Essay About Immigration Causes and Effects

People have been migrating since prehistoric times. How and why would they choose to immigrate? What are the effects of immigration? In this essay about immigration causes and effects, you will discover the current debates surrounding immigration, such as issues related to national security and the economy. Mentioning the three main causes of immigration – political unrest and wars, freedom and rights violations, and poverty – the author concludes that immigration brings many benefits. However, it is vital for governments to carefully consider the consequences and develop policies that balance the needs of all parties involved.


Illegal immigrants, causes of immigration, effects of immigration, immigration policies, video version.

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The issue of immigration has been in the limelight for a long period of time now. The most affected region being the United States of America which forms the destination of most immigrants. Immigration generally entails people moving from their native lands to other destinations where they end up settling (Williams 83). There are various reasons as to why people decide to leave their land and move to other regions. Some of which include search for employment, political uproars and natural disasters just to mention but a few.

The immigrants who get into another country are broadly classified into two groups that are the legal and illegal immigrants. Legal immigrants are those seek the authorization from the immigration department of the state’s government on entering the nation. That way, they possess legal documents and become just like the citizens of that nation.

Illegal immigrants on the other hand are people who enter the borders of a nation without proper immigration procedures and choose to remain in that country without permission (Williams 83). Therefore the problem of immigration is usually caused by the illegal immigrants and not the legal ones. This paper is therefore a synthesis of the issue of immigration especially in the United States where it is most prevalent.

The United States of America is one of the most preferred destinations for most illegal immigrants in the world because of its open border policy. As a matter of fact, the United States has procedures in its constitution that allow the presence of illegal immigrants in the country. Thus it is deemed to have the highest number of immigrants according to research done by the Department of Homeland Security where the population of illegal immigrant was 10.8 million in 2009 (Espenshade 195).

Illegal immigrants in the United States of America have led to both negative and positive impacts in terms of economic and social status. For example, they have created problems of a bilingual society, drug trafficking, traffic congestion and the free-rider problem. However, illegal immigrants contribute greatly to the society by performing tasks that the civilized Americans would not perform such as the construction industry.

The reason as to why people flee from their country is because of different problems that may have cropped up in those regions. Thy therefore decide to move to safer and more comfortable regions. Some of the major causes of immigration in the current world include;

Political unrests and wars

This is one of the common causes of immigration in various regions of the world. The fact that most people live in regions where the governments and politicians practice corruption hence being inefficient in their duty of work leads to people moving to other regions in search of peace and harmony (Swanson 1). At the same time, in nations where they are experiencing civil wars with their neighboring nations, people will therefore flee to the peaceful regions.

Freedom and Rights reasons

Every human being desires to have freedom and rights to do whatever they would wish as long as it is in accordance with the law. The deprivation of rights has been another cause of immigration. In areas where people are prosecuted because of their religion or culture, they tend to run away from such thus finding places where they will be accepted.

People are forced to move in search of greener pasture when the pain of hunger grows stronger than they can hold. This occurs as a result of areas that have been draught stricken or flooded such that getting food is a problem. That way people move to areas that have food for them to consume lest they die of hunger.

Immigration has both negative and positive impacts on the nation in which the immigrants settle. However, the cons of immigration outweigh the pros with the only benefit being a source of cheap labor for the informal employment (Swanson 1). The negative effects of immigration therefore include;

To begin with, immigration is major cause of overpopulation in the United States of America. As a result the resources are constrained since they have been overwhelmed by the increasing population.

The overpopulation issue is what now leads to other problems such as increased crime rates, pollution, congestion in housing and use of public amenities (Beck 165). In other instances, if the immigrants are left to grow in numbers, then they may at one time cause wars with the natives as they fight to possess the lands they have settled in for a long time.

The fact that immigration is not acceptable both socially and economically, it should be curbed out. Some of the ways through which immigration could be reduced to minimal levels is through enactment of strict rules governing the immigration issue.

For instance the government of the United States has put in place The Secure Fence Act of 2006 as well as the Comprehensive Immigration form at its border with Mexico. This was initiated by the former president Bush in a bid to reduce the number of immigrants coming from Mexico to the United States.

This act enabled the construction of a fence along the border with Mexico at the south. Other than this, the Act led to the authorization of additional vehicle barriers, checkpoints and increased lighting at the border so as to ensure that only legal migration took place. On the other hand, the Comprehensive Immigration form has increased the funding allocated for border security thus ensuring that safety was enhanced at the border as a result of additional border patrol agents and guards.

