such as availability of school and college systems, perceived job opportunities and the glamour attached to cities, youth tend to migrate from rural areas to urban ones, eventually leading to a substantial mismatch between job opportunities and the available candidates. It is somewhat reassuring to know that against these major reasons for youth unemployment and underemployment, there are some redeeming developments. There are various service sector opportunities where youth are preferred due to their energy levels, enthusiasm, willingness to learn, lower financial expectations and long term aspirations.

For example, in the hospitality and transportation sectors, there is a distinct shift in the age profiles and one sees cabin crews, hotel receptionists, call centre agents, computer programmers and administrative assistants who are fresh out of colleges, bringing a new level of enthusiasm to their jobs. 

Approach: The approach that I have chosen addresses some of the basic causes of youth unemployment that have been described above. The area chosen by me (described later in this essay) does not need any significant level of college education- the skill set needed can be imparted to a school or college graduate in a few weeks. Experience, though helpful, is not necessary.

Nor is urban or rural location, since the industry can be location-agnostic to some extent. Moreover, the level of automation is also not significant and can vary depending on the level of comfort of the entrepreneurs. 

The industry selected is Food Processing and the approach is entrepreneurship. Before describing the project and its success in creating hundreds of entrepreneurs and thousands of job opportunities in a locational area, it would be pertinent to present an overview of the Food Processing sector in India and the opportunities that await new entrants. Food Processing in India: India is a major producer of fruits and vegetables-regionally and globally.

It accounts for 51 million tonnes of fruit against the global production of 500 million tonnes annually, being second only to China. Similarly, it grows 72 million tonnes per year of vegetables out of 890 million tonnes worldwide and ranks second in the world. Thus there is an enormous base of fruits and vegetables. With growing consciousness about the contribution to good health and with a substantial part of the population preferring vegetarian diet, fruits and vegetables play an important role in the daily menu. India dominates in certain fruits.

It occupies the first rank in Bananas (22 million tonnes, being 24% of world production) and in Mangoes (13 million tones, 40% of global production). 

Apples, Pineapples, Grapes, Lemons, Guavas, Oranges and Papayas are some of the other fruits that are harvested in India. Major vegetable crops include Potatoes, Tomatoes, Onions, Cabbage and Beans. India, being a vast country, has varying soils, climactic conditions (sub tropical to Mediterranean to cold) and irrigation levels.

Thus it provides opportunities to cultivate a wide range of fruits, vegetables, food grains (such as wheat, rice and cereals) and spices. Moreover, with a coastline of 6000 km (3600 miles), there are huge opportunities in fresh fish and sea foods which also need processing to avoid waste and spoilage. About 490 million poultry, 185 million cattle and 124 million goats form part of the livestock census. While the production of fresh fruits and vegetables is indeed impressive, India lags behind other countries in value addition to these agricultural crops, by way of processing of fresh produce. Although there is enormous potential for processed fruits and vegetables, only 2% of them are processed and the rest are either consumed as fresh produce or are vulnerable to spoilage. 

As against this low level of processing, the US and Brazil process 65% and 70 % of their fruits and vegetables respectively. Even a developing country such as Malaysia converts 70% of its produce into value added processed foods. Here lies the opportunity for Indian youth.

With change in demographics, the youth’s preferences for processed foods, export opportunities in the region, increasing presence of women in the work force who do not have the time or the inclination to cook everyday, and higher disposable income within the 400 million middle class, there is a growing demand for a wide range of processed fruits and vegetables-pulps, juices, concentrates, jams, jellies, marmalades, syrups and squash. They also find application in other processed foods such as ice creams, cakes, yogurts, muffins, candies, breads, cookies, soup mixes, breakfast cereals, pastas, wines and noodles. 

Besides, there is a growing demand for newer categories of foods, such as health foods, nutraceuticals and supplements for special dietary needs. This is thus an enormous opportunity which my project tries to build on in order to solve multiple problems and to convert a liability into an asset. Why is it a liability? Fresh fruits and vegetables need preservation or quick utilization to avoid spoilage.

This means expensive infrastructure- refrigerators, vans, quality roads and rail systems, cold storages at the warehousing and retailing levels and consciousness about processing. A developing country such as India lacks these due to their high capital intensity. Consequently, almost 30% of fruits and vegetables get spoilt, for want of proper post-harvest handling. 

In a country where farmers are poor, most of them below the poverty line, and many in a permanent state of indebtedness, leading to several cases of suicides, this type of spoilage is obviously unaffordable. Even for the national economy, it is not only unacceptable but also a hazard to the ecology and the environment. My focus on developing entrepreneurs to convert agricultural produce into value added processed foods thus addresses all the relevant issues: Youth unemployment and underemployment.

Opportunity to add value to agricultural produce Prevention of wastage of fruits and vegetables Low level of skill sets needed at the entry level Low entry barriers due to low capital investment Favorable environmental impact Flexibility in levels of automation There is yet another major reason that has led me to choose food processing. Here is an area where the entry level capital can be tailored as per the availability of resources. It has the capability of having micro-entrepreneurs on the one hand and the international giants such as Pepsi, Coca Cola, Cadbury (Kraft), Kellogg, Nestle and Unilever on the other. It would be relevant to cite two examples of micro entrepreneurial opportunities here. 

A person starts a roadside portable kiosk on a moveable cart. She sells roasted peanuts, boiled and salted peanuts, boiled potatoes and sweet potatoes and few other similar items. These are prepared fresh and are served to customers as daily snack foods.

Her total investment is only $300 and her daily margin is approximately $30. The venture supports two persons- herself and her partner, who looks after the supply chain and the administrative aspects. The result: a micro-entrepreneurial venture, creating two jobs at a capital outlay of $150 per job and supporting two families. 

The second example: A housewife becomes a micro entrepreneur. She invests $500 in ovens, mixers and similar equipment. She employs three high school graduates-two prepare branded birthday cakes under her supervision and the third handles logistics-raw material supplies and door delivery to customers.

The housewife looks after marketing and brand promotion through the internet and/or the telephone. The venture gives her an average gross margin of $120 per day which is shared among herself and her three employees. The result: A home based venture with a capital outlay of $125 per job that supports four families.

Background of the project

My mother is a qualified Food Technologist and she heads the Department of Food Technology in a Polytechnic. Over the years, she noticed that several of her students (who came to the Polytechnic after ten years of school studies and who go through the three year diploma program) chose to become entrepreneurs and started their own micro/small ventures. (The others took up jobs in larger food processing companies, quality control laboratories, hotels and restaurant chains).

She then felt that she could develop and offer short term Entrepreneurship Development Programs (EDP) suited for those unemployed youth who had the caliber and motivation to start their own food processing ventures. Having seen the potential for food processing, as outlined above, and having had discussions with Provincial and Federal Governments, which were willing to provide grants up to 50% of total investment to micro and small entrepreneurs, she decided to form a team of multi-disciplinary experts and volunteers to develop the EDPs. 

In view of my accounting, financial and administrative background and experience, I was given the responsibility of preparing packages for financial evaluation of ventures, taking up an administrative oversight role and identifying sources of financial support form public and private sources. Our team formulated the EDP plan with strong support from each member (who also became the guest faculty for the EDPs). Project for training entrepreneurs for food processing Against the above backdrop, my team members and I launched the project for providing holistic training to potential entrepreneurs in food processing in order to create youth employment opportunities in our province. 

The objectives of the Entrepreneurship Development Program are as follows: 

  • Providing basic knowledge of project formulation and management, including technology and marketing 
  • Motivating the trainees and instilling confidence in them 
  • Educating them on the opportunities and financial assistance available 
  • Providing escort services to enable them to avail of credit facilities from Banks/Financial Institutions and from developmental organizations. 

The typical duration of the EDP is 4 weeks. There is a follow up phase of 12 months. Each batch has 20-30 trainees.

This ensures personal attention and development of individual projects, which could then have a robust chance of success. 

Course Content: The course content for each EDP includes the following: 

  • Motivational training. 
  • Opportunities available. 
  • Sources of funds, including financial institutions and their schemes. 
  • Market Surveys and identification of projects.
  •  Preparation of Project Reports for Bank financing. 
  • Management of resources (men, materials and money). 
  • Rules and Regulations of local regulators. 
  • Food Laws such as FPO/PFA/ECA/BIS. 
  • Appropriate and latest machinery, including information on manufacturers. 
  • Sourcing (including e-sourcing) of raw materials. 
  • Factory visits and meetings with entrepreneurs. 
  • Market perception, market intelligence and marketing. 
  • Accounts, book keeping and financials (including taxation).
  • Presentations by industry associations on infrastructure, possible areas of concern and approaches for success. 

Eligibility: The admission criteria for the EDP are:  

  • Minimum 12 years of school education 
  • Age limit of 25 years 
  • High motivational level Moreover, the applicants should be unemployed or significantly under employed to be eligible for the EDP. 

The fees range from $ 200 to $1000 depending on the course content and duration. A significant part of this amount is reimbursed by the Provincial and Federal Governments which are committed to creating employment opportunities in food processing in India. The token contribution of the individual participants is essentially meant to ensure their commitment and seriousness.

The fees are meant to cover expenses on guest faculty, residential accommodation and meals for those participants who come from outside Mumbai, publicity and advertising, course materials, traveling costs for factory visits, rental charges for the lecture rooms and follow up expenses. Follow up phase: The follow up phase of an EDP is as important for creating employment opportunities as the EDP itself. It involves: Individual counseling. Assistance in identification of specific viable projects based on locally available raw material or market opportunities in the respective geographical areas of the participants. 

Preparation of project reports. Support in applications for financial assistance. Guidance in securing appropriate infrastructure.

