United States Institute of Peace

Employment generation.

Creating jobs is a keystone of any economic recovery program. Many activities can fall under the rubric of job creation, including immediate short-term opportunities that yield quick impact, or the development of more enduring livelihoods in the civil service or private sector. It is important to distinguish between these different activities, recognizing that sustainability and long-term impact should be duly considered in implementing any employment generation program. Providing jobs is vital on many levels. Politically, employment opportunities give the population a stake in the peace process by providing young men and women with alternatives to violence. Economically, employment provides income to poor families, revives domestic demand for goods and services, and stimulates overall growth. Socially, employment can also promote social healing, encourage the return of displaced persons, and improve social welfare in the long run.

9.8.2 Guidance for Employment Generation

9.8.3 Approach: Quick Impact

Developing enduring livelihoods is vital for long-term peace and economic growth, but getting concrete results can take many years. In the emergency phases of economic recovery, the most immediate imperative is getting people back to work and getting money flowing, even if it the work is only temporary. The point of emergency phase economic recovery is to get labor and capital back to work quickly to show visible benefits of peace. 600

9.8.4 Generate positive results by focusing on public works projects. 601 Public works projects are effective ways to generate a lot of employment quickly while demonstrating progress that benefits communities. Job opportunities can include small-scale food- or cash-for-work projects, such as cleaning up public places, repairing roads and facilities, or installing generators. Be sure to consult with the host nation population on these efforts and to communicate to the population that this is a partnership effort between international actors and the host nation population.

9.8.5 Keep sustainability in mind, but avoid placing undue emphasis on it in the very  early stages of recovery. 602 Jobs that favor quick impact cannot substitute for long-term livelihood creation and should be viewed as much as possible through a lens of longterm sustainability. 603 Any short-term job creation program should be established in parallel with sustainable employment programs. However, focusing too heavily on the sustainability of economic activities while ignoring short-term imperatives is a mistake. When implemented well, quick impact projects can be effective in employing large numbers of people in the immediate aftermath of violent conflict.

See Trade-off: Section 9.9.7 , Meeting urgent needs for jobs vs. focusing on sustainable employment.

9.8.6 Recognize the potential impact of the international presence on economic distortions. 604 One distortion often occurs in the domestic labor, housing, and retail markets in the early recovery phases. International actors often pay high salaries for expatriates, international civil servants, domestic translators, and drivers, while increasing the demand for local housing and services attuned to foreign tastes and salaries. This creates tough competition for the host nation government to attract skilled professionals for public service. 605 The resulting disparity between the wealth of international actors and the economic hardships of the host nation population risks increasing friction, particularly between the country’s urban centers and the rest of the country. To mitigate these effects, international actors should determine appropriate wage rates for local staff, making them comparable to local government pay scales. Progressive income taxes are another way to reduce the attractiveness of working for the international community versus the host nation government. 606

9.8.7 Approach: Agricultural Rehabilitation

In most societies emerging from conflict, the agricultural sector provides the primary source of employment. Rehabilitating the agricultural sector and enabling landowners to grow the right crops, process them, and get them to market are key steps in economic recovery. During violent conflict, many farmers will have reduced their production of export crops, while increasing subsistence production. Governments may sometimes resort to heavy taxes on agricultural exports to finance their military spending.

9.8.8 Provide broad assistance in rehabilitating the agricultural sector. While most of the focus will be in rural farming, sometimes rehabilitation will include food processing and distribution, which would also involve work in urban areas. Assistance providers should understand what crops and livestock are staples for local diets and cash crops, and also when the crop cycles are in order to design employment programs that do not disrupt planting or harvests. 607 Public sector capacity is also necessary to regulate agricultural policy, including the establishment of a ministry of agriculture and development of farmers organizations. Immediate rehabilitation tasks should include the following:

  • Mine clearance of farmlands
  • Provision of seeds, tools and livestock
  • Repair of infrastructure, including processing and transport equipment, irrigation and drainage facilities, construction of water supplies, and improvement of roads and local market facilities
  • Development of trade relations to increase linkages among producers, processors, and markets
  • Improvement of access to credit
  • Provision of training in livestock management and crop productivity
  • Land reform.

9.8.9 Avoid disincentivizing local farming through relief operations. In responding to humanitarian emergencies, governments and relief organizations flood supplies of food into the country. This drives down local food prices by decreasing demand for locally produced food. Donor assessments should identify potential effects of relief operations to ensure that food aid does not adversely impact domestic agriculture or marketing. 608

9.8.10 Approach: Livelihood Development

The development of sustainable livelihoods is critical to providing a predictable flow of income to families and build skills and capacity in the labor force. In these environments, most opportunities for long-term employment will be concentrated in the civil service, private sector, and agriculture.

9.8.11 Recruit capable, accountable individuals for a lean and effective civil service.  Running government operations will require individuals with the capacity to contribute managerial, technical, and administrative talent. The civil service can be a strong source for new employment if sustained over the long term by adequate revenue generation. There will be pressures to rapidly recruit people for the civil service, but be careful not to create a bloated force. 609 Place a premium on professionalism, accountability, political independence, and a public service ethos. There also may be pressure to introduce ex-combatants into the civil service as a long-term job, but doing so may jeopardize the integrity of the service if they support certain parties. 610

9.8.12 Focus on agriculture, construction and service sectors, which will often provide the  bulk of job opportunities. 611 After violent conflict, the labor force typically lacks workers with advanced education, training, or marketable skills, which were lost through flight of professionals, injury, or death. Because of this, the agriculture, construction, and service (hotels, transport, logistics) sectors will be enormous draws for the labor market, as they do not require highly specialized skills, and demand for these industries will likely be high. Focus on these areas in the employment generation strategy to maximize the number of jobs for the population.

9.8.13 Pay special attention to women in micro-enterprise or vocational training. 612 During violent conflict, many women may have become heads of large households. They will have acquired critical skills to adapt to food shortages and become micro-entrepreneurs in the informal economy. This reality is too often overlooked in livelihood development strategies. Women are left out of vocational training opportunities and face unequal access to credit, assets, and technologies, forcing them to find jobs in more traditional sectors with limited potential. 613 Supporting women economically, however, can help promote the welfare of their children. Women in this respect are major catalysts for peace.

UN Decades on Poverty

First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty 1997-2006 

Second United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty 2008-2017

Third United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty 2018-2027 

SWAP Poverty

More issues.