From the above discussion, it can be clearly seen that the issue of immigration is a cause for most societal and economic problems. However, the immigrants cannot be blamed for their acts since they do so in search of peaceful regions. It would therefore be against the human rights to chase and reprimand the immigrants. As a matter of fact, some of the immigrants enter the border for genuine reasons such as being safe and getting cheap employment to sustain their livelihoods.

Thus assist in industries such as the construction, restaurants, truck driving, and masonry among others which heavily depend on the labor from the immigrants. It has been noted that most of the employers prefer using labor from the illegal immigrants because they end up saving so much on the cost of wages. Therefore, despite the fact that the illegal immigrants do not pay taxes to enjoy the public goods and services, their contribution to the economy counterbalances the argument.

Beck, Rita. The case against immigration . (2001) Oxford, UK: Norton Publishers, Shapiro, Richard.

Espenshade, T. “Unauthorized Immigration to the United States” Annual Review of Sociology . (1995). Volume: 21. pp. 195.

Swanson, Marisa. The causes and effects of Immigration . 2010-2011. Web.

Williams, Mary. Immigration . San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Page 83.

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Understanding of Immigration: Immigration Causes and Effects

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Immigrants , Migration

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Works cited

  • Borjas, G. J. (2017). The labor supply of undocumented immigrants. ILR Review, 70(5), 1073-1110.
  • Chiswick, B. R. (2019). The economic impacts of immigration: A survey. IZA World of Labor, 480.
  • Collier, P. (2013). Exodus: How migration is changing our world. Oxford University Press.
  • Jampaklay, A., & Taweesit, K. (2020). Immigration and crime in Thailand: A comparative study of native and foreign-born inmates. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 18(2), 140-156.
  • Koser, K., & Salt, J. (2014). The atlas of migration in Europe: A critical geography of migration policies. Routledge.
  • Levitt, P., & Jaworsky, B. N. (2007). Transnational migration studies: Past developments and future trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 33(1), 129-156.
  • Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1993). Theories of international migration: A review and appraisal. Population and Development Review, 19(3), 431-466.
  • Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). Immigrant America: A portrait. University of California Press.
  • Ratha, D., Mohapatra, S., & Scheja, E. (2011). Impact of migration on economic and social development: A review of evidence and emerging issues. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (5558).
  • Sassen, S. (2014). Expulsions: Brutality and complexity in the global economy. Harvard University Press.

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Immigration: Causes and Effects

Introduction, economic causes, social causes, works cited.

For a long time, immigration has been a significant policy subject in the United States, with numerous reports and studies conducted on its motives and implications. Immigration is the movement or relocation of people from one country to another. Factors that promote immigration can be categorized to economic, social, and political causes. Although limited by slight economic downsides and political backlash, immigration is necessary for creating social diversity, protecting individuals’ rights and freedoms, and enhancing international relations. There are two significant groups of immigration causes: economic and social, which are associated with particular consequences.

First, the economic causes for immigration are high demand of manpower, unemployment, the desire for better entrepreneurial and employment opportunity. Income and economic status differences between resident and destination nations encourage people to migrate from poor to more prosperous countries. Developed countries have a high demand for labor unlike in less developed countries with high unemployment rates (Duan 3). The shortage of specialists in a particular profession in a specific region increases wages for this profession and stimulates the influx of migrants. The effect of the economic causes of immigration is overwhelming the available opportunities and resources. In 2019, the American Immigration Council reported a population of 44.9 million immigrants in the U.S (American Immigration Council 1). The right-wing Democratic Party in the US is opposed to immigration in effect, that unregulated inflow of foreign labor increases job competition, reduced wages, and increased unemployment. The social zeal for a better quality of life and connection to friends and families promoting immigration results in enhanced diversity, improved international relations, cross-cultural exchange, cosmopolitanism and diversity. Immigration has enhanced international relations and access to social amenities such as education.

The social rationale for immigration is aspirations for a better quality of life and connection with close family and friends. Social factors that influence the rate of immigration include crime rate, access to social amenities such as schools, and inter-cultural exchange (Duan 2). An immigrant can sponsor a family member or friend through an affidavit. Political grounds for immigration include state policies, threats of persecution, armed conflict, and humanitarian issues that force people to seek refuge in stable countries. The social causes of immigration are the inclination for a better life, while political migration is often due to unsafe conditions in the residence country. The effect of social immigration is in the occurrence of cosmopolitanism resulting from social immigration enhances the redistribution of wealth diversity and adequate co-existence of nationalities and socio-cultural exchange. Immigration protects the rights and freedoms of individuals advanced of their countries by political factors of armed conflict, state assassination, and discrimination.