Project management support, including selection of appropriate equipment. Technical troubleshooting after commencement of production. Success metrics: At the end of each EDP, the participants are encouraged to provide detailed feedback, based on identified metrics, to assist in improving future programs. In addition, metrics have been identified to evaluate the efficacy of the EDPs and the follow up phase. By monitoring the ratio of successful projects to participants, we are able to ensure that the objectives of the EDPs are satisfactorily met. 

Progress: I am very happy to report that my team has trained 350 entrepreneurs during the last three years. With an average success rate of 80 % of ventures continuing to operate beyond their first year, and with an average primary and secondary employment level of 7 persons per venture, we believe that our team has created employment opportunities for 1,960 unemployed youth. This excludes tertiary employment of estimated 2,000 young farmers.

Though this may sound modest, here is an example of a core team of 5 professionals with multi-disciplinary expertise, who, while working on other normal assignments, have been able to create livelihood for about 4,000 families within three years. 

Future plans Our next target is to Train the Trainers. Emboldened by the great success of the EDPs, we have commenced work on the trainers’ module, which would help in providing training to people with backgrounds similar to ours. They, in turn, would be expected to offer EDPs all over India, creating a tremendous scale up and multiplying opportunity.

We are also in dialogue with virtual universities to offer these programs to unemployed youth through Television and Internet. This would enable us to access a wider audience, especially in rural areas of India, where lies “the Bottom of the Pyramid”, an expression used by management guru Prof. C. K. Prahlad of the University of Michigan, to describe the relatively untapped potential. 

Acknowledgement: The statistics on India’s food industry have been taken from the article, ‘ Nature’s fruits: Health Capsules’ by Dr. J. S.

Pai, which was published in PFNDAI Bulletin, January 2009.

Cite this page

Youth Unemployment In India. (2017, Sep 25). Retrieved from

"Youth Unemployment In India." , 25 Sep 2017, (2017). Youth Unemployment In India . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 5 Sep. 2023]

"Youth Unemployment In India.", Sep 25, 2017. Accessed September 5, 2023.

"Youth Unemployment In India," , 25-Sep-2017. [Online]. Available: . [Accessed: 5-Sep-2023] (2017). Youth Unemployment In India . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 5-Sep-2023]

Youth Unemployment In India. (2017, Sep 25). Retrieved September 5, 2023 , from

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Unemployment In India Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words

  • Essay on Unemployment in India-

Unemployment is the inability to obtain a job in a well-established organisation despite repeated attempts. This issue has become critical in the twenty-first century due to various issues, such as a lack of human capital, illiteracy, resource availability, crime rate, mental stress, and even the effect of political considerations. One of the biggest concerns in the working field is the exploitation of people, making them lose hope in their profession. They are subjected to unequal wage distribution by their employer.

100 Words Essay on Unemployment in India

200 words essay on unemployment in india, 500 words essay on unemployment in india.

Unemployment In India Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words

Unemployment is when a person is willing to work but cannot find a job. In India, unemployment is a big problem because there are not enough jobs for everyone. Unemployment is a big problem in India that affects many people. It is caused by a lack of job opportunities, a mismatch between the skills of the workforce and the needs of employers, and a rapidly growing population .

The Indian government is trying to help by creating more jobs through schemes like the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and the Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY) . These schemes provide employment opportunities for people living in rural areas and also encourage employers to provide more jobs for new job seekers.

“We need to give importance to skill development because this way we can end unemployment.” - Narendra Modi

Unemployment is a severe problem in India that affects millions of people. It is defined as a situation where a person is able and willing to work but cannot find a job. Unemployment can lead to poverty, social unrest and other negative effects on individuals and society.

Causes Of Unemployment

One of India's leading causes of unemployment is the lack of job opportunities . This can be due to various factors, such as a slow-growing economy, a need for more investment in specific industries, and education and training for certain jobs. Additionally, the population in India is growing rapidly, and there needs to be more jobs to keep up with the increasing number of people entering the workforce.

Another cause of unemployment in India is the mismatch between workforce skills and employers' needs. Many people in India need to gain the skills or education required for the available jobs, making it difficult for them to find work. Furthermore, many jobs in India require specific skills or qualifications that are not widely available. However, the Indian Government is taking steps to tackle unemployment through schemes and policies, as well as by encouraging investment and education.

Unemployment is a significant problem. If a country has an unemployment problem, that country will be unable to expand swiftly. Different difficulties will occur in such a situation; if individuals do not have jobs, they will engage in various improper actions that will damage the country.

Because of unemployment, many young people become involved in criminal activity. The country must bear this. Because of the increase in unemployment, significant crimes such as theft, dacoity, murder, and kidnapping have surged throughout the country. The best way to reduce these atrocities is to employ young people.

Causes of Unemployment in India

Population | India's fast-growing population contributes significantly to the country's high unemployment rate. Because as a country's population grows, so does the number of people working there, and as a result, competition among the people grows, and there is no assurance that everyone will receive a job.

Youth are the country's future, and if they do not have jobs, they will engage in other illicit and criminal actions, which can hinder the country's development. In such a situation, India will have to control its population rate and promote the Startup India scheme. Only then can the problem of unemployment in the country be ended.

Lack of technical education | Most colleges and universities in India still provide traditional, outmoded curricula. Students cannot acquire jobs with these courses in today's market. Because today's world is technical, and if the technical world wants to gain a job, then it is vital to have technical education.

So technical education has to be emphasised in India, and all youngsters have to be provided technical education early so they may acquire jobs easily after growing up.

Economic Growth is Slowing

Because the economy is developing slowly, the country's unemployment problem may worsen. As a result, if the government wants to solve the unemployment problem, it must accelerate economic development; only then will new job opportunities become accessible in the country.

Seasonal business of India: - Much of India's business is seasonally dependent, such as farming, which creates employment prospects once a year.

The decline in the industrial sector: - The country's industrial sector is growing at a glacial pace. As a result, career chances in this industry are restricted.

The decline in the cottage industry: - The cottage industry's output has plummeted, and as a result, many artisans have lost their jobs. In such a case, the country's unemployment crisis will worsen when the number of industries is reduced. As a result, the government must encourage the cottage sector to develop more job prospects and potential.

Increasing unemployment breeds poverty: - People who do not have jobs will commit crimes to meet their necessities.

How to Reduce Unemployment

The measures to address the unemployment problem are as follows:

The government should endeavour to regulate the population so that the number of new entrants to labour can be controlled.

India's education system must be modified to solve the unemployment problem. Education should change its focus from theory to practice.

To provide income and job opportunities, agricultural operations should be diversified into fisheries, livestock husbandry, horticulture, etc.

The government should make reasonable efforts to encourage the development of cottage and small industries in rural and urban regions. These industries require more labour per unit of capital.

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Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

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An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Insurance Analyst

In the career as an insurance analyst, one can monitor the choices the customers make about which insurance policy options best suit their requirements. They research and make recommendations that have a real impact on the financial well-being of a client down the road. Insurance companies are helping people prepare themselves for the long term. Insurance Analysts find the documents of the claim and perform a thorough investigation, like travelling to places where the incident has occurred, gathering evidence, and working with law enforcement officers.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Finance Executive

A career as Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organization's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring the buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monument and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

ENT Specialist

Individuals who opt for a career as ENT specialists are medical professionals who specialise in treating disorders that are related to functioning of ears, nose, sinus, throat, head and neck. Such disorders or diseases result in affecting fundamental functions of life such as hearing and balance, swallowing and speech, breathing and sleep. Individuals who opt for a career as an ENT specialist are also responsible for treating allergies and sinuses, head and neck cancer, skin disorders and facial plastic surgeries.

Surgical Technologist

When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

Also Read: Career as Nurse

Ophthalmic Medical Technician

Ophthalmic technician careers are one of the booming careers option available in the field of healthcare. Being a part of this field as an ophthalmic medical technician can provide several career opportunities for an individual. With advancing technology the job of individuals who opt for a career as ophthalmic medical technicians have become of even more importance as he or she is required to assist the ophthalmologist in using different types of machinery. If you want to know more about the field and what are the several job opportunities, work environment, just about anything continues reading the article and all your questions shall be answered.

Radiation Therapist

People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Talent Director

Individuals who opt for a career as a talent director are professionals who work in the entertainment industry. He or she is responsible for finding out the right talent through auditions for films, theatre productions, or shows. A talented director possesses strong knowledge of computer software used in filmmaking, CGI and animation. A talent acquisition director keeps himself or herself updated on various technical aspects such as lighting, camera angles and shots. 

Multimedia Animator

Films like Baahubali, Kung Fu Panda, Ice Age and others are both a sensation among adults and children, and the multimedia animation industry's future looks promising. A multi media jobs could be described as the activity of giving life to a non-living object. Cartoons are the work of animation. Multimedia animation is an illusion developed with the still photographs. Multimedia animators work in a specific medium. Some concentrate on making video games or animated movies. Multi media artists produce visual effects for films and television shows. Multimedia career produce computer-generated images that contain representations of the movements of an actor and then animating them into three-dimensional objects. Multi media artists draw beautiful landscapes or backgrounds.

Film making is an art performed by various creative people which can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event.  Individuals who opt a career as film maker are required to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a fully formed film and then realise the vision. Film maker’s job descriptions include overseeing the artistic and technical aspects of the film. Filmmaker job description involves organising the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film and communicating with the actors. Individuals who opt for a career as a film maker are required to possess skills such as group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful and fast-paced environment of the production set. Students can visit FTII Pune and JNU Delhi  to study film making courses.