Sustainable Development

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  • Generational Differences in the Workplace

Generational Differences in the Workplace [Infographic]

For the first time in history, there are five generations in the workplace. They are:

  • Traditionalists—born 1925 to 1945
  • Baby Boomers—born 1946 to 1964
  • Generation X—born 1965 to 1980
  • Millennials—born 1981 to 2000
  • Generation Z—born 2001 to 2020

What kinds of challenges does this present for today’s employers? How do generational workforce differences affect our ability to manage people effectively? And what are the traits, beliefs, and life experiences that mark each generation, influencing how they work, communicate, and respond to change?

That’s precisely what this infographic is about. We spoke with Dr. Bea Bourne, DM, faculty member in the School of Business and Information Technology at Purdue Global. Dr. Bourne is an expert on generational differences and generational response to organizational change. In this infographic, she shares her research regarding:

  • How today’s talent stacks up by generation, including their defining values, beliefs, and worldviews
  • The significant historical events that shaped each generation
  • How to best motivate and manage workers from each generation

With this information, managers and HR executives can develop multigenerational strategies in recruitment, orientation, talent management, retention, and succession planning.

Learn how to manage different generations at work.

Infographic about generational workforce differences. Text version available below infographic.

Generational Differences in the Workplace Content

One size doesn’t fit all when it comes to today’s workforce—five generations of workers means five approaches to work. Learn how to adjust to a multigenerational workforce.

  • Traditionalists: 2% (1925-1945)
  • Baby Boomers: 25% (1946-1964)
  • Generation X: 33% (1965-1980)
  • Generation Y: 35% (1981-2000)
  • Generation Z: 5% (2001-2020)


Born 1925–1945

Dependable, straightforward, tactful, loyal

Shaped by: The Great Depression, World War II, radio and movies

Motivated by: Respect, recognition, providing long-term value to the company

Communication style: Personal touch, handwritten notes instead of email

Worldview: Obedience over individualism; age equals seniority; advancing through the hierarchy

Employers should: Provide satisfying work and opportunities to contribute; emphasize stability

Baby Boomers

Born 1946–1964

Optimistic, competitive, workaholic, team-oriented

Shaped by: The Vietnam War, civil rights movement, Watergate

Motivated by: Company loyalty, teamwork, duty

Communication style: Whatever is most efficient, including phone calls and face to face

Worldview: Achievement comes after paying one’s dues; sacrifice for success

Employers should: Provide them with specific goals and deadlines; put them in mentor roles; offer coaching-style feedback

  • (5) 65% of baby boomers plan to work past age 65
  • (6) 10,000 baby boomers reach retirement age every day

Generation X

Born 1965–1980

Flexible, informal, skeptical, independent

Shaped by: The AIDs epidemic, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the dot-com boom

Motivated by: Diversity, work-life balance, their personal-professional interests rather than the company's interests

Worldview: Favoring diversity; quick to move on if their employer fails to meet their needs; resistant to change at work if it affects their personal lives

Employers should: Give them immediate feedback; provide flexible work arrangements and work-life balance; extend opportunities for personal development

  • (7) Gen Xers make up the highest percentage of startup founders at 55%
  • (8) Gen Xers will outnumber baby boomers by 2028


Born 1981–2000

Competitive, civic-minded, open-minded on diversity, achievement-oriented

Shaped by: Columbine, 9/11, the internet

Motivated by: Responsibility, the quality of their manager, unique work experiences

Communication style: IMs, texts, and email

Worldview: Seeking challenge, growth, and development; a fun work life and work-life balance; likely to leave an organization if they don't like change

Employers should: Get to know them personally; manage by results; be flexible on their schedule and work assignments; provide immediate feedback

  • (9) By 2025, millennials will comprise 75% of the global workforce
  • (10) About 15% of millennials age 25–35 live at home with their parents

Generation Z

Born 2001–2020

Global, entrepreneurial, progressive, less focused

Shaped by: Life after 9/11, the Great Recession, access to technology from a young age

Motivated by: Diversity, personalization, individuality, creativity

Communication style: IMs, texts, social media

Worldview: Self-identifying as digital device addicts; valuing independence and individuality; preferring to work with millennial managers, innovative coworkers, and new technologies

Employers should: Offer opportunities to work on multiple projects at the same time; provide work-life balance; allow them to be self-directed and independent

  • (11) 40% of Gen Z wants to interact with their boss daily or several times each day
  • (12) 84% of Gen Z expects their employer to provide formal training


  • Bea Bourne, “Phenomenological Study of Generational Response to Organizational Change” (doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2009).
  • “Labor Force Composition by Generation” infographic, Pew Research Center .
  • “9 Baby-Boomer Statistics That Will Blow You Away,” The Motley Fool .
  • “Baby Boomers Retire,” Pew Research Center .
  • “Different Motivations for Different Generations of Workers: Boomers, Gen X, Millennials, and Gen Z,” Inc.
  • “Millennials projected to overtake Baby Boomers as America’s largest generation,” Pew Research Center.
  • “Big demands and high expectations: The Deloitte millennial survey,” Deloitte.
  • “It’s becoming more common for young adults to live at home – and for longer stretches,” Pew Research Center .
  • “How to Easily Engage Gen Z Employees in the Workplace,” The Center for Generational Kinetics .
  • “Accenture Strategy: Gen Z Rising,” Accenture Strategy .
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Generation Unemployed: Another Class Of Graduates Faces Pandemic-Scarred Future

Sam Gringlas

Sam Gringlas

employment generation essay

College senior Bao Ha has applied to more than 100 jobs. So far, he's had no luck. Courtesy of Bao Ha hide caption

College senior Bao Ha has applied to more than 100 jobs. So far, he's had no luck.

The job market is starting to roar back, but for anxious college seniors like Bao Ha, it's a different reality altogether.

"I've probably applied to like 130 or 40 jobs or something," Ha says. "I have not gotten even an email back, or an interview."

Ha is graduating soon from Macalaster College in Minnesota, and between his anthropology thesis and trying to check items off his senior year bucket list, he has spent hours crafting cover letters and scouring job postings.

And now, self-doubt has started to trickle in.

"Maybe my cover letter sucks; maybe my resume sucks," he says.

By many indications, the job market is coming back: The employment report was a blockbuster, showing more than 900,000 jobs created with a big recovery in previously struggling sectors like restaurants.

The problem for students like Ha is that youth unemployment remains stubbornly high. Though much better than the 27.4% rate in April last year, the unemployment rate for those ages 16-24 actually ticked higher, to 11.1% in March. That was significantly above the overall unemployment rate of 6%.

Roaring Back: Employers Add 916,000 Jobs As Economy Emerges From Winter Slump

Roaring Back: Employers Add 916,000 Jobs As Economy Emerges From Winter Slump

That's no surprise to Elise Gould, a senior economist at the Economic Policy Institute. When the economy tumbles, the job market tends to be worse for young people, she says.