Ultimately, immigration is a significant economic, social, and political factor with clashing implications. The desire for better quality of life and family bonds social causes of immigration lead to enhanced diversity, cosmopolitanism, cross-cultural exchange and international relations. Moreover, immigration protects the rights and freedoms of people threatened by political factors. On the downside the economic immigration driven by the desire for better employment and investment opportunities is characterized by high unemployment, prejudice, discrimination, and political backlash. While policymakers perceive immigration to drive slow wage growth and unemployment, Immigrants present remarkable social, economic, and political benefits. Therefore, migration significantly affects the economic and social structure of the countries. The mentioned effects are connected with the primary causes of migration.

American Immigration Council. “Immigrants in the United States.” American Immigration Council , 2021. Web.

Duan, Carson, Bernice Kotey, and Kamaljeet Sandhu. “A systematic literature review of determinants of immigrant entrepreneurship motivations.” Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship (2021): 1-33. Web.

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Outcomes of Immigration - Cause-and-Effect Essay

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Thousands years ago first Africans came to Egypt; thereby the history of immigration started. Immigration is the act of moving to another place to live permanently. Immigration has a very strong influence on both sending and receiving countries. In the past immigration was considered a helpful tool to keep the economy in balance; however, in the modern world immigration is often characterized as a problem. As a result of immigration fear several countries have made restrictive law in order to keep immigrants away. Approximately, 220 million people are immigrant in somewhere, which means 3% of the world population has left their birth place.

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Impacts of immigration

Migration is a driver of social and economic well-being in many countries, but the profile of an immigrant varies, as does the rate of migration. Because of its financial clout and the provision of a wide range of jobs, the United States is considered to have the world's highest number of refugees. The economic influence of these migrations, in particular, has been hotly debated. There are also aspects of its socio-economic structure and criminal consequences. There are things such as work markets where they pick up jobs that natives would usually ignore, such as a factory or domestic jobs. Therefore it can be said that over the past couple of centuries, immigrants have maintained the status quo of the United States seen by the rest of the world if not making it better. Although the impacts of migration are still debated, many studies have been conducted to really verify its effect. There are many aspects that are looked into; that is, the economic, social system, education, crimes, healthcare services, welfare systems among many others. Most of the findings from these studies show that immigration actually positively impacts the country in many ways (Snel & Leerkes, 2007).. Additionally, the country gets to enjoy status of improving the lives of people who are fleeing their countries from wars, discrimination, natural calamities, persecution, and lack of opportunities and job. In this regard, the country is highly esteemed.

Most asked question on effect of immigration is on economic aspect. Shall immigration lead to fewer opportunities for a natives and slower wage growth? Evidence often shows that immigration enhances the supply of labor. To survive in a new country, migrants often take any job available more so those shun by the natives such as farm work or domestic work. This implies that they are not competing with the natives with the same occupations. New migrants, however, might affect the wages of the older migrants. Research shows that immigration increased the remuneration of the natives. Migrants actually manage to also offer cheap labor even though they are normally exploited (Snel & Leerkes, 2007). Knowing that it is very difficult to land a job, many migrants actually work very hard and their productivity is very high compared to the natives. The fear of losing that one job causes them to do a diligent job. Additionally, immigrants are in the front position at innovation and cleverness in the US, therefore they account for many science and technology graduates in the universities and hold senior positions in major firms. Furthermore, their existence forces the low skilled native to improve their skills as they face competition hence enhancing their productivity (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). Immigration additionally enhances the State’s financial situation because the migrant pay huge taxes than they use government services. In the labor market, even though the migrants improve the supply of labor, they also use their salaries on food, entertainments among other commodities, therefore enlarge domestic economic demand. The high demand, in return, creates extra jobs through home buildings, making and selling foods and others services consumed by the immigrants (Sampson, 2015). The standard economic hypothesis is that whereas huge labor supply from immigrants might first decrease the remuneration, with time companies improve investment to re-establish the amount of capital per employee, in turn restoring the remuneration. Immigrants are of two categories, those who never attended high school and those who have graduated from the university. In this regard, they supply labor from every angle. They additionally complement the native employees instead of substituting them. Since uneducated migrants struggle with language needed for many jobs, they go into the manual jobs in industries like agriculture and construction (Sampson, 2015). Even for the natives in these low skilled industries, the competition from migrants is negligible as majority capitalizes on their good communication skills and move to jobs where their abilities are helpful like sales. Educated migrants disadvantaged in communication focused jobs and therefore often go to the scientific and technical sector (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). In fact a majority of the Americans actually shun the technical or scientific field, most affected being girls, therefore, the migrants can be seen as filling the deficit market. Highly skilled residents in many areas often do not compete with the highly skilled migrants. Thus, the supply of workforce tend to concentrate on occupations that favor migrants, therefore, it is the early immigrants that face competition not the natives.