This article talks in detail about how to become a filmmaker in India or is film director a good career.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

News Anchor

A career as news anchor requires to be working closely with reporters to collect information, broadcast newscasts and interview guests throughout the day. A news anchor job description is to track the latest affairs and present news stories in an insightful, meaningful and impartial manner to the public. A news anchor in India needs to be updated on the news of the day. He or she even works with the news director to pick stories to air, taking into consideration the interests of the viewer.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

SEO Analyst

An SEO Analyst is a web professional who is proficient in the implementation of SEO strategies to target more keywords to improve the reach of the content on search engines. He or she provides support to acquire the goals and success of the client’s campaigns. 

Fashion Journalist

Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist  job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.

A career as a gemologist is as magnificent and sparkling as gemstones. A gemologist is a professional who has knowledge and understanding of gemology and he or she applies the same knowledge in his everyday work responsibilities. He or she grades gemstones using various equipment and determines its worth. His or her other work responsibilities involve settling gemstones in jewellery, polishing and examining it. 

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Product Designer

Individuals who opt for a career as product designers are responsible for designing the components and overall product concerning its shape, size, and material used in manufacturing. They are responsible for the aesthetic appearance of the product. A product designer uses his or her creative skills to give a product its final outlook and ensures the functionality of the design. 

Students can opt for various product design degrees such as B.Des and M.Des to become product designers. Industrial product designer prepares 3D models of designs for approval and discusses them with clients and other colleagues. Individuals who opt for a career as a product designer estimate the total cost involved in designing.

Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes. 

Reliability Engineer

Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover includes wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech-enthusiast. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

.NET Developer

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

DevOps Engineer

In order to develop and deploy software systems, a DevOps Engineer collaborates with both development and operations teams. A career as DevOps engineer must cooperate with other IT staff members as well as software developers and quality assurance specialists.

Cloud Administrator

Individuals who are interested in becoming Cloud Administrators should have the necessary skills to handle various technical aspects of computing, such as the design, implementation, and maintenance of cloud computing services. In addition to being able to program and operate various programming languages, such as Java, Python, and Ruby, individuals should also have a degree in engineering or computer science.

An IS Auditor is a professional who is responsible for testing the IT infrastructure and finding its vulnerabilities and weaknesses and exploiting them. An IS Auditor performs routine checkups of IT Systems. 

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Unemployment Essay

500+ words essay on unemployment.

Unemployment is a serious problem among young people. There are thousands of people who do not have any work to do and cannot find work for themselves. Unemployment refers to the situation where a person wants to work but cannot find employment in the labour market. One of the major reasons that contribute to unemployment is the large population of India and the limited availability of resources. In this essay on unemployment, we will discuss all these issues responsible for unemployment in India and how we can overcome this problem. Students must go through this unemployment essay to get ideas on how to write an effective essay on the topic related to unemployment. Also, they can practice more CBSE essays on different topics to boost their writing skills.

Unemployment is measured by the unemployment rate, defined as the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. The unemployment rate for the year 2013-14 in rural India was 4.7%, whereas it was 5.5% for urban India. In the short term, unemployment significantly reduces a person’s income and, in the long term, it reduces their ability to save for retirement and other goals. Unemployment is a loss of valuable productive resources to the economy. The impact of job loss in rural and regional areas flows through the local community, damaging businesses.

Reason for Unemployment

An unemployed person is one who is an active member of the labour force and is seeking work but is unable to find any work for himself. There are multiple reasons behind the unemployment of a person. One of them is the slow economic growth, due to which jobs in adequate numbers are not created. Excessive dependence on agriculture and slow growth of non-farm activities also limit employment generation. Unemployment in urban areas is mainly the result of substantial rural migration to urban areas. This has also resulted in a labour workforce in cities. The lack of technology and proper machinery has also contributed to unemployment.

The present educational system is based on theoretical knowledge instead of practical work. Thus, it lacks the development of aptitude and technical qualifications required for various types of work among job seekers. This has created a mismatch between the need and availability of relevant skills and training. This results in unemployment, especially among the youth and educated people with high degrees and qualifications. Apart from it, the lack of investment and infrastructure has led to inadequate employment opportunities in different sectors.

Steps to Eliminate Unemployment

Various strategies and proposals have been implemented to generate employment. Many Employment programmes and policies have been introduced and undertaken to boost self-employment and help unemployed people engage in public works. The Government of India has taken several policy measures to fight the problem of unemployment. Some of the measures are the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Skill Development Mission, Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs).

Despite the measures taken by the government, India remains a country experiencing severe unemployment problems. It can be resolved by imparting education in such a way that youth get the necessary skills so as to get employment easily. Setting up various vocational training and vocational courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students will help in finding employment for youth. The government needs to emphasise these courses at the primary level and make them a compulsory part of the curriculum to make students proficient in their early stages of life. Career counselling should be provided within schools and colleges so that students can choose a better career option based on their interests and ability. Government should create more job opportunities for the youth and graduates.

India is a fast-growing economy. There is an enormous scope for improvement in the unemployment sector. The various measures and steps taken by the government to increase the employment rate have succeeded to a great extent. The widespread skill development programmes have gained popularity across the nation. With better enforcement of the strategies, the employment level can be significantly improved. Although, we have to go a long way before we can say that all the people in India will get employment.

We hope this essay on unemployment must have helped students in boosting their essay-writing skills. Keep learning and visiting the BYJU’S website for more study material.

Frequently Asked Questions on Unemployment Essay

Is unemployment still an existing problem in india.

Yes, unemployment is still a serious issue in our country. Steps need to be taken by the government and also by the youngsters in India to improve this situation.

Is it necessary for schoolchildren to be informed about unemployment?

Students at this young age should definitely be informed about this topic as it will motivate them to study and aim for higher scores in exams.

What points are to be added to an essay topic on Unemployment?

Add details about different age groups of people suffering from this state of employment. You can focus on the fact that poverty is an indirect reason for unemployment and vice-versa. Then, suggest steps that can be taken to bring about an improvement in education and increase the percentage of literacy.

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Youth Unemployment: Causes and Solutions of Youth Unemployment in India

essay on youth unemployment in india

Youth Unemployment in India

India faces today a number of problems. But the problem of Youth unemployment has become very serious in recent years. Because the problem is very extensive, it has attracted wide attention and discussions in the country.

Of course, the problem of unemployment among youths has raised its head in almost every country, but that cannot be our consolation.

The number of unemployment youths in our country has already reached an alarming proportion and still the number is increasing every year.

It is really a matter of pity and shame that though willing to work, a large number of our youths find to scope of employment. Thousands of young people remain idle even after completing their studies.

We should analyses the causes behind unemployment among youths in India.

Alarming growth rate of population: The most important factor is the alarming growth of population. The population of our country has exceeded 1.2 billion. We see that the population is growing fast but there is no expansion of corresponding avenues of employment.

Inadequate growth of economic opportunities: In comparison with the growth of population, the economic opportunities in the country in trade, industry, commerce, and agriculture have not proportionately increased, with the result that there are more young men seeking employment than there are opportunities to absorb them.

Defective Education System: Our system of education is also defective. It is not satisfactorily related to the socio-economic needs of our people. Since the western system of education was introduced in this country; people have all along shown a general tendency towards general higher education. A certain degree of general education was also considered essential for securing services in public offices and jobs in merchant offices. The lure of lucrative opportunities in liberal profession have all along attracted the bulk of the young men with the result that gradually all these lines have become crowded.

Lack of technical qualification: They do not possess such technical qualifications as would enable them to take to some technical lines. The society is thus confronted with the problem of finding openings for the educated young people.

Unplanned Aut0mation: Unplanned automation has thrown thousands of young people out of their work.

Industrial Unrest: Industrial unrest has also led to lockouts and layoffs.

And thus, on the whole, the situation is growing worse and gradually slipping out of control.

To solve the problem a change of outlook is also needed. It is a fact that no government can provide employment for all the unemployed youths. However, there is a need for harmonious development of economic opportunities.

Practical Education System: Hence our education system should be more practical. Vocational education can offer greater employment opportunities to our youths. A system of education should be evolved where students are given technical training so that will eventually help them in securing suitable jobs in appropriate lines of occupations.

Revival of small and cottage industries: By reviving cottage and small-scale industries we can also solve the problem of rural unemployment. The existing cottage industries are to be revitalized and along with them new industries on cottage basis should be started. Cottage industries can serve not only as whole time occupations to many but also as subsidiary means of livelihood to thousands.

Economic opportunities in agriculture: The scope for employment of the educated young men in in the field of agricultural is often forgotten. The introduction of better farming methods, cultivation of new crops, running of poultry farms, gardening, etc, are possible lines of work which young men with technical training and initiative may take up with profit.

Control Population Explosion: However, all these will be of no avail unless population explosion is controlled. Indeed hunger, distress and unemployment will rule the land unless the birth rate is reduced to an optimum level.

These are some of the methods, which may be tried for minimizing the effects of unemployment. Since this is a very complex problem, it is hardly possible for combating it by a single remedy. Its solution depends on a variety of economic and social factors.

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Essay on Unemployment in India

Essay on Unemployment in India: Look at the Most Essential Topic of India for UPSC

Unemployment in India is proving to be the worst state for the country. It is defined under many classifications but the impact of it is that it is leading the country towards lower GDP and low living standards. Unemployment is the state of actively seeking work but not finding any paid function. Rich people in India continue to grow towards richness and the poor turn out to be poorer. All these miserable situations must be placed in your mind along with the facts and statistics. This state is making the country regressive for the people who do not have money. Are you an aspirant searching for significant topics for the UPSC exam? If you are looking for an upsc essay, you have come to the right place because here is the essay on unemployment in India. Go through this article precisely and grab all the points.