The reality is that there may be plenty of cheaper-to-hire college graduates, but in an economy still recovering from major layoffs, there are also plenty more experienced workers desperate for jobs.

"They'll choose, all else equal, people with more experience," Gould says about employers. "So young workers are left out in the cold and many are going to have a hard time starting their career."

Erica Schoenberg would know.

She was a member of the class of 2020, which had the misfortune of graduating in the brunt of the pandemic.

A year after Schoenberg watched her virtual graduation ceremony from Trinity University from her living room couch, she's back at her parents' home because she can't find a full-time job.

Needing the income and something to occupy the day, she took a part-time job at a fabric store, and she also teaches Hebrew school over Zoom.

It's far from the career in publishing she imagined, and Schoenberg frets about the gap on her resume that lengthens by the day.

"My mom said she thinks I can put recent graduate up until the next people do," Schoenberg says.

employment generation essay

Erica Schoenberg graduated from college in April 2020. After months searching, she took a part-time job at a fabric store and teaches Hebrew school on the side. Courtesy of Erica Schoenberg hide caption

Erica Schoenberg graduated from college in April 2020. After months searching, she took a part-time job at a fabric store and teaches Hebrew school on the side.

The difficulties in finding that first job are magnified for young people of color, especially those without college degrees. Many worked in sectors such as hospitality and retail, where millions lost their jobs.

Millions Are Out Of A Job. Yet Some Employers Wonder: Why Can't I Find Workers?

Millions Are Out Of A Job. Yet Some Employers Wonder: Why Can't I Find Workers?

Guadalupe Avalos is a senior at Cass Tech High School in Detroit. Last April, she was just a few months into a part-time job as a barista before the coffee shop shut down and let her go. She didn't even get to master the espresso machine.

"I was just learning to use that one," she says.

Avalos asked about jobs around her neighborhood, like a nearby pizza place and a grocery store, but she kept being turned away.

"Yeah, there was a job at a McDonald's, but it was 20 minutes away and I don't have that kind of transportation available to me," she says.

Finding a job is important to Avalos: It might determine whether she's able to pay for room and board at college next fall.

"I really, really want to move out and go to a college dorm room, but if I don't have that money, then I might just have to stay home," she says.

employment generation essay

High school senior Guadalupe Avalos lost her part-time job during the pandemic. Finding a new job would help her pay for college room and board next fall. Courtesy of Guadalupe Avalos hide caption

High school senior Guadalupe Avalos lost her part-time job during the pandemic. Finding a new job would help her pay for college room and board next fall.

She Works 2 Jobs. Her Grocery Budget Is $25. This Is Life Near Minimum Wage

She Works 2 Jobs. Her Grocery Budget Is $25. This Is Life Near Minimum Wage

And that points to a reality for many young people. Failing to land that dream first job, whether in high school or college, can end up derailing a lifetime's worth of career experience.

Economist Gould says the 2008 global financial crisis might be an inexact comparison to the pandemic-scarred economy. But one thing it showed was how difficult it is to recover from the setback of starting your career on the wrong foot.

"It took many years for some of those young high school and college graduates to get their foothold in the labor market, to get on a path they'd been trained for, to pay off student loans, to start a family, to invest and buy a house," she says.

Ha in Minneapolis has even more riding on finding that first job. He is the first generation in his family to graduate from college, and soon, his parents will attend his socially distanced graduation to watch him get his degree.

And although Ha is unsure of what his future holds, he is still hopeful that all the student loan debt, the hours of studying and the hundreds of cover letters sent will prove worth it at the end.

"I haven't given up," he says. "I'm just going to keep applying until something hits."

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Essay on Unemployment for Children and Students

employment generation essay

One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems faced by the developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major obstacles in the country’s economic growth but also has several other negative repercussions on the individual as well as the society as a whole.

Long and Short Essay on Unemployment in English

We have provided below short and long essay on unemployment in English for your knowledge and information. These essays have been written in simple and impressive language to convey the message with minimum effort.

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After going through these Essays on Unemployment you will know about the factors leading to unemployment in India; what are the possible solutions for the eradication of unemployment; different types of unemployment; initiatives taken by the government to reduce unemployment; unemployment statistics in India etc.

These Unemployment essay will be useful in your school/college events of essay writing, speech giving or debate.

Unemployment Essay 1 (200 words)

People who are willing to work and are earnestly looking for job but are unable to find one are said to be unemployed. It does not include people who are voluntarily unemployed as well as those who are unable to seek job due to certain physical or mental health problem.

There are various factors that lead to the problem of unemployment in the country. These include:

  • Slow Industrial Growth
  • Rapid Increase in Population
  • Focus on Theoretical Education
  • Fall in Cottage Industries
  • Lack of alternative employment opportunities for the agricultural workers
  • Technological Advancement

Unemployment does not impact only the individuals but also the growth of the country. It has a negative impact on social and economic growth of the country. Here are some of the consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in crime rate
  • Poor standard of living
  • Loss of skill
  • Political instability
  • Mental health issues
  • Slow economic growth

Surprisingly, despite the negative repercussions it has on the society, unemployment is one of the most overlooked issues in India. The government has taken certain steps to control the problem; however, these have not been effective enough. The government should not just initiate programs to control this problem but also keep a check on their effectiveness and revise them if need be.

Unemployment Essay 2 (300 words)


Unemployment is a curse to the society. It does not only impact the individuals but also the society as a whole. There are a number of factors that lead to unemployment. Here is a look at these factors in detail and also the possible solutions to control this problem.

Factors Leading to Unemployment in India

  • Growth in Population

The rapid growth in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.

  • Slow Economic Growth

Slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal Occupation

Large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunity only for a certain part of the year.

  • Slow Growth of Industrial Sector

The growth of industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, the employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • Fall in Cottage Industry

The production in cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.

Possible Solutions to Eradicate Unemployment

  • Population Control

It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education System

The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.

  • Overseas Companies

The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.

  • Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.

The problem of unemployment in the country has persisted since long. While the government has launched several programmes for employment generation, desirable progress has not been achieved. The policy-makers and the citizens should make collective efforts in creating more jobs as well as acquiring the right skill-set for employability.

Unemployment Essay 3 (400 words)

Unemployment in India can be divided into many categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclic unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technological unemployment, underemployment, structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment and casual unemployment. Before leaning about these types of unemployment in detail let us understand as to who exactly is said to be unemployed. It is basically a person who is willing to work and is seeking an employment opportunity, however, is unable to find one. Those who choose to remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health issue are not counted as unemployed.

Here is a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:

Disguised Unemployment

When more than the required numbers of people are employed at a place, it is said to be disguised unemployment. Removing these people does not impact the productivity.