Immigrant brings about talent, skills and knowledge. In the areas such as engineering, in university, majority of the graduate are from foreign countries. They also have skills in management, with many being in top management or research. States with migrant workers often have a fast productivity growth (Reitz, 2001). With low income than the natives, immigrants are likely to use government welfare programs such as Medicaid, SNAP among other services than the nationals. However, they are less likely top get public aid compared to citizens. Additionally, if they get public aid, their value is less than average meaning that it is only a small cost to the government compared to low income residents. Migrants are in almost all fields. They are in engineering, construction, manufacturing, medicine, technical, business and other areas (Reitz, 2001). There are doctor migrants who graduated to high honors and go on to be the best practicing surgeons, ER doctors, physicians, nurses, nutritionists and other medical practitioners. Others have also joined the police force, armed forces, navy and even fire department. Looking at the US health care report, about a quarter of practicing doctors are foreign born while they also constitute almost half of the all medical scientists. The Institute for Immigration Research shows that migrants become top leaders in scientific, biological medical or technical research are esteemed for the resilience, intelligent, commitment and hard work. When it comes to companies, actually about 40% of the fortune 500 companies were established by the immigrants or the generations of immigrants. This of course leads to more employment opportunities and contribute revenue to the government. Google is an example of a company founded by immigrant. The founder is Russian Sergey Brin. Brin ran away from the Soviet Union in 1979 and sought asylum in the US. Elon Musk who is the chief executive of Tesla and SpaceX is an immigrant whose roots are from South Africa (Cain, 2017). Musk’s companies have made major contributions to the space exploration. AT&T is a company founded by Alexander Graham Bell who was an immigrant from Scotland. He came to united stated as a teacher of the deaf which caused him to invent the microphone and telephone. EBay is a company founded by French Pierre Omidyar. He and his wife donate a major contributor in fighting against human trafficking. Theodore and Milton from England founded Radioshack. Pfizer was founded by Charles Pfizer who is a German (Cain, 2017). Tech firm Intel was founded by Hungarian Andrew Grove. Jerry yang from Taiwan founded Yahoo. Colgate was established by Willan Colgate, an immigrant from England. Steve jobs the CEO of largest tech company Apple Inc. was a son of immigrant from Syria. Kraft Foods founder JAMES l. Kraft is from Canada (Cain, 2017). He was struggling to get money to start this company that has become quite a player in the food industry. These and other companies have been impacted the many lives of Americans. So if Immigrants have negative impacts on economy, how can so many immigrants establish some of the most important companies in the world such as Google that have created employment for the natives.

Social Dimension

Many countries have different cultures, therefore immigration enhances cultural diversity. There are intermarriages between the immigrants and the natives. Most migrants from from Africa come from continent or countries who value family system and ties. They value stronger, long lasting marriages. They thus impact positively the ever increasing family breakdown in the US. The intermarriages often last long compared to the native ones. For the natives, their minds are opened about other people culture’s. People get fascinated by the different culture and they are very optimistic to learn other people cultures (Peguero, 2011). Therefore, natives learn to view other cultures in positive way and even apply them to their lives. They do not feel that their culture is better than that of the migrants. Immigration adds diversity to life. This breaks the stereotypes and facilitates learning new things. There are different foods, festivals, practices as well as music. The natives get to learn the new culture so that if they go to the migrants’ country for other commitment like work, they can fit in easily and are not shocked by that culture. Natives can learn culture like karate or martial art from the Asian continent which can be used for self defense (Duleep & Regets, 2014). The families share their experience with their social networks; therefore, all natives learn to accept different culture. Intermarriages prevent social segregation as they the two cultures meet in family gathering or social networks and allow the natives to appreciate different cultures. They comfort one another during times of sorrows. There is often a misconception that immigrants are responsible for increase in crimes, more so in the wake of terrorist threat (Stacey, Carbone-López, & Rosenfeld, 2011). Research over the last 30 years actually shows the opposite, there are no increases in crime; in contrast, immigration leads to decrease in crime (Zatz & Smith, 2008).. Immigration minimizes crime rates by reviving neighborhoods, establishing dynamic communities and causing economic expansion (Zatz & Smith, 2008). Immigrants are hard workers therefore they force the natives to enhance their skills and work hard as well. Given a chance to go to school, they are able to perform well and observe utmost discipline in school (Peguero, 2011). Immigrants from poor nations often do not have the opportunity for education, therefore when given the chance, they manage to perform extremely well and utilize that opportunity. Therefore in return they cause the natives to work hard as well.