Also Read: Permanent Court of Arbitration: Important Notes for UPSC Exam

Essay on Unemployment in India

Unemployment is defined as the health of the economy of a country. It is a scenario when someone actively searches for work but does not get any paid job . The rate of unemployment in a country is measured by a certain formulation. The formula is: Unemployment rate = (Unemployed Workers / Total labour force) × 100. A national sample survey organization has been set up for calculating such situations in a country. This organization comes under MoSPI. MoSPI is abbreviated as Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. It calculates the unemployment rate in India under three major approaches. These approaches are written below.

#1. Daily Status Approach

The unemployment rate of the citizens of a country is determined by this process. The unemployment status of a person is measured for each day but in a reference of a week. This is done by noticing that if any person is having no gainful work even for one hour in a day, then the person will be described as unemployed for that day.

#2. Weekly Status Approach

This approach is used effectively for measuring the unemployment rate of a nation. This approach works for highlighting the record of few people who did not have gainful or paid work even for an hour of a day. This is also valid for the unemployed people for an hour on any day of the week. This proceeds the date of the survey. A single day in the entire week is determined by this approach.

#3. Usual Status Approach

This is the most common form of reporting the number of unemployed people in a country. The approach tests the estimates of those individuals who had no gainful work or were unemployed for a major time during the whole year i.e. 365 days. It is calculated for the whole year.

Also Read: Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Very Important Healthcare Topic for UPSC

Causes of Unemployment

Many causes are leading to the increment in the unemployment rates in India. The causes include the given points.

#1. Overpopulation is the most important cause of unemployment.

#2. Lack of education is also contributing largely to the unemployment rates. The status of ineffective educational structures,  no or low educational levels along with lesser vocational skills of the working population is a major cause.

#3. Bad quality infrastructure and inadequate growth of industries are a  cause along with very few investment rates in the sectors of manufacturing.

Also Read: Recusal of Judges: A Potential Topic for The Next UPSC Exam

Have a Look at Other Major Causes!

#1. Lower concentration towards the agriculture sector causing greater unemployment and low investment in modern agricultural technologies.

#2. The other cause is the division of the larger workforce. The workforce is working for informal functioning due to lack of education and henceforth employment measurements are less. For example, construction workers, domestic helpers, etc.

#3. The most influential cause is the regressive state of women in the country. The subservient and orthodox social norms are deteriorating women from continuing employment.

Unemployment in India Essay

The facts say that India’s unemployment rate in February 2021 was 6.9 percent. It is still very down but has turned out to be better than before considering its downfall from 7.8 percent in February 2020 . It indicates that the country is returning to the pre COVID levels in terms of unemployment. The experts from the economic department say that the labour workforce was depressed even before the outbreak of the pandemic and the situation during COVID has made it worse. The Center for Monitoring Indian Economy has claimed that participation from the labour force and employment rates have remained low. This is the data that is indicating labour fallout from labour markets due to lack of jobs.

Also Read: New IT Rules 2021: Facts to Know for UPSC about New Provisions, Patterns & Rules

People Losing Jobs!

The unemployment rate in India is touching heights because of people losing jobs. The people who had jobs are losing them due to lesser market evolution and functioning. In the metropolitan areas, people are degrading financially and losing jobs. CMIE recently claimed that the unemployment rate is dramatically rising. The post-lockdown era is marked by a noticeable drop of 2.5 percent in employment along with a drop of 6.2 percent in the count of unemployment

There has been a reduction of 2.8 percent in the labour force as well.

Types of Unemployment in India

There are different kinds of unemployment traced in India. Disguised unemployment refers to the state when more than the expected number of people are unemployed which is majorly seen in unorganized sectors and agriculture. Seasonal unemployment is a state of a person being seasonally unemployed. Structural unemployment is a factor that arises due to a lack of requisite skills for a certain organization. It is a mismatch between the individual and industry. Cyclical unemployment is something that arises due to recessions or declines in the economic conditions of the country. Vulnerable unemployment is a state where people are working without a definite income and job contact. Technological unemployment is something that occurs due to a lack of technology. It was stated by the World Bank in 2016 that 69% of jobs are threatened under this case.

Also Read: What is Mission Indradhanush: A Potential UPSC Topic Related to Covid-19 Vaccine

Impact of Unemployment

The impact of unemployment is detrimental to the people. It leads to the generation and growth of poverty. It also increases the crime rates of the nation because the young mind finds some illegal and unlawful things to do when they do not get a potential job. The people become enticed by antisocial elements and start losing faith in the democracy of India. Unemployed people who indulge in drugs and commit suicides that are a loss of resources to the nation. It is a way of decreasing and degrading the economy of the country and pushing it towards devastation.

You must keenly know this UPSC essay to upgrade your learning capabilities regarding the current issues of society.

Initiatives by the Government of India

There are many initiatives taken by the government of India for the betterment of people and giving them employment. The initiative for the rural people was taken in 1980 as Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). In 1979, one scheme was launched that was primarily concerned with self-employment and SC/ST people. It was named Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM). It gave employment to youth ranging from the age of 18 to 35. RSETI/RUDSETI was launched by the government to minimize the issues of unemployment. The other schemes include PMKVY, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana which was launched in 2015 to enable the youth towards learning industry skills and getting a potential job.

Schemes Launched by the Government

The most known scheme is MNREGA which stands for Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. It came in 2005 for giving the right to work to all the citizens. The main aim of this scheme was to provide social security to the people for 100 days of paid work. It gave employment to many people across the nation. Start-Up India scheme and Stand Up India scheme came out in 2016 to uplift the people by developing an entrepreneurship environment for them and giving loan benefits to the SC/ST people and women respectively. The government has been making tremendous efforts to give employment to the youth and to turn the country into a larger economy and development.

Also Read: Addu Atoll UPSC Topic: Why is Addu Atoll Trending All Over India?

We hope that we have covered the essential points in this article. You must be aware of the problems faced by the country and should work appropriately to modify or upgrade the conditions. You must not read the articles for learning but you must enlighten your soul about the situations popping up before the citizens of the country.

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essay on youth unemployment in india

Unemployment is the traditional and major cause of India which hinders it’s development. I was looking for an article which has the overall outlook to the unemployment in India so that I could get the precise information. This article has helped me in getting it. Do you guys have same opinion?

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Unemployment in India Essay in English for students_00.1

Unemployment in India Essay in English for students

Unemployment in India Essay- Unemployment in India is a serious issue. Lack of education, lack of opportunity are some of the factors of Unemployment in India. Long and short essays are provided below

Unemployment in India Essay in English for students_30.1

Table of Contents

  • Unemployment in India

Unemployment in India : Unemployment in India is a significant barrier to growth. Some of the causes of unemployment in India include a lack of education, a lack of employment prospects, and performance problems. To solve this issue, the Indian government must act decisively. The unemployment in India rate is one of the key issues that emerging nations deal with. It has a number of other detrimental effects on both the person and society at large, making it one of the main barriers to the nation’s economic growth.

Unemployment in India Essay

Short and long English essays on unemployment are provided below for your understanding and enlightenment. These writings were written in clear, and simple language for students and small kids.

Short Essay on Unemployment in India in 100- 200 words

Unemployed people are those who are willing to work and are actively seeking employment but are unable to do so. People who choose not to work or who are unable to look for work due to a medical or mental health issue are not included.

The issue of unemployment in the nation is a result of numerous reasons. These consist of:

  • Slow Industrial Development
  • Rapid Population Growth
  • Education with a theoretical emphasis
  • Cottage industries in the fall
  • lack of alternatives for farm labourers to find employment
  • Technological Progress

Not only does unemployment affect people, but it also hinders national development. It has a detrimental effect on the nation’s social and economic development. Here are a few negative effects of unemployment:

  • An increase in crime
  • low level of living
  • loss of expertise
  • Political turbulence
  • difficulties with mental health
  • slow economic expansion

Unsurprisingly, unemployment is one of the most disregarded problems in India, despite the detrimental effects it has on society. Although the government has attempted to control the issue, its efforts have not been sufficiently successful. The government should not only start programmes to deal with this issue, but also monitor their success and make necessary revisions.

Unemployment in India Essay in 300- 400 words


For society, unemployment is a big issue. It affects society as a whole in addition to the individuals. Unemployment is caused by a variety of circumstances. Here is a closer look at these contributing aspects as well as some potential remedies for this issue.

Factors leading to unemployment in India

  • Increasing Population The rapid increase in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.
  • Slow Economic Growth Slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.
  • Seasonal Occupation Large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunity only for a certain part of the year.
  • Slow Growth of the Industrial Sector The growth of the industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, the employment opportunities in this sector are limited.
  • Fall in Cottage Industry The production in the cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.

Possible Solutions to prevent Unemployment

  • Population Control It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.
  • Education System The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.
  • Industrialization The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.
  • Overseas Companies The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.
  • Employment Opportunities Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.

India has long struggled with unemployment. Although the government has started a number of programmes to create jobs, the desired progress has not been made. More jobs should be created, and residents and policymakers should work together to develop employable skills and more jobs.

Unemployment in India Essay in 500- 600 words

What is unemployment?

Unemployment is when someone is actively looking for work and is considered to be employable, they are said to be unemployed. People in the workforce who are employed but do not have suitable jobs are included in this group. Unemployment is one of the key indicators of a nation’s economic health and is typically expressed as the unemployment rate, which is calculated by dividing the number of jobless persons by the number of people in the labour force.

Types of Unemployment

Now that we are aware of what unemployment is, we can see that it encompasses more than just a lack of employment. People who work in fields outside of their competence are also included in the unemployment rate.

Included among the numerous forms of unemployment are structural unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, and disguised unemployment. In addition, there are several different types of unemployment, including cyclical unemployment, educated unemployment, underemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment, and casual unemployment.