Seasonal Unemployment

As the term suggests, this is the type of unemployment that is seen during certain seasons of the year. The industries mostly affected by seasonal unemployment include the agricultural industry, resorts and ice factories, to name a few.

Open Unemployment

This is when a vast number of labourers are unable to seek a job that provides them regular income. The problem occurs as the labour force increases at a much greater rate compared to the economy’s growth rate.

Technological Unemployment

The use of technological equipments has also led to unemployment by reducing the requirement of manual labour.

Structural Unemployment

This kind of unemployment occurs because of a major change in the country’s economic structure. This is said to be a result of technological advancement and economic development.

Cyclic Unemployment

A reduction in the overall level of business activities leads to cyclic unemployment. However, the phenomenon is short-run.

Educated Unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skill and flawed education system are some of the reasons why the educated lot remains unemployed.


In this kind of unemployment people either take up a job on part time basis or take up work for which they are over-qualified.

Frictional Unemployment

This occurs when the demand of labour force and its supply are not synced appropriately.

Chronic Unemployment

This is long-term unemployment that continues in a country due to the rapid increase in population and low level of economic development.

Casual Unemployment

This may occur because of a sudden fall in demand, short-term contracts or shortage of raw material.

Though the government has launched several programmes to control each type of unemployment, however, the results are far from satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for employment generation.

Unemployment Essay 4 (500 words)

Unemployment is a serious problem. There are a number of factors including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, lack of skill, performance issues and increasing population rate that lead to this issue in India. Unemployment has a number of negative repercussions on the individuals as well as the country as a whole. The government has taken several initiatives to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned here in detail.

Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment

  • Training for Self Employment

Launched in 1979, the program was named, National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It is aimed at reducing unemployment among the youth in the rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

In the year 1978-79, the Indian government launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme to ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas. A sum of Rs. 312 crore was spent on this programme and as many as 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in Foreign Countries

The government helps people get employment in overseas companies. Special agencies have been established to hire people for work in other countries.

  • Small and Cottage Industries

In an attempt to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Several people are making their living with this initiative.

  • The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana

This program is aimed at providing self-employment as well as wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It includes two plans:

  • Urban Self-Employment Programme
  • Urban Wage Employment Programme
  • Employment Assurance Scheme

The program was launched in as many in 1994 in as 1752 backward blocks in the country. It provided unskilled manual work for 100 days to the poor unemployed people living in rural areas.

  • Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

The program was started in 13 states and covered as many as 70 drought-prone districts with an aim to remove seasonal unemployment. In its seventh plan, the government spent Rs. 474 crore.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program launched in April 1989 aimed at providing employment to a minimum of one member in each poor rural family for a period of fifty to hundred days a year. The employment opportunity is provided in the person’s vicinity and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor are given subsidy to establish micro enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities having a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities are given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment Guarantee Scheme

Unemployed people are provided economic assistance under this scheme. It has been launched in a number of states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, etc.

Apart from this, many other similar programs have been launched to reduce unemployment.

Though the government has been taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country a lot still needs to be worked upon in order to curb this problem in true sense.

Unemployment Essay 5 (600 words)

Unemployment is a grave issue. There are a number of factors that lead to it. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skill set, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly increasing population. Here is a look at the unemployment statics in the country, the consequences of unemployment and the measures taken by the government to control it.

Unemployment: Statistics in India

The Ministry of Labour and Employment of India keeps the records of unemployment in the country. The measure of unemployment is calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial amount of time during the 365 days preceding the date of collation of data and are still seeking employment.

India saw an average of 7.32 percent unemployment rate from 1983 to 2013 with a highest of 9.40 percent in the year 2009 and a record low of 4.90 percent in 2013. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate shot up significantly with 8.7 per cent for women and 4.3 per cent for men.

Consequences of Unemployment

Unemployment leads to serious socio-economic issues. It does not only impact the individuals but the society as a whole. Shared below are some of the major consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in Poverty

It goes without saying that increase in unemployment rate results in increase in the rate of poverty in the country. Unemployment is largely responsible for hampering the economic growth of the country.

  • Increase in Crime Rate

Unable to find a suitable job, the unemployed lot usually takes the path of crime as this seems to be an easy way of making money. One of the main causes of rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes is unemployment.

  • Exploitation of Labour

Employees usually take advantage of scarcity of jobs in the market by offering low wages. Unable to find a job matching their skill people usually settle for a low-paying job. Employees are also forced to work for more than the set number of hours each day.

  • Political Instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in loss of faith in the government and this often leads to political instability.

  • Mental Health

The dissatisfaction level among unemployed people increases and it can gradually lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of Skill

Staying out of job for long period of time makes one dull and eventually results in the loss of skill. It also lowers a person’s self confidence to a large extent.

The government of India has taken several initiatives to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed lot in the country. Some of these include the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojna (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP) Development of Organized Sector, Employment Exchanges, Employment in Foreign Countries, Small and Cottage Industries, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana, to name a few.

Besides offering employment opportunities by way of these programs, the government is also sensitizing the importance of education and providing skill training to the unemployed people.

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in the society. While the government has taken initiatives to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. The various factors causing this problem must be studied well to look for effective and integrated solutions for the same. It is time the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

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Unemployment and Employment Generation: Types, Causes, Examples

The compilation of these Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues  Notes makes students exam preparation simpler and organised.

Unemployment and Employment Generation

Did you know India has one of the highest unemployment rates in Asia? In 2017 it was at 3.4%. One of the most crucial concerns of any economy is unemployment. This lesson elaborates on the concept and calculation of the unemployment rate, its causes, and how it differs in rural and urban India.

Unemployment: Definition and Calculation

Unemployment is a regularly used term and normally refers to those who are ‘out of work’. In strictly economic terms, the unemployed include all those who are able and willing to work but cannot find work. This includes the pool of persons who seek work through employment exchanges, friends, relatives, and other contacts and express their willingness to get employed, owing to the lack of work. Economists define an unemployed person as one who is unable to get work for even one hour during half a day.

The three major sources of official data on employment in India include:

  • The National Sample Survey Organization
  • Census of India
  • Directorate General of Employment and Training Data of Registration with Employment Exchanges

Unemployment Definition and Calculation

We use the following formula to calculate it:

Unemployment Rate = (No. of Unemployed Persons / Total Labourforce) × 100

Here, labour force refers to all those persons willing and able to engage in productive activity or work.

Types of Unemployment

1. Rural Unemployment India has roughly 70% of its population living in rural areas. Agriculture forms the mainstay of the rural population. But, not enough employment is available for all those living in the rural areas. This leads to unemployment, which can take three forms open, seasonal, and disguised.