Challenges Immigrants Face

Whereas the immigrants are happy to get any job present when they come to the country, getting that job can be a challenge in the initial stages. Being promoted is even harder. In addition to this difficulty, they also have language challenge. Uneducated migrants, who had good jobs, find it hard to obtain the similar jobs in the new country. Companies often favor work experience from the US rather than outside the country. It is not surprising to find a former engineer working in a different field. They often start at low level to get experience before obtaining jobs that befit their qualifications (Mermin, 2006). The children of the immigrants actually have an advantage since they are educated and work in the US. There is also the issue of racial; discrimination. Employers exploit the desperation of these people and give them low wages in harsh working conditions. There is also [prejudice I many areas such as government services, health care and school institutions. The undocumented migrants often feel they do not have any privileges. United States is not a multilingual country, therefore immigrants who do not speak English have difficulty carrying out tasks such as buying commodities, in school, communicating at work or even making applications. They might become subject to exploitation (Mermin, 2006). To tackle this they might have to take classes with is tiresome remembering they still have to work. It is even harder for those not coherent in their own mother tongue. Another difficulty is the culture. It can be stressful for migrant parents to bring up children in a totally different culture (Mermin, 2006). They are practices may be they want their children to learn from their countries. The children learn English first and therefore parents are afraid they shall forget their roots. Older children might have to struggle to keep with native children in a new education system and environment. There have been reports of bullying and racial discrimination due to cultural diversity. Another issue immigrant face is housing. Safe housing is very costly, so with low wages, they are not able to afford decent housing. Therefore large families are forced to live together and homes with deplorable conditions. Public housing is focused on helping people own homes at subsidized costs. Although it targets low income earners, the immigrant even those born in the country are often discriminated against. Undocumented migrants have difficulty in access of services, since they do not want to be deported (Mermin, 2006). They avoid seeking services such as healthcare, public assistance or legal issues even when it is very necessary. Mental issues are key issues as migrants were violated, abused or even raped in their countries, they might not have knowledge on seeking help. Those who have obtained services, their experiences are not good. There is also the issue of transportation. It is hard to obtain driver’s license in America even if they were a shrewd drivers in their home country. The ones who do not know English, a translator is required and it is difficult to get one. Furthermore one ought to be literate write exam. Food is also different and might not be easy to consume new ones. The migrants face a variety of issue in the new country, but they manage to overcome them and survive.