The most prevalent types of unemployment in India include underemployment, disguised unemployment, and seasonal unemployment.

Reasons of Unemployment

There are many reasons why a sizable portion of the population is unemployed in a nation like India. Among these are reasons like population growth, sluggish economic expansion, seasonal employment, sluggish economic sector growth, and a decline in cottage industries.

These are also the main causes of unemployment in India. Additionally, the situation has gotten so bad that even highly educated people are willing to work as sweepers. In addition, the government is not seriously performing his duties.

In addition to all of these, a significant majority of the population works in the agricultural sector, which only offers jobs during the harvest or plantation seasons.

India’s huge population, which needs a lot of work every year but which the government and authorities are unable to supply, is another major factor in the country’s high unemployment rate.

Consequences of Unemployment

If things continue as they are, unemployment will become a serious problem. Aside from this, an economy also results in an increase in poverty, a rise in crime, labour exploitation, political instability, mental health issues, and skill erosion. All of this will ultimately end in the collapse of the country.

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Government initiative to Control unemployment in India Essay in 800-1000 words

The administration has launched a number of programmes to address the unemployment issue facing the economy. The following are the policies to lower unemployment:

  • TRYSEM, the government’s initiative to train rural youth for self-employment, was established in 1979. This program’s goal was to assist rural youngsters who were unemployed and between the ages of 18 and 35 in developing the skills necessary for self-employment. The SC/ST category’s women and youth were given preference under this programme.
  • In order to provide chances for full employment in rural areas, the government established the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) in 1980.
  • In 1982, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational Trust, Canara Bank, and Syndicate Bank jointly tried out a novel programme called RSETI/RUDSETI. RUDSETI, which stands for Rural Development and Self Employment Training Institute, was founded with the intention of addressing the youth unemployment issue. RSETIs (Rural Self Employment Training Institutes) are currently run by banks with the state and federal governments’ active participation.
  • The National Rural Employment Program (NREP) and the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program (RLEGP) were combined into the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) in April 1989 on the basis of an 80:20 cost-sharing arrangement between the state and the federal government.
  • The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, introduced in 2005, gives people the freedom to labour. A MNREGA employment programme sought to provide social security by ensuring a minimum of 100 days of paid employment annually to all families with adult members who choose unskilled labour-intensive work. Check out the provided link for more information on MNREGA.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, or PMKVY, was introduced in 2015. The goal of PMKVY was to make it possible for the nation’s youth to enrol in industry-relevant skill training in order to secure a better standard of living. Visit the provided website for further information about the Pradhan Mantri Kushal Vikas Yojana.
  • In 2016, the government introduced the Start-Up India Scheme. The purpose of the Startup India initiatives was to create an environment that supports and encourages entrepreneurship throughout the country. Visit the above website for further information on the Startup India Scheme.
  • The Stand Up India Scheme, which was also introduced in 2016, aims to make bank loans between Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore available to women and SC/ST borrowers for starting new businesses. On the linked page, Stand-Up India details are provided.
  • The National Skill Development Mission was established in November 2014 to lead the “Skill India” agenda in “Mission Mode” and to combine speed and scale with quality and quantity of skilling activities. Take a close look at the National Skill Development Mission.

Unemployment in India Essay in Hindi

बेरोजगारी क्या है?- बेरोजगारी तब होती है जब कोई सक्रिय रूप से काम की तलाश में होता है और उसे रोजगार योग्य माना जाता है, उसे बेरोजगार कहा जाता है। कार्यबल में वे लोग जो कार्यरत हैं लेकिन उनके पास उपयुक्त नौकरी नहीं है, इस समूह में शामिल हैं। बेरोजगारी एक देश के आर्थिक स्वास्थ्य के प्रमुख संकेतकों में से एक है और इसे आमतौर पर बेरोजगारी दर के रूप में व्यक्त किया जाता है, जिसकी गणना बेरोजगार व्यक्तियों की संख्या को श्रम बल में लोगों की संख्या से विभाजित करके की जाती है।

बेरोजगारी के प्रकार- अब जब हम जानते हैं कि बेरोजगारी क्या है, तो हम देख सकते हैं कि इसमें रोजगार की कमी के अलावा और भी बहुत कुछ शामिल है। जो लोग अपनी क्षमता से बाहर के क्षेत्रों में काम करते हैं वे भी बेरोजगारी दर में शामिल हैं।

बेरोजगारी के कई रूपों में संरचनात्मक बेरोजगारी, खुली बेरोजगारी, तकनीकी बेरोजगारी और प्रच्छन्न बेरोजगारी शामिल हैं। इसके अलावा, कई अलग-अलग प्रकार की बेरोजगारी हैं, जिनमें चक्रीय बेरोजगारी, शिक्षित बेरोजगारी, अल्परोजगार, घर्षण बेरोजगारी, पुरानी बेरोजगारी और आकस्मिक बेरोजगारी शामिल हैं।

भारत में सबसे प्रचलित प्रकार की बेरोजगारी में अल्प-रोजगार, प्रच्छन्न बेरोजगारी और मौसमी बेरोजगारी शामिल हैं।

बेरोजगारी के कारण- भारत जैसे देश में आबादी का एक बड़ा हिस्सा बेरोजगार होने के कई कारण हैं। इनमें जनसंख्या वृद्धि, सुस्त आर्थिक विस्तार, मौसमी रोजगार, सुस्त आर्थिक क्षेत्र की वृद्धि और कुटीर उद्योगों में गिरावट जैसे कारण हैं।

ये भी भारत में बेरोजगारी के प्रमुख कारण हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त, स्थिति इतनी खराब हो गई है कि उच्च शिक्षित लोग भी सफाईकर्मी के रूप में काम करने को तैयार हैं। साथ ही सरकार अपने कर्तव्यों का गंभीरता से पालन नहीं कर रही है।

इन सब के अलावा, आबादी का एक महत्वपूर्ण हिस्सा कृषि क्षेत्र में काम करता है, जो केवल फसल या वृक्षारोपण के मौसम के दौरान ही रोजगार प्रदान करता है।

भारत की विशाल आबादी, जिसे हर साल बहुत अधिक काम की आवश्यकता होती है, लेकिन सरकार और अधिकारी आपूर्ति करने में असमर्थ हैं, देश की उच्च बेरोजगारी दर का एक और प्रमुख कारक है।

बेरोजगारी के परिणाम- अगर हालात ऐसे ही रहे, तो बेरोजगारी एक गंभीर समस्या बन जाएगी। इसके अलावा, एक अर्थव्यवस्था का परिणाम गरीबी में वृद्धि, अपराध में वृद्धि, श्रम शोषण, राजनीतिक अस्थिरता, मानसिक स्वास्थ्य के मुद्दों और कौशल क्षरण में भी होता है। यह सब अंततः देश के पतन में समाप्त होगा।

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Essay on Unemployment in India FAQs

Q. what is unemployment.

Ans. When someone actively seeks job but is unable to do so, this is referred to as being unemployed. One important indicator of the state of the economy is unemployment.

Q. Why there is a problem of unemployment in India? Ans. Due to the increasing population and lack of proper skills there is a problem of unemployment in India.

Q. What Are the 3 Types of Unemployment?

Ans. Today’s economists point to three main types of unemployment: frictional, structural, and cyclical.

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Q. Why there is a problem of unemployment in India?

Ans. Due to the increasing population and lack of proper skills there is a problem of unemployment in India.

Ans. Today's economists point to three main types of unemployment: frictional, structural, and cyclical.

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India's jobs crisis is more serious than it seems

  • Published 7 January 2022

Activists of National Students' Union of India (NSUI) shout slogans against the central government as they enact to sell sweets and fruits during a protest against the rise of unemployment, in Amritsar on January 12, 2021.

Last week, a law graduate in India applied for a job as a driver.

Jitendra Maurya was one of more than 10,000 jobless young people who turned up for interviews for 15 low-skilled government jobs in the central state of Madhya Pradesh. Many of them were overqualified - aspirants, according to one report , included post-graduates, engineers, MBAs and people like Mr Maurya, who is preparing for a judge's exam.

"The situation is such that sometimes there is no money to buy books. So I thought I will get some work [here]," he told a news network.

Mr Maurya's plight shines a light on the acute jobs crisis facing India. The pandemic battered Asia's third-largest economy, which was already in the throes of a prolonged slowdown. It's now seeing a rebound largely due to pent-up demand and increased government spending.

  • India economy: Seven years of Modi in seven charts

But jobs are diminishing. India's unemployment rate crept up to nearly 8% in December, according to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), an independent think tank. It was more than 7% in 2020 and for most of 2021.

"This is way higher than anything seen in India, at least over the last three decades, including the big [economic] crisis of 1991 [when the country did not have enough dollars to pay for imports]," Kaushik Basu, former chief economist of the World Bank, told me.

Most countries saw joblessness rise in 2020. But India's rate exceeded most emerging economies like Bangladesh (5.3%), Mexico (4.7%) and Vietnam (2.3%), notes Prof Basu.

Even salaried jobs have shrunk, according to the CMIE. Part of this could be because firms have used the pandemic to trim their workforce and reduce costs. Studies by Azim Premji University show young workers - 15 to 23 years old - were hardest hit during the 2020 lockdown.

"There was a churn. We found that about half of those who had salaried work before the lockdown could not retain such work," Amit Basole, an economist at the university, told me.

An Indian youth looks through papers as he stands in a queue to apply for a job at a jobs fair in Mumbai on October 12, 2011.

The pandemic is only partly responsible for the sharp decline in jobs, economists say.

"What has happened in India reflects the fact that policy is being made with little attention to the wellbeing of workers and small businesses, as we saw during the lockdown in 2020 ," Prof Basu said.