2. Open Unemployment This refers to the situation in rural areas where people who are willing and actually able to work cannot find any work.

3. Disguised Unemployment This particularly plagues the Indian agrarian scenario. In this case, more workers than required are engaged on the farm, where not all of them are actually productively contributing to creating output. Thus, the marginal physical productivity of many workers is zero. This happens when almost the entire family engages in farm production.

4. Seasonal Unemployment The case with this is that workers remain out of work for a particular season. For example, workers hired only for the harvest season remain unemployed for the remaining part of the year. Or, if the industry itself is seasonal, workers naturally remain unemployed during the off-season.

5. Urban Unemployment The unemployed in the urban areas has increased considerably over the years. Normally, the number of the urban unemployed is registered with unemployment exchange boards. It can also take various forms, as under-

6. Industrial Unemployment Those illiterate persons who are willing and able to work in factories or industries in urban areas but cannot find work fall in this category. As rural-urban migration increases, urban unemployment also does.

7. Educated Unemployment The most horrifying kind of unemployment is when the educated youth are unable to find appropriate jobs to suit their qualifications. With an improvement in education over time, skilled workers have increased in number but the number of available jobs has not increased correspondingly. This causes educated unemployment.

8. Technological Unemployment This type of unemployment takes place every time technology upgrades and the existing workforce is unable to cope with the new technology. If the skills required to meet the new technology do not match the existing skill-sets of the employed workers and they cannot adapt, they become unemployed. Upgradation is a natural process, with cyclical obsolescence as one set of technology becomes irrelevant and gets replaced by another.

Types of Unemployment

Causes of Unemployment

To be able to deal with the problem of unemployment, it is now necessary for you to understand its causes in a country like ours. A slow rate of economic growth would mean that the national output is not increasing by much. It indicates that not enough jobs are being created to absorb the workers able and willing to work. Put simply, labour supply far exceeds existing job opportunities.

Another reason particular to India is its population growth rate. The number of people looking for jobs has multiplied manifold over the years as the population growth rate has soared high. The rising population proves to be a burden on the number of jobs that can actually be created in an economy with its limited resources. The recent population explosion is a contributing factor to decreased employment in the country.

Over-dependence on technology, domestic or foreign, has led to technological unemployment. This is because of less requirement of manual labour to accomplish tasks with greater dependence on machines and technology.

The lack of adequate fund allocation and financial resources to curb unemployment is also leading it to rise. Proper governmental programs targeting the unemployed population, if not well-implemented, harm the employment situation of the country. Lack of committed support to deal with the job crisis causes employment to fall.

Employment Generation

The government has a key role to play in employment generation in the country. In fact, it must persevere to increase the employment levels of the country. In the light of this, governments in the past have acted to deal with unemployment in India. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was passed in 2005. The NREGA seeks to provide 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to rural households willing to perform unskilled manual work. It makes special provisions for women and for the distance within which the job must be available to job-seekers for convenience.

State and federal governments, over the years, have played a key role in enacting other social security programmes, providing unemployment allowances and conducting training programmes, and encouraging on-the-job training to absorb more skilled labour into jobs.

The government has also strived to provide direct employment in government departments and offices at various positions and levels. It also helps in indirect employment through the production of goods and services that aid the ability of the private sector to invite more job applicants and create opportunities. One of the main allied objectives of these policy programmes is the idea of poverty alleviation, with other emphases on health, nutrition, a standard of living, education, road-building, infrastructure, and rural development.

Question: Sanjeev gets work for two hours a day. For the rest of the day, he is looking for work. Can you classify him as an unemployed person? Answer: Yes, Sanjeev is unemployed. This is as per the economists’ definition of unemployment that if a person does not get employment for even one hour during half a day, he is called ‘unemployed’. Sanjeev is employed for only two hours during a day and spends the remaining part of the day looking for work. So, he can be called unemployed.

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Nucor Case Study on Approach to Employee Motivation

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Moscow, like other international urban areas , is decentralizing, despite considerable barriers. The expansion will lead to even more decentralization, which is likely to lead to less time "stuck in traffic" and more comfortable lifestyles. Let's hope that Russia's urban development policies, along with its plans to restore population growth, will lead to higher household incomes and much improved economic performance.

Wendell Cox is a Visiting Professor, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Paris and the author of “ War on the Dream: How Anti-Sprawl Policy Threatens the Quality of Life ”

Note 1: The 23 ward (ku) area of Tokyo is the geography of the former city of Tokyo, which was abolished in the 1940s. There is considerable confusion about the geography of Tokyo. For example, the 23 ward area is a part of the prefecture of Tokyo, which is also called the Tokyo Metropolis, which has led some analysts to think of it as the Tokyo metropolitan area (labor market area). In fact, the Tokyo metropolitan area, variously defined, includes, at a minimum the prefectures of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama with some municipalities in Gunma, Ibaraki and Tochigi. The metropolitan area contains nearly three times the population of the "Tokyo Metropolis."

Note 2: The expansion area (556 square miles or 1,440 square kilometers) has a current population of 250,000.

Note 3: Includes all residents in suburban districts with at least part of their population in the urban area.

Note 4: Urban area data not yet available.

Photo: St. Basil's Cathedral (all photos by author)

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Road in city area.

The roads and ways of the city areas are very clumsy and many accidents are happening due to the short road. But you need to maintain the driving properly otherwise you may face accident. So now the government decided to expand the road which may put the positive effect on automobile sector. I think it is a helpful service for the society people. If you have a BMW car and you have faced any problem then better to repair it at BMW Repair Spring, TX for the best service.

Transit & transportation

Transit and transportation services are quite impressive in most of the urban cities; therefore people were getting better benefits from suitable transportation service. Urban cities like Moscow, Washington, New York and Tokyo; we have found high margin of transportation system that helps to build a better communication network in these cities. I hope through the help of modern transportation system we are able to bring revolutionary change in automobile industries; in this above article we have also found the same concepts to develop transportation system. Mercedes repair in Torrance

Moscow is bursting Noblesse

Moscow is bursting Noblesse at the seams. The core city covers more than 420 square miles (1,090 kilometers), and has a population of approximately 11.5 million people. With 27,300 residents per square mile (10,500 per square kilometer), Moscow is one percent more dense than the bleach anime watch city of New York, though Moscow covers 30 percent more land. The 23 ward area of Tokyo (see Note) is at least a third more dense, though Moscow's land area is at least half again as large as Tokyo. All three core areas rely

Belgravia Villas is a new

Belgravia Villas is a new and upcoming cluster housing located in the Ang Mo Kio area, nested right in the Ang Mo Kio landed area. It is within a short drive to Little India, Orchard and city area. With expected completion in mid 2016, it comprises of 118 units in total with 100 units of terrace and 18 units of Semi-D. belgravia villas

Russians seeing the light while Western elites are bickering?