Reasons for Immigration

Immigrants come to America for a variety of reasons; however, to disrupt the American system or do criminal activities is not one of them. They are just looking for better activities. N the immigrant host countries, there are normally less employment and business opportunities, therefore most people migrate to the US to seek better opportunities. It is actually true because even the low wage jobs the migrants get compared to wages in their countries, they are much better. United states have some of the leading universities in the world; there are those who move here to seek high quality education (Gent, 2002). They are certain to acquire skills and become experts in their fields. This gives them higher chance of securing better job opportunities. Parents migrate to US because they want their children to have better education than the one they had and get good jobs. Other migrants come to the US to run away from persecution from their countries. Some are discriminated against based on their views on politics or religion. It is even harder when the leader of a country is a dictator and cannot stand diverse views. He or she normally arrests those criticizing him and persecute or even kill them. In many nations and even in the US, individual fleeing persecutions, war or violence are are often granted asylum (Gent, 2002). Another reason why immigrants flee their country is to seek refuge after displacement from natural calamities. Disasters such as floods, droughts or other climate changes are dangers that have an effect on those living already in abject poverty. With the significant changes in the climate with even more changes anticipated in the coming years, there bound to be even more displacements. This is a concern that many migrant countries are trying to tackle as it has become a troubling issue. Others might migrate to well-established nations to seek better healthcare when suffering from a serious ailments (Gent, 2002). Standard of Healthcare in third world countries is very low and it might not be able to handle serious ailments like cancer, open heart surgeries, and transplants among others. Therefore people come seeking better health care and might even decide to be permanent residents. Some people get into interracial relationship and therefore when they get married the spouse is obligated to move to another country and establish citizenship there. Finally there are those who migrate to another country to reunite with their families while others seek freedom. United States is a democratic country and many come here to enjoy political and social freedom. In some countries, women have regarded as inferior gender (Gent, 2002). They are subject to abuse from their husbands which the society approves, not allowed to go to school, have no freedom to make decisions or choose their husbands. Other issues are wife inheritance which puts wife at risks from health concerns and other still practice female genital mutilation. Society especially in African country often treats women unfairly. Therefore they are forced to flee the country and seek better opportunities like education and employment.

Immigrants most certainly have positive impacts in the United States in many fronts. Socially it can be seen how they have change the way Americans view others, taught them to value family units. They have enhanced the American culture and enabled people to have have unbiased views and break stereotypes. Immigration has led to availability of human skills in areas of medical research, biomedicine, engineering, aerospace well as scientific research. Immigrants have provided their skills also in the about market and forced the natives to improve their skills. Although they face many obstacles in the country, immigrants are much better off in the US even with discrimination than their native countries.   References

Duleep, H., & Regets, M. (2014). US Immigration Policy at a Crossroads: Should the US Continue Its Family‐Friendly Policy?. International Migration Review, 48(3), 823-845. Gent, S. (2002). The root causes of migration: Criticising the approach and finding a way forward. Sussex Centre for Migration Research. Mermin, L. S. P. (2006). Living in America: Challenges facing new immigrants and refugees. Robert Wood Jonson Foundation. Available online at: http://www. policyarchive. org/handle/10207/bitstreams/21623. pdf (assessed 10 August 2012). Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities, 1980–2000. Social problems, 56(3), 447-473. Peguero, A. A. (2011). Immigration, schools, and violence: Assimilation and student misbehavior. Sociological Spectrum, 31(6), 695-717. Reitz, J. G. (2001). Immigrant success in the knowledge economy: Institutional change and the immigrant experience in Canada, 1970–1995. Journal of social Issues, 57(3), 579-613. Sampson, R. J. (2015). Immigration and America’s urban revival. American Prospect, 20-24. Scott, D. M., Coomes, P. A., & Izyumov, A. I. (2005). The Location choice of employment‐based immigrants among US metro areas. Journal of Regional Science, 45(1), 113-145. Snel, E., Burgers, J., & Leerkes, A. (2007). Class position of immigrant workers in a post-industrial economy: the Dutch case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(8), 1323-1342. Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278-298. Zatz, M. S., & Smith, H. (2012). Immigration, crime, and victimization: Rhetoric and reality. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 141-159. Cain, Á. (2017). From Tesla to Pfizer: 14 major US companies founded by immigrants. Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 19 April 2017, from

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Essay on Immigration | Causes & Effects

December 4, 2017 by Study Mentor Leave a Comment

Table of Contents

What do you mean by immigration? 

Immigration refers to the movement in which people from one country move to another country for various reasons. They go to another country where they do not have the right to citizenship. This means that they are not the natives of that country.

They move to a new country so that they can settle there, become the citizens of that country, be a worker there and many other reasons. In the history we can see that even animals have moved to another place along with the humans on the early age.

The terms migration, immigration and emigration revolve around the same thing but have different meanings. There has been an increase in the count of people involved in immigration. US has been the destination of most immigrants. Mostly these immigrants have come from Europe or Asia.   

The factors which encourage immigration come under two categories. These two categories are known as push and pull factors. From the terms itself, it can be easily understood what they mean. The push factors mean the people are going away from their place to another because of these factors.

These factors may be like low wage, unemployment, illegal activities, oppression, no technology, improper facilities of life and many other factors. Due to factors like these people leave their country. While the pull factors are the ones which bring people towards them.