For one, these dismal headline numbers don't tell us the whole story about persistent joblessness in India.

The number of active job seekers in the working age population has fallen. The proportion of women, aged 15 and older, in the workforce is among the lowest in the world.

  • Young bearing the brunt of sweeping job losses

But unemployment in India mainly refers to educated young people looking for jobs in the formal economy - although the informal economy employs 90% of the workforce and generates half the economic output.

"Unemployment is a luxury which the educated, relatively well-off can afford. Not the poor, unskilled or semi-skilled people," said Radhicka Kapoor, a labour economist.

The more educated the person is, the more likely it is they'll remain jobless and unwilling to take up a low-paying informal job. On the other hand, the poor who have little access to education are compelled to take up whatever work comes their way.

So, unemployment numbers don't reveal much about the total supply of workers in the economy as a whole.

Three-quarters of India's workforce is self employed and casual, with no social security benefits.

India delivery boy

Only a little over 2% of the workforce have secure formal jobs with access to social security - a retirement savings scheme, health care, maternity benefits - and written contracts of more than three years. A paltry 9% have formal jobs with access to at least one social security source.

"The majority of India's workforce is vulnerable and leads a precarious existence," Dr Kapoor said.

Earnings are slim. Surveys show 45% of all salaried workers earn less than 9,750 rupees ($130; £96) a month. That's less than 375 rupees a day, the minimum wage proposed in 2019 but later dropped.

One reason behind India's endemic unemployment despite high growth is the country's leapfrogging from a primarily farm economy to a booming services economy - in no other country of India's size has growth been led by services and not manufacturing. India's growth has been powered by high-end services like software and finance manned by highly skilled workers. There have been few manufacturing or factory jobs that can absorb a large number of unskilled or low-skilled workers.

  • 1991 reforms: 'A long distance call was like an endurance sport'

India's joblessness is worrying because even as the country's growth is restarting, the bottom segment is doing worse than in most other nations, Prof Basu says. He believes the government needs to control inflation, generate employment and support workers. Also, a "politics of polarisation and hate" during Mr Modi's rule is "damaging trust, which is one of the most important underlying drivers of economic development".

Mr Modi, who swept to power in 2014 promising jobs aplenty, is offering financial incentives to key industries and running an ambitious "Make in India" campaign to encourage local manufacturing. None of this has so far led to a manufacturing - and jobs - boom, in part due to depressed demand.

In the short term, many like Dr Basole feel India urgently needs cash transfers or an employment guarantee scheme for the bottom 20% of struggling households in cities to help them consume and pay back debt. In the long run, the challenge is to ensure that all workers have a basic minimum wage and social security.

"Until then we cannot have any meaningful reforms in jobs," Dr Kapoor said.

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Unemployment in India:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Employment Related issues.

According to the latest Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) released by the National Statistical Office (NSO):

  • India’s urban unemployment rate jumped to 12.6 per cent in the April-June quarter of 2021, compared to 9.3 per cent in the January-March quarter.
  • It, however, eased from the 20.8 per cent level seen during the first wave of the Covid pandemic .

Impact of the pandemic:

The biggest casualty of the pandemic will be joblessness. The country’s unemployment rate has risen through much of April, having hit 7.4%, and threatens to climb further to around 8% significantly higher than the 6.5% in March, according to CMIE.

  • Approximately 10 million salaried jobs have been lost, across urban and rural India, and one is not sure how many people will get back their livelihoods.
  • Urban females fared worse than urban males. In the 15-29 age group, the unemployment rate for urban females stood at 31 per cent compared with 24 per cent for males during April-June 2021.
  • The unemployment rate for urban females and males stood at 36 per cent and 34.3 per cent, respectively, in April-June 2020.

Types of Unemployment in India:

Disguised Unemployment:

  • It is a phenomenon wherein more people are employed than actually needed.
  • It is primarily traced in the agricultural and the unorganised sectors of India.

Seasonal Unemployment:

  • It is an unemployment that occurs during certain seasons of the year.
  • Agricultural labourers in India rarely have work throughout the year.

Structural Unemployment:

  • It is a category of unemployment arising from the mismatch between the jobs available in the market and the skills of the available workers in the market.
  • Many people in India do not get job due to lack of requisite skills and due to poor education level, it becomes difficult to train them.

Cyclical Unemployment:

  • It is result of the business cycle, where unemployment rises during recessions and declines with economic growth.
  • Cyclical unemployment figures in India are negligible. It is a phenomenon that is mostly found in capitalist economies.

Technological Unemployment:

It is loss of jobs due to changes in technology.

In 2016, World Bank data predicted that the proportion of jobs threatened by automation in India is 69% year-on-year.

Frictional Unemployment:

  • The Frictional Unemployment also called as Search Unemployment, refers to the time lag between the jobs when an individual is searching for a new job or is switching between the jobs.
  • In other words, an employee requires time for searching a new job or shifting from the existing to a new job, this inevitable time delay causes the frictional unemployment. It is often considered as a voluntary unemployment because it is not caused due to the shortage of job, but in fact, the workers themselves quit their jobs in search of better opportunities.

Vulnerable Employment:

  • This means, people working informally, without proper job contracts and thus sans any legal protection. These persons are deemed ‘unemployed’ since records of their work are never maintained.
  • It is one of the main types of unemployment in India.

Causes of Unemployment:

  • Large population.
  • Low or no educational levels and vocational skills of working population.
  • Inadequate state support, legal complexities and low infrastructural, financial and market linkages to small/ cottage industries or small businesses, making such enterprises unviable with cost and compliance overruns.
  • Huge workforce associated with informal sector due to lack of required education/ skills, which is not captured in any employment data. For ex: domestic helpers, construction workers etc.
  • The syllabus taught in schools and colleges, being not as per the current requirements of the industries. This is the main cause of structural unemployment.
  • Inadequate growth of infrastructure and low investments in manufacturing sector, hence restricting employment potential of secondary sector.
  • Low productivity in agriculture sector combined with lack of alternative opportunities for agricultural worker which makes transition from primary to secondary and tertiary sectors difficult.
  • Regressive social norms that deter women from taking/continuing employment.
  • The problem of unemployment gives rise to the problem of poverty.
  • Young people after a long time of unemployment indulge in illegal and wrong activities for earning money. This also leads to increase in crime in the country.
  • Unemployed persons can easily be enticed by antisocial elements. This makes them lose faith in democratic values of the country.
  • It is often seen that unemployed people end up getting addicted to drugs and alcohol or attempts suicide, leading losses to the human resources of the country.
  • It also affects economy of the country as the workforce that could have been gainfully employed to generate resources actually gets dependent on the remaining working population, thus escalating socioeconomic costs for the State. For instance, 1 percent increase in unemployment reduces the GDP by 2 percent.

Steps Taken by Government:

Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was launched in 1980 to create full employment opportunities in rural areas.

Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM): This scheme was started in 1979 with objective to help unemployed rural youth between the age of 18 and 35 years to acquire skills for self-employment. Priority was given to SC/ST Youth and Women.

RSETI/RUDSETI: With the aim of mitigating the unemployment problem among the youth, a new initiative was tried jointly by Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational Trust, Syndicate Bank and Canara Bank in 1982 which was the setting up of the “RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND SELF EMPLOYMENT TRAINING INSTITUTE” with its acronym RUDSETI near Dharmasthala in Karnataka. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes/ RSETIs are now managed by Banks with active co-operation from the Government of India and State Government.

By merging the two erstwhile wage employment programme – National Rural Employment programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) was started with effect from April, 1, 1989 on 80:20 cost sharing basis between the centre and the States.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA): It is an employment scheme that was launched in 2005 to provide social security by guaranteeing a minimum of 100 days paid work per year to all the families whose adult members opt for unskilled labour-intensive work. This act provides Right to Work to people.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), launched in 2015 has an objective of enabling a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood.

Start Up India Scheme, launched in 2016 aims at developing an ecosystem that promotes and nurtures entrepreneurship across the country.

Stand Up India Scheme, launched in 2016 aims to facilitate bank loans between Rs 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore to at least one SC or ST borrower and at least one women borrower per bank branch for setting up a greenfield enterprise.


Prelims Link:

  • What is labour force participation?
  • What is unemployment rate?
  • Urban vs rural unemployment.
  • Gender related issues.

Mains Link:

Discuss the issues associated with unemployment in India.

Sources: the Hindu.

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Unemployment Essay

One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems faced by the developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major obstacles in the country’s economic growth but also has several other negative repercussions on the individual as well as the society as a whole.

Long and Short Essay on Unemployment in English

We have provided below short and long essay on unemployment in English for your knowledge and information. These essays have been written in simple and impressive language to convey the message with minimum effort.

After going through these Essays on Unemployment you will know about the factors leading to unemployment in India; what are the possible solutions for the eradication of unemployment; different types of unemployment; initiatives taken by the government to reduce unemployment; unemployment statistics in India etc.

These Unemployment essay will be useful in your school/college events of essay writing, speech giving or debate.

Unemployment Essay 1 (200 words)

People who are willing to work and are earnestly looking for job but are unable to find one are said to be unemployed. It does not include people who are voluntarily unemployed as well as those who are unable to seek job due to certain physical or mental health problem.

There are various factors that lead to the problem of unemployment in the country. These include:

  • Slow Industrial Growth
  • Rapid Increase in Population
  • Focus on Theoretical Education
  • Fall in Cottage Industries
  • Lack of alternative employment opportunities for the agricultural workers
  • Technological Advancement

Unemployment does not impact only the individuals but also the growth of the country. It has a negative impact on social and economic growth of the country. Here are some of the consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in crime rate
  • Poor standard of living
  • Loss of skill
  • Political instability
  • Mental health issues
  • Slow economic growth

Surprisingly, despite the negative repercussions it has on the society, unemployment is one of the most overlooked issues in India. The government has taken certain steps to control the problem; however, these have not been effective enough. The government should not just initiate programs to control this problem but also keep a check on their effectiveness and revise them if need be.