What an extremely interesting analysis - well done, Wendell.

It is also extremely interesting that the Russian leadership is reasonably pragmatic about urban form, in contrast to the "planners" of the post-rational West.

An acquaintance recently sent me an article from "The New Yorker", re Moscow's traffic problems.

The article "abstract" is HERE (but access to the full article requires subscription)


One classic quote worth taking from it, is: "People will endure all manner of humiliation to keep driving".

I do find it odd that the "New Yorker" article author says nothing at all about the rail transit system Moscow had, on which everyone was obliged to travel, under Communism. It can't surely have vaporised into thin air?

Moscow is a classic illustration of just how outmoded rails are, and how important "automobility" is, when the auto supplants rails so rapidly than even when everybody did travel on rails up to a certain date, and the road network dates to that era, when nobody was allowed to own a car; an article written just 2 decades later does not even mention the rail transit system, other than to criticise the mayor for "failing to invest in a transit system".......!!!!!!!!

This is also a give-away of "The New Yorker's" inability to shake off the modern PC ideology on rails vs cars.

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An overhead view of a shipbuilding yard on the water, with many yellow cranes and metal equipment.

Faced With Evolving Threats, U.S. Navy Struggles to Change

A new generation of cheaper and more flexible vessels could be vital in any conflict with China, but the Navy remains lashed to big shipbuilding programs driven by tradition, political influence and jobs.

The 800-acre Huntington Ingalls complex in Pascagoula, Miss., is one of seven major Navy shipbuilding yards across the country. Credit... Annie Flanagan for The New York Times

Supported by

Eric Lipton

By Eric Lipton

Reporting from Pascagoula, Miss., and Manama, Bahrain

  • Sept. 4, 2023

A symphony of sorts echoed through the sprawling shipyard on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi — banging, hissing, beeping, horns, bells and whistles — as more than 7,000 workers hustled to fill orders fueled by the largest shipbuilding budget in the Navy’s history.

The surge in spending, $32 billion for this year alone, has allowed the Huntington Ingalls shipyard to hire thousands of additional people to assemble guided missile destroyers and amphibious transport ships. “More ships are always better,” said Kari Wilkinson, the president of the shipyard, pointing to the efficiencies that come with a steady flow of contracts and the jobs they create.

But the focus from Washington on producing a stream of new warships is also creating a fleet that some inside the Pentagon think is too wedded to outdated military strategies and that the Navy might not be able to afford to keep running in decades to come.

Half a world away, at a U.S. Navy outpost in Bahrain, a much smaller team was testing out a very different approach to the service’s 21st-century warfighting needs.

Bobbing in a small bay off the Persian Gulf was a collection of tiny unmanned vessels, prototypes for the kind of cheaper, easier-to-build and more mobile force that some officers and analysts of naval warfare said was already helping to contain Iran and could be essential to fighting a war in the Pacific.

Operating on a budget that was less than the cost of fuel for one of the Navy’s big ships, Navy personnel and contractors had pieced together drone boats, unmanned submersible vessels and aerial vehicles capable of monitoring and intercepting threats over hundreds of miles of the Persian Gulf, like Iranian fast boats looking to hijack oil tankers.

Now they are pleading for more money to help build on what they have learned.

“It’s an unbelievable capability — we have already tested it for something like 35,000 hours,” said Michael Brown , who was the director of the Defense Innovation Unit, which helped set up the unmanned drone tests in Bahrain. “So why are we not fielding that as fast as possible?”

A close-up view of a silver aquatic drone in the water. It has black solar panels all over it, and cameras and antennas.

The contrast between the approaches in Pascagoula and Bahrain helps to illustrate one of the biggest challenges facing the Navy.

At no moment since World War II has the service faced a more urgent demand to embrace new technologies and weapons systems, given the rising threat from a now formidable Chinese military.

The Navy’s top brass talks frequently about the need to innovate to address the threat presented by China. The Defense Department’s own war games show that the Navy’s big-ship platforms are increasingly vulnerable to attack.

But the Navy, analysts and current and former officials say, remains lashed to political and economic forces that have produced jobs-driven procurement policies that yield powerful but cumbersome warships that may not be ideally suited for the mission it is facing.

An aversion to risk-taking — and the breaking of traditions — mixed with a bravado and confidence in the power of the traditional fleet has severely hampered the Navy’s progress, several recently departed high-ranking Navy and Pentagon officials told The New York Times.

“The U.S. Navy is arrogant,” said Lorin Selby, who retired this summer as a rear admiral and the chief of naval research after a 36-year career in which he helped run many of the Navy’s major acquisition units. “We have an arrogance about, we’ve got these aircraft carriers, we’ve got these amazing submarines. We don’t know anything else. And that is just wrong.”

Resistance to risk-taking and change for the military can also be found among members of Congress.

Leadership on Pentagon budgets on Capitol Hill is dominated by lawmakers from shipbuilding communities like Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi. The industry directs tens of millions of dollars of campaign contributions to key lawmakers and mounts lobbying campaigns pushing the Navy to build more ships.

In just the past eight years, Congress has added $24 billion in extra money to build ships, more than any other part of the Pentagon budget , even as lawmakers have cut spending on repairs to the fleet, according to an analysis by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.

Congress has also balked at efforts to retire older ships that the Navy says provide only marginal warfighting capacity, leaving the service at risk of not being able to afford basic maintenance and staffing costs.

The result, officials acknowledge, has been to bring into focus how slow the Navy has been to provide the funding and attention to the rapid innovation that many analysts say is necessary — even as money pours into conventional shipbuilding programs.

Capt. Alex Campbell of the Navy, whose job this year has been to find ways to buy cheaper, faster, more innovative technology, said the amount of money that had been allocated to the effort so far was minuscule.

“It’s the dust particle on the pocket lint of the budget,” he said.

No one is arguing that the Navy no longer needs traditional warships; in fact, a large fleet of fast-attack submarines would be particularly vital in any conflict with China.

To many analysts, industry executives and current and former military officials, the open question is how quickly the Navy can embrace the tactical opportunities by also arming itself with a new generation of weapons that are more maneuverable, cheaper to build and less devastating to lose. Even as the big shipyards are booming, companies that make unmanned platforms like those being evaluated in Bahrain are struggling to remain afloat.

“Right now, they are still building a largely 20th-century Navy,” said Bryan Clark , a former Navy budget planner who serves as a consultant to the service.

The biggest barriers to transforming the Navy include its antiquated procurement system, which takes years to build out detailed specifications for new ships and then years more to get money allocated to build them.