These countries may have more facilities than the people’s own country. The country might have advanced facilities and technology. Even though these factors may affect a person’s decision to move to another place, there may be many barriers which a person has to face while moving.

These can be legal and political problems which one has to face. Moreover, a person will take time to get habituated with the new place.  

Reasons responsible for immigration  

Immigration takes place because of the push and pull factors. They are the positive and negative factors respectively. Immigration has been taking place from the time human first came on this planet. During that time people used to migrate in search of food and new places.

After this they wanted better place like for example better lands for settlement and cultivation. After this they started to move to another place for better facilities of their life. In order to have a proper happy life they have been moving from one place to another.

Sometimes people even move to other places due to natural disasters. They may not feel safe because these natural disasters. That is why for their safety they shift to another place. Very often some of the countries face a lot of political and religious problems.

In order to be free from all these problems they decide to shift to another place. Mostly the young and middle adulthood are the ones who are the subject of immigration. They want to get better jobs, earning opportunities and good life. They move to such a place where they think their life will be stable and they will get all the facilities necessary for their life.   

How does immigration affect the society  and economy ?  

Immigration affects the society and economy. It has both positive and negative impacts. When the people move to another country, they are referred there as immigrants. The citizens of that country feel that these immigrants are a burden for them.

This is because these new people in their country can take away their job opportunities and other facilities. According to them these immigrants act as a threat to them. But due to immigration there is economic growth, existence of dynamic and variety society and also the skills for various types of work is met.

When people with enough skills move to another country, that particular country gets a benefit because of them. Due to the payment of the taxes by the immigrants, there is increase in the collection of taxes by the government for their country. The immigrants are always ready to pay these taxes to get many services benefits in return. There is an increase in the different workplace as well.

More people are there for a particular job. This helps to increase the production in a short period of time. The economic growth of the country will increase if there are more immigrants. But if that country has problems in its borders and there are problems for outsiders to enter that country, there will not be so much of economic growth there.

Moreover, the country from where these people are shifting incurs loss in all areas. There is a fall in the economic growth and workforce diversity as well. But when people from low productivity areas shift to the areas which have high productivity the overall impact is a positive one for both the countries.   

Most often the countries where these immigrants shift get all the benefits. When people who possess a lot of skills shift to another country, there is a variety in the production of goods in that country. This variety of production will satisfy the citizens of that country.

Moreover, people who have good education qualification and work experience get the best jobs of the country. But it does not mean that the other immigrants do not get jobs. Even they get jobs but that is according to their qualification and work experience.

When the immigrants start working in a new place, they are not paid in a high amount. As the different workplaces are not spending so much on labor for the various types of work, they start to reduce the price of the goods. This acts as a benefit for the consumers. But when people shift to another country because of easily accessible facilities, that country faces problems in providing services to the public.

The ability to give service and support the people of the country reduces. Moreover, when the society becomes heterogeneous because of immigrants there might be a variety of goods for the people. But this leads to a fall in the production of the public goods of that particular country.

But despite the advantages and disadvantages of immigration, people will not stop from moving to a new place. This is a continuous cycle. Every single day at least one person shifts to a new place. This process of immigration will not be stopping ever. No matter how many problems are there with immigration still this process will continue.   

What is the difference between immigration, emigration and migration? 

People often confuse what are immigration, emigration and migration. But there is more confusion between immigration and emigration. Both these words have a very similar meaning. This is the reason why people make mistakes while using these words. But before moving into immigration and emigration, it is important to know what migration is. Migration means to move from one place to another in order to settle there.

Migration is the bigger term to define immigration and emigration. Immigrate means a person is entering to a new country while emigrate means a person is leaving country. Immigration can also be referred as inward migration and emigration can be known as outward migration. In a simpler way to explain this, immigration means “in” and emigration means “out”.

A person can be called as immigrant and emigrant at the same time. This because when he leaves his country he will be called as an emigrant. But when he enters to a new country he will called as an immigrant. This means he is emigrant for the origin country and immigrant for the destination country. Even though these two terms have different meanings, the reasons due to which these takes place are the same.

But people who are entering into a new country have to face more problems because of the rules of the new country. It is not at all easy for a person to shift to a new place. The most common problem is the language. It will be very difficult for a person to reside at a place whose language one does not know.

They will not be able to converse with the people around them. Social interaction will be very less. Knowing the language of the new country is very important because it will be helpful to get a job in that place. No matter how advanced the place is, any person will take time to get habituated to that new place.

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