Unemployment Essay 2 (300 words)


Unemployment is a curse to the society. It does not only impact the individuals but also the society as a whole. There are a number of factors that lead to unemployment. Here is a look at these factors in detail and also the possible solutions to control this problem.

Factors Leading to Unemployment in India

  • Growth in Population

The rapid growth in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.

  • Slow Economic Growth

Slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal Occupation

Large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunity only for a certain part of the year.

  • Slow Growth of Industrial Sector

The growth of industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, the employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • Fall in Cottage Industry

The production in cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.

Possible Solutions to Eradicate Unemployment

  • Population Control

It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education System

The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.

  • Overseas Companies

The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.

  • Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.

The problem of unemployment in the country has persisted since long. While the government has launched several programmes for employment generation, desirable progress has not been achieved. The policy-makers and the citizens should make collective efforts in creating more jobs as well as acquiring the right skill-set for employability.

Unemployment Essay 3 (400 words)

Unemployment in India can be divided into many categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclic unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technological unemployment, underemployment, structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment and casual unemployment. Before leaning about these types of unemployment in detail let us understand as to who exactly is said to be unemployed. It is basically a person who is willing to work and is seeking an employment opportunity, however, is unable to find one. Those who choose to remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health issue are not counted as unemployed.

Here is a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:

Disguised Unemployment

When more than the required numbers of people are employed at a place, it is said to be disguised unemployment. Removing these people does not impact the productivity.

Seasonal Unemployment

As the term suggests, this is the type of unemployment that is seen during certain seasons of the year. The industries mostly affected by seasonal unemployment include the agricultural industry, resorts and ice factories, to name a few.

Open Unemployment

This is when a vast number of labourers are unable to seek a job that provides them regular income. The problem occurs as the labour force increases at a much greater rate compared to the economy’s growth rate.

Technological Unemployment

The use of technological equipments has also led to unemployment by reducing the requirement of manual labour.

Structural Unemployment

This kind of unemployment occurs because of a major change in the country’s economic structure. This is said to be a result of technological advancement and economic development.

Cyclic Unemployment

A reduction in the overall level of business activities leads to cyclic unemployment. However, the phenomenon is short-run.

Educated Unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skill and flawed education system are some of the reasons why the educated lot remains unemployed.


In this kind of unemployment people either take up a job on part time basis or take up work for which they are over-qualified.

Frictional Unemployment

This occurs when the demand of labour force and its supply are not synced appropriately.

Chronic Unemployment

This is long-term unemployment that continues in a country due to the rapid increase in population and low level of economic development.

Casual Unemployment

This may occur because of a sudden fall in demand, short-term contracts or shortage of raw material.

Though the government has launched several programmes to control each type of unemployment, however, the results are far from satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for employment generation.

Unemployment Essay 4 (500 words)

Unemployment is a serious problem. There are a number of factors including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, lack of skill, performance issues and increasing population rate that lead to this issue in India. Unemployment has a number of negative repercussions on the individuals as well as the country as a whole. The government has taken several initiatives to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned here in detail.

Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment

  • Training for Self Employment

Launched in 1979, the program was named, National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It is aimed at reducing unemployment among the youth in the rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

In the year 1978-79, the Indian government launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme to ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas. A sum of Rs. 312 crore was spent on this programme and as many as 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in Foreign Countries

The government helps people get employment in overseas companies. Special agencies have been established to hire people for work in other countries.

  • Small and Cottage Industries

In an attempt to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Several people are making their living with this initiative.

  • The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana

This program is aimed at providing self-employment as well as wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It includes two plans:

  • Urban Self-Employment Programme
  • Urban Wage Employment Programme
  • Employment Assurance Scheme

The program was launched in as many in 1994 in as 1752 backward blocks in the country. It provided unskilled manual work for 100 days to the poor unemployed people living in rural areas.

  • Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

The program was started in 13 states and covered as many as 70 drought-prone districts with an aim to remove seasonal unemployment. In its seventh plan, the government spent Rs. 474 crore.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program launched in April 1989 aimed at providing employment to a minimum of one member in each poor rural family for a period of fifty to hundred days a year. The employment opportunity is provided in the person’s vicinity and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor are given subsidy to establish micro enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities having a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities are given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment Guarantee Scheme

Unemployed people are provided economic assistance under this scheme. It has been launched in a number of states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, etc.

Apart from this, many other similar programs have been launched to reduce unemployment.

Though the government has been taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country a lot still needs to be worked upon in order to curb this problem in true sense.

Unemployment Essay 5 (600 words)

Unemployment is a grave issue. There are a number of factors that lead to it. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skill set, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly increasing population. Here is a look at the unemployment statics in the country, the consequences of unemployment and the measures taken by the government to control it.

Unemployment: Statistics in India

The Ministry of Labour and Employment of India keeps the records of unemployment in the country. The measure of unemployment is calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial amount of time during the 365 days preceding the date of collation of data and are still seeking employment.

India saw an average of 7.32 percent unemployment rate from 1983 to 2013 with a highest of 9.40 percent in the year 2009 and a record low of 4.90 percent in 2013. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate shot up significantly with 8.7 per cent for women and 4.3 per cent for men.

Consequences of Unemployment

Unemployment leads to serious socio-economic issues. It does not only impact the individuals but the society as a whole. Shared below are some of the major consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in Poverty

It goes without saying that increase in unemployment rate results in increase in the rate of poverty in the country. Unemployment is largely responsible for hampering the economic growth of the country.

  • Increase in Crime Rate

Unable to find a suitable job, the unemployed lot usually takes the path of crime as this seems to be an easy way of making money. One of the main causes of rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes is unemployment.

  • Exploitation of Labour

Employees usually take advantage of scarcity of jobs in the market by offering low wages. Unable to find a job matching their skill people usually settle for a low-paying job. Employees are also forced to work for more than the set number of hours each day.

  • Political Instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in loss of faith in the government and this often leads to political instability.

  • Mental Health

The dissatisfaction level among unemployed people increases and it can gradually lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of Skill

Staying out of job for long period of time makes one dull and eventually results in the loss of skill. It also lowers a person’s self confidence to a large extent.

The government of India has taken several initiatives to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed lot in the country. Some of these include the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojna (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP) Development of Organized Sector, Employment Exchanges, Employment in Foreign Countries, Small and Cottage Industries, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana, to name a few.

Besides offering employment opportunities by way of these programs, the government is also sensitizing the importance of education and providing skill training to the unemployed people.

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in the society. While the government has taken initiatives to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. The various factors causing this problem must be studied well to look for effective and integrated solutions for the same. It is time the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

More Information:

Essay on Poverty

Essay on Population

Essay on Food Waste

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China’s Xi fights fires at home and abroad

essay on youth unemployment in india

You’re reading an excerpt from the Today’s WorldView newsletter. Sign up to get the rest free , including news from around the globe and interesting ideas and opinions to know, sent to your inbox every weekday.

On a host of fronts, China’s domineering leader seems to be fighting fires. Abroad, President Xi Jinping is confronted by a hardening consensus against Beijing in the West, as well as ever-present friction with regional powers and neighbors. At home, Xi presides over a hinge moment for the Chinese economy. Its meteoric growth has slowed, a brief post-pandemic surge petered out, and analysts point to profound structural issues undermining China’s future prospects.

Xi and the ruling clique are struggling to address the new challenges posed by China’s maturing economy. The country’s population is both shrinking and aging, and questions loom over the potential productivity of a graying workforce . At the same time, youth unemployment has reached such striking levels that the government suspended publishing the relevant data this summer. China’s economy once seemed the new engine of the world — and the country remains a juggernaut in global trade — but a sense of stagnation is creeping in, one that can be seen in the macroeconomic data as well as the waning optimism of a younger generation that knew only the boom times.

China’s one-party state can’t repeat the mammoth stimulus for infrastructure projects and property construction that powered China out of the 2008 global financial crisis and allowed Xi and his allies to crow about the superiority of the Chinese model compared with the West’s crisis-hit democracies. A decade and a half later, cash is tighter, the wounds of the pandemic’s draconian lockdowns are still raw, and China’s overheated real estate sector is extra laden with debt, with some major developers teetering on the brink of collapse.

Xi’s ever-tightening authoritarian grip over virtually all facets of life in China is arguably making the situation worse. “The government’s pursuit of total control has set the country on a path of slower growth and created multiplying pockets of dissatisfaction,” wrote Ian Johnson , a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and a longtime China watcher.

As China’s economy slows, the buck stops with leader Xi Jinping

There are ripple effects on the world stage, too. “The current slowdown underscores a shift in China’s global image,” explained my colleague David Lynch . “For years, China’s vast domestic market beckoned multinational corporations with the promise of enormous profits. And it seemed certain to surpass the United States as the world’s largest economy.”

But now, “the outlook is less rosy,” Lynch wrote, with China posting a considerably sluggish performance in the second quarter given the pace-setting dynamism of its economy over the past three decades.

This may not be a blip, as Beijing weathers considerable geopolitical head winds. On a trip to China last week, U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo warned that the prevailing uncertainty , stoked also by the tough actions taken by the Chinese government against foreign businesses, is making China “uninvestable” in the eyes of U.S. investors.

“China needs to recognize that they can no longer rely on the sheer mass of their market to attract that type of foreign investment,” Naomi Wilson, vice president of policy, Asia and global trade at the Information Technology Industry Council, told my colleague Meaghan Tobin . “Even among Chinese companies, there have been efforts to relocate outside of China.”