The Navy must also radically revamp the way it organizes its fleet, critics of the current system say, to better allow its large platform ships to operate alongside a diverse fleet of unmanned vessels to better collect information on threats and instantly launch attacks.

Commanders who are comfortable with decades-old tactics and concepts are having a hard time accepting the need for changes, several recently departed Navy officials said.

Navy leaders have said they are committed to shifting to a new operational approach they are calling “ distributed maritime operations ,” a combination of traditional ships and unmanned drones that will allow them to spread out their forces.

In a statement to The Times, Carlos Del Toro , the secretary of the Navy, said the service had made “profound progress” over the past two years in starting to modernize its fleet. It is preparing to take additional steps soon, he said, including the creation of a unit called the Disruptive Capabilities Office.

“I am doing everything in my power to ensure that we stay at the forefront of building the warfighting capabilities and industries of the future,” said Mr. Del Toro, a former commander of a guided missile destroyer built in Pascagoula. “We are committed to innovation and advancing technological advances to maintain our strategic edge as a nation.”

But Adm. Michael M. Gilday, who until last month served as the chief of naval operations, conceded that the Navy had been taking only cautiously measured steps.

“Revolutionary change is really hard, and we’ve learned sometimes the hard way when we move too fast, we make big mistakes,” Admiral Gilday said in a speech this year. “And so our path really has been more evolutionary. It’s been more deliberate, but it has been focused.”

A Mississippi Empire

Thousands of workers in hard hats pour through the gates at the Huntington Ingalls shipyard in Pascagoula before the pre-dawn horn sounds at the start of a shift, offering a regular reminder of what an enormous operation the shipbuilding effort is here — the largest manufacturing employer in Mississippi.

The most prominent of the four classes of ships the shipyard produces are the Arleigh Burke guided-missile destroyers, 509-foot vessels that are considered the workhorses of the Navy.

The destroyers can handle a range of missions, including hunting down and destroying enemy submarines, attacking other ships in nearby waters and firing precision missiles to strike far-off targets on land. The Navy already has 73 of them and has deals to build 16 more , at a price tag of about $2 billion apiece.

The problem is that despite their awesome power, these types of destroyers, like certain other traditional warships, are increasingly vulnerable — especially in a conflict with China over Taiwan, according to repeated war game exercises conducted by the Pentagon, its contractors and outside consultants .

China has built up its own navy and air force, as well as an elaborate network of anti-ship missiles along its southern and eastern coasts and on islands it has constructed in the South China Sea.

The risks to U.S. Navy ships in any conflict in that region are so severe that the United States is left with two undesirable options, according to researchers at RAND Corporation, a think tank that has run a series of war game exercises for the Pentagon.

If the Navy ships choose to approach China, many will be hit by Chinese missiles and damaged if not destroyed, resulting in lost U.S. ships and casualties on a scale unseen since World War II , the war games repeatedly concluded.

“We lose a lot of people, we lose a lot of equipment, we usually fail to achieve our objective,” David A. Ochmanek , a former deputy assistant secretary of defense who now works at RAND, said during a public discussion of some of the research, a summary he reiterated in a recent interview.

Alternatively, the ships will stay hundreds or even thousands of miles from the area, making it much harder for Navy aircraft or missiles to reach their targets and leaving the initial engagement largely to Air Force bombers, Navy submarines and some long-distance Navy strikes, the war game exercises concluded .

“What it comes down to is, in many cases, the Navy surface fleet doesn’t play a major role,” said Michael Bohnert , a war games engineer at RAND.

One of the best ways for the Navy to counter this challenge, Mr. Ochmanek said, would be to rapidly deploy a fleet of armed, unmanned vessels and drones that can get close to Chinese targets. But, he added, “I have not been impressed with the speed at which they’re moving on that.”

Instead, the debate in Washington remains largely focused on protecting and expanding traditional platforms.

The Pentagon this year proposed delaying the purchase of one of the ships, known as an amphibious transport dock, that Huntington Ingalls builds at its Pascagoula yard, citing the rising cost.

Again and again, lawmakers pressed Navy officials not to delay, and think tanks and consulting firms funded by the shipbuilders pushed out opinion pieces instead urging the Navy to build more manned ships.

Mr. Wicker managed late last year with other lawmakers like Senator Susan Collins , Republican of Maine, also a shipbuilding state, to add $2 billion to the Navy budget to build an extra destroyer.

In a statement to The Times, Mr. Wicker said he had pushed the Navy to embrace unmanned vessels as well as to build traditional ships. “Backing traditional platforms or shifting completely toward advanced technology is a false choice,” he said.

Shipbuilders and other contractors that provide equipment installed on these ships have also flooded lawmakers with campaign contributions, totaling more than $90 million just in the past five years . Some of the largest chunks of that money went to lawmakers who lead the budget and Pentagon oversight committees, including Mr. Wicker.

Huntington Ingalls, like the other major contractors, also has its own small army of lobbyists . They include two former House leaders ( Richard A. Gephardt , Democrat of Missouri, and Robert Livingston , Republican of Louisiana, who was the speaker-designate before resigning) and a former Senate majority leader ( Trent Lott, Republican of Mississippi ), as well as Haley Barbour, the former Mississippi governor and Republican National Committee chairman.

When the Senate moved this summer to adopt its bill authorizing Pentagon spending for the 2024 fiscal year, it called for the Navy to move ahead with construction of the additional ship sought by Mr. Wicker , in spite of the Pentagon’s push for a delay .

Soon after that move, the Navy announced a multibillion-dollar commitment through 2027 to build nine more of the destroyers at Pascagoula and a second private shipyard, which will help assure job security for thousands of workers. Even before that, Huntington Ingalls, which recently began to call itself HII, told investors it was carrying a $46.9 billion backlog of orders for ships, the largest in its history.

Experiment in the Persian Gulf

On a bay just off the Persian Gulf, two very unusual Navy vessels moved about: one built for speed, the other endurance, but both unmanned. They were there to help track and intercept threats from Iran, which has been seizing oil tankers and harassing ships passing through a vital choke point of international commerce.

One, the T-38 Devil Ray , which can reach speeds of up to 90 miles per hour — faster than just about any other vessel in the Navy — was awaiting its next assignment. Alongside it was the Ocean Aero Triton , whose solar-power system allows it to operate for three months at a time without any need to refuel.

With more U.S. warfighting assets shifted toward Asia, the Navy’s Fifth Fleet — which covers a 2.5-million-square-mile expanse that encompasses the Persian Gulf and part of the Indian Ocean — has had to figure out how to do more with less.

The experiment behind the Devil Ray and the Triton, nicknamed Task Force 59 , has become a fulcrum for the debate over whether the military is moving fast enough to embrace new and more flexible ways of adapting to a changing threat environment.