Recent surveys of global public opinion find largely negative views of China’s influence in international affairs, including in some middle-income countries outside the West. In Asia, the United States has steadily bolstered a web of alliances and partnerships with China’s neighbors, bonds being strengthened directly out of concern for China’s increasingly aggressive behavior.

Chinese officials resent the implication that their state — rather than what they see as the overweening U.S. hegemon — represents a threat to stability and order. But Beijing can’t seem to help itself. The recent state publication of a map that claims chunks of territory in neighboring nations , including India, triggered a diplomatic spat with New Delhi that preceded news that Xi will not attend this week’s meeting of the Group of 20 major economies , hosted in the Indian capital.

China’s falling prices are a more profound problem than U.S. inflation

Xi’s apparent approach to the moment has been to double down on his hard-line nationalist instincts . Long gone are visions from a decade ago, when some experts imagined that China’s leaders would steer the country’s economy to a more liberalized, market-oriented future. Instead, Xi, an aloof supremo with the license to rule for life, has embarked upon rounds of radical purges and crackdowns that have affected the ranks of China’s political elites and its private sector.

Chinese tech companies hemorrhaged hundreds of billions of dollars in value in recent years. Capable technocrats in prominent posts were replaced with Xi loyalists. Managers and business executives in state-run companies are compelled to study and expound upon the virtues of “Xi Thought,” in a nod to the more doctrinaire, Maoist past. For Xi, centralized authority and control is paramount.

That reflects Xi’s weakness. “Whereas Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping enjoyed prestige from their revolutionary pedigree and exploits in establishing the ‘New China,’ Xi has no personal legitimacy independent of the Communist Party,” Chun Han Wong, author “ Party of One: The Rise of Xi Jinping and China’s Superpower Future ,” said in a recent interview . “His right to rule is inextricably linked with the party’s legitimacy, and his power cannot be separated from the party’s political machinery.”

China’s economic woes may leave U.S. and others all but unscathed

But what may be good for the party may not be good for the country . “These economic problems are part of a broader process of political ossification and ideological hardening,” Johnson wrote in an essay in Foreign Affairs . “For anyone who has observed the country closely over the past few decades, it is difficult to miss the signs of a new national stasis, or what Chinese people call neijuan . Often translated as ‘involution,’ it refers to life twisting inward without real progress.”

That malaise may have profound implications in the years to come. “So far nobody can challenge [Xi] politically,” Ling Chen, an assistant professor at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, told my colleague Christian Shepherd . “But economic performance is always the very core of the regime’s legitimacy and that affects how well he can govern the country.”

“Things always fail slowly until they suddenly break,” William Hurst, a professor of Chinese development at the University of Cambridge, told Reuters , warning of potential financial crises to come that may have steep social and political costs. “Eventually there’s going to have to be a reckoning.”

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  1. Countries With The Highest Youth Unemployment

  2. Essay on ||" PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA "|| #problem_of_unemployment_in_india#viral#education

  3. Essay on Unemployment English || बेरोजगारी निबंध

  4. Top 5 Unemployment Degrees in💰 India#motivational#success#educationsystem#viralvideo#shortsvideo

  5. बेरोजगारी और पलायन की पीड़ा से हर वर्ग जूझ रहा है। Prashant Kishor



  1. The Mounting Challenge of Youth Unemployment in India

    In 2018-19, before the pandemic struck, the unemployment rate amongst the educated youth (defined as those having secondary education and above) stood at 24.5% compared to 7% amongst those with primary education only.

  2. PDF Youth employment and unemployment: an Indian perspective

    This paper by Arup Mitra and Sher Verick provides important insights into the challenges facing young people in India in terms of underemployment, unemployment and the lack of job opportunities in the formal economy.

  3. Youth Employment and Unemployment in India: Issues and Challenges

    1 Citations 1 Altmetric Metrics Abstract The issue of youth employment is a global challenge. In India it has emerged increasingly as a daunting challenge over the years. This paper looks into various dimensions of the youth employment and unemployment in terms of their labour market characteristics.

  4. Youth Unemployment In India

    - Youth unemployment is an area of very serious concern to South Asia, India (which is the largest country in South Asia) and to me and my generation. The impact of unemployment among the young is described here in the first part of this essay.

  5. Youth employment and unemployment: An Indian perspective

    This paper provides important insights into the challenges facing young people in India in terms of underemployment, unemployment and the lack of job opportunities in the formal economy. The study highlights the diversity in outcomes for young people depending on their educational attainment, social status and where they live. Download:

  6. PDF Youth Unemployment in India: An analysis

    Youth Unemployment in India: An analysis BILAL AHMAD LONE * India is known for its youngest population in the world due to 27.5 percent youth population between the ages of 15-29. Youth have potential to change the fate of the country with their involvement in productive employment.

  7. Essay On Youth Unemployment

    Definition of Key Terms Unemployment: Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy . Youth Unemployment: The number of unemployed people aged 14-28. NEET: A NEET is a young person who is…show more content…

  8. Unemployment among youth in India : level, nature and policy implications

    Employment and Training Papers No. 36 (Action Programme on Youth Unemployment) Type: Working paper. Date issued: 01 November 1998. Reference: 92-2-111417-1 [ISBN] Authors: Pravin Visaria; Employment and Training Department, International Labour Office.

  9. Unemployment in India Essay

    - Narendra Modi Unemployment is a severe problem in India that affects millions of people. It is defined as a situation where a person is able and willing to work but cannot find a job. Unemployment can lead to poverty, social unrest and other negative effects on individuals and society. Causes Of Unemployment

  10. Youth Unemployment In India

    Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24 was 8.3% in 1994 and 10.1% in 2000 and 10.5% in 2004. Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24 of men was 8.4% in 1994 and 10.1% in 2000 and 10.4% in 2004. Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24 of women was 8% in 1994 and 10.2% in 2000 and 10.8% in 2004.

  11. Unemployment Essay

    The unemployment rate for the year 2013-14 in rural India was 4.7%, whereas it was 5.5% for urban India. In the short term, unemployment significantly reduces a person's income and, in the long term, it reduces their ability to save for retirement and other goals. Unemployment is a loss of valuable productive resources to the economy.

  12. PDF Unemployment among youth in India

    topics within the ambit of the youth unemployment "problem". The country case studies will be used as the basis for the major output of the Programme, a comparative report on youth unemployment and youth employment policy. Since the beginning of planning in India, the youth have been recognised as "the most vital section of the community".

  13. Youth Unemployment: Causes and Solutions of Youth Unemployment in India

    Causes We should analyses the causes behind unemployment among youths in India. Alarming growth rate of population: The most important factor is the alarming growth of population. The population of our country has exceeded 1.2 billion. We see that the population is growing fast but there is no expansion of corresponding avenues of employment.

  14. Essay on Unemployment in India: Look at the Most Essential Topic of

    6 July 17, 2021 6 Min Read Unemployment in India is proving to be the worst state for the country. It is defined under many classifications but the impact of it is that it is leading the country towards lower GDP and low living standards. Unemployment is the state of actively seeking work but not finding any paid function.

  15. Unemployment in India Essay in English for students

    Some of the causes of unemployment in India include a lack of education, a lack of employment prospects, and performance problems. To solve this issue, the Indian government must act decisively. The unemployment in India rate is one of the key issues that emerging nations deal with.

  16. Causes of Youth Unemployment: Emerging Issue in Indian Economy

    There are more than 6 crores well educated youth in India who are unemployed. Unemployment rate in India is reported by the India ministry of labour, they mention that in India the data of employment has first fallen, then risen and then fallen again.

  17. (PDF) Youth employment and unemployment in India

    Youth employment and unemployment in India Authors: Mahendra Dev Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research Venkatanarayana Motkuri Centre for Economic and Social Studies Figures .1: Labour...

  18. Unemployment In India Essay

    The first essay is a long essay on Unemployment In India of 400-500 words. This long essay about Unemployment In India is suitable for students of class 7, 8, 9 and 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants. The second essay is a short essay on Unemployment In India of 150-200 words.

  19. Youth Employment and Unemployment in India: Issues and Chall

    Corrections Author Listed: Alakh N. Sharma (Institute for Human Development Indian Journal of Labour Economics) Registered: Abstract The issue of youth employment is a global challenge. In India it has emerged increasingly as a daunting challenge over the years.

  20. Unemployment Essay for Students and Children

    500+ Words Essay on Unemployment Unemployment is a very serious issue not only in India but in the whole world. There are hundreds and thousands of people out there who do not have employment. Besides, the problems of unemployment are very severe in India because of the growing population and demand for jobs.

  21. India's jobs crisis is more serious than it seems

    Young bearing the brunt of sweeping job losses But unemployment in India mainly refers to educated young people looking for jobs in the formal economy - although the informal economy employs...

  22. Unemployment in India:

    India's urban unemployment rate jumped to 12.6 per cent in the April-June quarter of 2021, compared to 9.3 per cent in the January-March quarter. It, however, eased from the 20.8 per cent level seen during the first wave of the Covid pandemic. Impact of the pandemic: The biggest casualty of the pandemic will be joblessness.

  23. Essay on Unemployment for Children and Students

    Unemployment Essay By Archana One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem.

  24. China's Xi fights fires at home and abroad

    China's one-party state can't repeat the mammoth stimulus for infrastructure projects and property construction that powered China out of the 2008 global financial crisis and allowed Xi and ...

  25. Watch Is This India's Moment? The China Challenge

    00:00 India - home to a now record 1.4 billion people, more than half under the age of 30. But that also includes the largest number of jobless youth anywhere in the world. The fastest growing ...