The experiment in Bahrain started after Admiral Selby, then the chief of the Office of Naval Research, proposed that the Navy try out some of the unmanned vessels as part of an annual Navy exercise off San Diego in early 2021 . He said he found enormous enthusiasm for the idea among frontline commanders in the Pacific and the Middle East.

“We are trying to improve Navy power, but we need to do more than that: We need to reimagine Navy power,” he said in an interview this summer, just after retiring from the Navy. “We’re kind of at a pivotal point in history. It is vital that we throw off old conventions.”

The effort in Bahrain took off with the support of Vice Adm. Brad Cooper, the commander of Navy forces in the region. But it was a shoestring effort, led by Capt. Michael D. Brasseur, who had worked on a similar project for NATO.

The Navy had already contracted with traditional suppliers like Boeing and L3Harris to develop unmanned vessels with names like Orca, Snakehead and Sea Hunter. But several of those projects were already years behind schedule and tremendously over budget — or had such severe problems they were quietly canceled .

The team in Bahrain took a very different approach, turning to smaller, more entrepreneurial companies and sidestepping the bureaucracy that slows and complicates big weapons programs. It found partners in companies like Saildrone, Anduril, Shield AI and Martac, which had never built a major Navy ship.

Task Force 59 also used creative business models to get the innovative vessels in the water quickly. Saildrone, of Alameda, Calif., makes surveillance vessels that operate on their own for up to a year. But rather than buying the vessels, the Navy purchased the data they were collecting, saving on maintenance as well as acquisition costs.

Many of the new breed of vessels and drones do not carry weapons , but their sophisticated cameras, mine-sensing devices and other sensors allow the Navy fleet based in Bahrain to keep watch over a larger chunk of the waters it patrols.

“It is a gigantic increase in awareness of what’s happening and thus increasing your ability to respond,” Admiral Cooper said.

When Iran began to intercept oil tankers this year, the unmanned vessels for the first time were used to lead the patrol, navigating through the Strait of Hormuz ahead of the U.S. military ships.

“The cameras on those boats are pretty amazing — you can see people’s expressions, read their name tags, even see their facial hair,” Captain Brasseur said.

Given that war games had demonstrated the need for thousands of unmanned devices for surveillance, interdiction and attack purposes to prepare for any conflict with China, Admiral Selby pushed colleagues at the Pentagon to figure out a way to rapidly buy thousands of similar devices for the Navy to use worldwide.

But again and again, he said, he ran into roadblocks. He proposed that the Navy create a new high-ranking officer who would have the authority and funding to build a so-called hybrid fleet in which the new generation of unmanned vehicles would operate in conjunction with traditional warships.

The response he said he received from the Navy: It did not have an available “billet” — authorization to fill a high-ranking post — to follow up on his plan.

“You now run up against the machine — the people who just want to kind of continue to do what we’ve always done,” Admiral Selby said. “The budgeting process, the congressional process, the industrial lobbying efforts. It is all designed to continue to produce what we’ve already got and make it a little better. But that is not good enough.”

The Navy has agreed to expand the experiment conducted in Bahrain to at least one other part of the world, around Latin America, mostly for immigration and drug interdiction efforts. But so far it has not adopted detailed new operational strategies that will govern how to integrate these unmanned platforms broadly across the Navy nor allocated large sums of money to start buying them.

The contractors that have built these unmanned drones are still waiting for major orders, even though commanders from various Navy fleets have made clear they are anxious for their own allotment of the new tools.

“There just is not the leadership at the top to say, ‘Get it done,’” said Richard Jenkins , the founder and chief executive officer of Saildrone, whose surveillance vessel Navy officials said had been one of the most valuable tools demonstrated out of Bahrain.

The company could deliver as many as 400 of its vessels a year. But so far, it has Navy contracts for only 16, including the six still being used around Bahrain.

A similar sentiment was expressed by Ken Perry, a former nuclear submarine captain who is now an executive at ThayerMahan , a Connecticut-based company that has invented an unmanned device that tracks enemy submarines at a fraction of the cost of the large vessels the Navy uses.

“They refuse to take money from the legacy programs,” Mr. Perry said. “The Navy, big industry and other key stakeholders are vested in the current shipbuilding enterprise.”

Eric Lipton is a Washington-based investigative reporter. A three-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize, he previously worked at The Washington Post and The Hartford Courant. More about Eric Lipton


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Definitions & translations, a member of the stands4 network, free, no signup required :, add to chrome, add to firefox, browse definitions.net, are you a words master, standing above others in quality or position.

  • A.   indiscernible
  • B.   eminent
  • C.   epidemic
  • D.   ectomorphic



What is another word for employment-generation ?

Synonyms for employment-generation em·ploy·ment-gen·er·a·tion, this thesaurus page includes all potential synonyms, words with the same meaning and similar terms for the word employment-generation ., ppdb, the paraphrase database rate these paraphrases: 1.0 / 1 vote.

List of paraphrases for "employment-generation":

job-creating , job-creation

How to pronounce employment-generation?

How to say employment-generation in sign language, translations for employment-generation, from our multilingual translation dictionary.

  • خلق فرص العمل Arabic
  • beskæftigelsesgenerering Danish
  • Beschäftigungsgeneration German
  • απασχόληση-παραγωγή Greek
  • generación de empleo Spanish
  • نسل شغلی Persian
  • employment-generation French
  • giniúint fostaíochta Irish
  • रोजगार पीढ़ी Hindi
  • foglalkoztatás-generáció Hungarian
  • generasi kerja Indonesian
  • occupazione-generazione Italian
  • דור התעסוקה Hebrew
  • 雇用創出 Japanese
  • 고용 창 Korean
  • werkgelegenheid generatie Dutch
  • generowanie zatrudnienia Polish
  • Geração de emprego Portuguese
  • занятости поколения Russian
  • sysselsättning generationens Swedish
  • வேலை தலைமுறை Tamil
  • istihdam nesil Turkish
  • روزگار کی نسل Urdu
  • 创造就业机会 Chinese

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  • A.   Allocate
  • B.   Allot
  • C.   Appoint
  • D.   Assign

Nearby & related entries:

  • employment agreement noun
  • employment contract noun
  • employment interview noun
  • employment office noun
  • employment-generating
  • employment-generation
  • employment-intensive
  • employment-related
  • employments

Alternative searches for employment-generation :

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  27. Employment-generation Synonyms & Antonyms

    Synonyms for employment-generation em·ploy·ment-gen·er·a·tion This thesaurus page includes all potential synonyms, words with the same meaning and similar terms for the word employment-generation. PPDB, the paraphrase database Rate these paraphrases: 1.0 / 1 vote.